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Sat, 20.04.24

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November 2020
Noa Sabag MD Alexander Yakobson MD and Eldad Silberstein MD

Malignant melanoma is one of the most extensively studied diseases in the last few decades. The outcome of these studies and the treatment changes that followed have dramatically altered the landscape of not only melanoma therapy, but all solid tumors. In this review we presented the recent advances of surgical and adjuvant management of patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma. This review focuses on stage III melanoma since this stage of disease requires surgical treatment as well as adjuvant therapy

April 2006
E. Miller, Y. Barnea, A. Karin, D. Leshem, J. Weiss, L. Leider-Trejo and S. Schneebaum
December 2004
S. Stahl, E. Bar-Meir, E. Friedman, E. Regev, A. Orenstein and E. Winkler

Melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin tumors worldwide, with an annual increase in incidence over the past decade. The molecular mechanisms involved in melanoma pathogenesis are beginning to be unraveled. While a family history of melanoma and exposure to ultraviolet irradiation have been known for years as risk factors in melanoma development, the precise genes involved in inherited predisposition were defined only in the past decade. Germline mutations in two genes that play a pivotal role in controlling cell cycle and division – CDKN2A and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) – have been detected in autosomal, dominant, high penetrance familial melanoma cases. In addition to these two highly penetrant genes, germline mutations and polymorphisms in a few low penetrance genes have been reported in familial melanoma cases: melanocortin-1 receptor, epidermal growth factor, glutathione s-transferase M1, cytochrome p450 debrisoquine hydroxylase locus (CYP2D6) and vitamin D receptor.

March 2001
Itzhak Pappo, MD, Michal Lotem, MD, Martine Klein, MD and Ruben Orda, MD

Background: High dose interleukin-2 therapy, adminis­tered in bolus, is considered to be a reasonable treatment option in a selected group of patients with metastatic malignant melanoma.

Objectives: To present our experience using this mode of therapy in 21 patients with metastatic melanoma.

Materials and Methods: The 21 patients in our study group comprised 13 men and 8 women with a mean age of 46 years (range 29-63). Their metastatic disease was present in all extracranial sites, dermal and sub-dermal metastases being the most common (15 patients had at least one site, in addition to other locations of metastases). Patients with intracranial disease were excluded due to the poor effectivity of IL-2 at this site. Treatment comprised a course of 2 weeks of therapy with a 1 week rest interval between. Radiological and physical evaluation was performed 6-8 weeks after the first course. If a response was achieved a second course of therapy was given. Patients received up to 14 planned doses of IL-2 in each week, 720,000 lU/kg of IL-2 per dose iv. in 15 minutes. All treatments were given in the surgical ward, and only one patient was hospitalized in the intensive care unit.

Results: Of the 21 patients, one had a complete response that has lasted for 17 months and 5 patients had a partial response (range 3 months to 3 years). One patient died during treatment, and one patient who refused further treatment because of no response died a few days after completion of treatment. Prior to therapy three of the responders had received autologous vaccines with good immunological response (P=0.115). Toxic side effects were significant, but they were treated successfully with no residual damage.

Conclusions: High dose IL-2 can be administered safely in a surgical department. The response rates achieved in this series justify the use of high dose IL-2 in a selected group of patients. To improve response rates, a combination of auto­logous vaccines prior to high dose IL-2 may be recommended.

July 2000
Boaz Sagie, MD, Hanoch Kashtan, MD and Yoram Kluger, MD
January 2000
Shlomo Walfisch, MD, Lilinda Lupu, MD and David Czieger, MD, PhD, MD
November 1999
Hava Tabenkin MD, Ada Tamir MD, Ami D. Sperber MD, MSPH, Micha Shapira MD and Pesach Shvartzman MD
 Background: Incidence rates for malignant melanoma in Israel are rising steadily, and the kibbutz population is at increased risk for this malignancy.

Objectives: To assess the risk factors for malignant melanoma among kibbutz members compared to matched healthy controls.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study of 168 malignant melanoma patients and 325 healthy controls, matched by age and gender. Data were collected on three categories of risk: demographic, personal (e.g., skin, eye and hair color), and environmental/behavioral (e.g., sun exposure, use of sunscreens).

Results: There were no differences between the groups regarding sociodemographic data. Significantly more patients than controls had fair, vulnerable skin (P<0.001), light eyes (P<0.05), and fair hair (P<0.001). There was no difference in family history of malignant melanoma or other cancers. Patients with malignant melanoma had significantly more additional skin lesions (e.g., keratoses) (P<0.001). More patients than controls recalled having been exposed to the sun for long periods when they were 6–13 years of age. A conditional logistic regression analysis showed that fair hair, fair vulnerable skin, and additional skin lesions were independently associated with malignant melanoma (P<0.01).

Conclusions: The main target population for interventions to reduce the incidence of malignant melanoma among kibbutz members should be individuals with these risk factors. A history of increased exposure to the sun from age 6 to 13 should also be taken into account as an independent risk factor. 

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