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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

Search results

May 2024
Elena Korytnikova MD, Maayan Elnir Katz MD, Itzhak Gabizon MD, Tamar Eshkoli MD

Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects glycogen metabolism and manifests as a multisystem disease. Most patients present with oropharyngeal malformations, cardiomyopathies, elevated liver enzymes, and hypoglycemia. Treatment with D-galactose has been shown to improve symptoms. Our patient presented with PGM1 deficiency. She conceived spontaneously. Throughout her pregnancies, our patient was monitored by a multidisciplinary team of cardiologists, endocrinologists, and physicians with experience in high-risk pregnancy. She delivered twice by cesarean section. Our case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and individualized management of prenatal and postpartum care of a patient with a PGM1 deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports about a PGM1-deficient patient who conceived and delivered.

September 2023
Netanel Eisenbach MD, Yoav Hoffman MD, Tatyana Arzumanov MD, Eyal Sela MD, Maayan Gruber MD

Adenoid surgery (adenoidectomy) is one of the most common pediatric surgical procedures. Complications of this surgery include anesthetic issues, bleeding, pain, dysphagia, and velopharyngeal insufficiency. The intraoperative complications are usually the most urgent and therefore require prompt identification and resolution. Tension pneumothorax (TPX) is a rare intraoperative. We present the first case in the English literature, to the best of our knowledge, of TPX during adenoid/tonsil surgery.

Galit Almoznino DMD MSc MHA MPH, Maayan Sherman DMD, Doron J. Aframian DMD PhD, Yaron Haviv DMD PhD

Migraine is very common headache disorder, usually starting at a young age with a higher prevalence in females. In this narrative review, we summarize the prevalence, burden, and socio-demographic characteristics of migraineurs worldwide and specifically in Israel. We searched standard electronic bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Google Scholar, and Up to Date using combinations of search terms and reviewed the articles we found. The factors reviewed included prevalence and incidence, burden, sex differences, age distribution, cognitive function, socioeconomic status, religion, country of origin, and urban vs. rural dwelling.

July 2023
Maayan Diti Machnes MD, Herman Avner Cohen MD, Maya Gerstein MD, Yiska Loewenberg Weisband MD, Moriya Cohen MD, Moshe Hoshen PhD, Vered Shkalim Zemer MD

Background: Group A Streptococcus (GAS), the predominant bacterial pathogen of pharyngitis, is sometimes difficult to distinguish clinically from viral pharyngitis. Despite the high prevalence of viral pharyngitis in children, antibiotic treatment is common.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of an antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) on antibiotic prescription in children with GAS pharyngitis (GAS-P) at a large pediatric community clinic.

Methods: Antibiotic prescription data were collected from October 2016 to March 2017 (pre-intervention period) and from October 2017 to March 2018 (post-intervention period). The intervention was a one-day seminar for primary care pediatricians on the diagnosis and treatment of GAS-P in children according to national guidelines.

Results: The overall prevalence of testing differed between the two time periods. There was a decrease in children who did not undergo any testing (from 68% to 63%), an increase in streptococcal rapid antigen detection testing (28% to 32%), and a slight increase in throat cultures (3% to 4%) (p = 0.02). There was no change in the types of antibiotics prescribed before and after the intervention (p = 0.152).

Conclusions: The ASP resulted in a slight reduction in the percentage of children who did not undergo laboratory testing for GAS-P and a slight reduction in the percentage of children who received antibiotic treatment. The ASP did not reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and macrolides.

April 2022
Ilan Merdler MD MHA, Shir Frydman MD, Svetlana Sirota MSc, Amir Halkin MD, Arie Steinvil MD, Ella Toledano MD, Maayan Konigstein MD, Batia Litmanowicz MD, Samuel Bazan MD, Atalia Wenkert BA, Sapir Sadon BA, Shmuel Banai MD, Ariel Finkelstein MD, and Yaron Arbel MD

Background: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple and cost-effective marker of inflammation. This marker has been shown to predict cardiac arrhythmias, progression of valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure decompensation, acute kidney injury, and mortality in cardiovascular patients. The pathologic process of aortic stenosis includes chronic inflammation of the valve and therefore biomarkers of inflammation might offer additive prognostic value.

Objectives: To evaluate NLR and its association with long term mortality in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) patients.

Methods: We evaluated data of 1152 consecutive patient from the Tel Aviv Medical Center TAVI registry who underwent TAVI. Data included baseline clinical, demographic, and echocardiographic findings; procedural complications; and post-procedure mortality. Patients were compared by using the median NLR value (4.1) and evaluated for long-term mortality.

Results: Patients with NLR above the median had higher mortality rates (26.4% vs. 16.3%, P < 0.001) at 3 years post-procedure. A multivariable analysis found NLR to be an independent risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.09–1.99, P = 0.013). In addition, high NLR was linked to complicationsduring and after the procedure.

Conclusion: NLR is an independent prognostic marker among TAVI patients. This marker may represent an increased inflammatory response and should be added to previous known prognostic factors.

November 2019
Ram Mazkereth MD, Ayala Maayan-Metzger MD, Leah Leibovitch MD, Irit Schushan-Eisen MD, Iris Morag MD and Tzipora Straus MD M.Sc

Background: The need for postnatal monitoring of infants exposed to intrauterine beta blockers (BBs) has not been clearly defined.

Objectives: To evaluate infants exposed to intrauterine BBs in order to estimate the need for postnatal monitoring.

Methods: This retrospective case-control study comprised 153 term infants born to mothers who had been treated with BBs during pregnancy. Treatment indications included hypertension 76 mothers (49.7%), cardiac arrhythmias 48 (31.4%), rheumatic heart disease 14 (9.1%), cardiomyopathy 11 (7.2%) and migraine 4 (2.6%). The controls were infants of mothers with hypertension not exposed to BBs who were born at the same gestational age and born closest (before or after) to the matched infant in the study group.

Results: Compared to the control group, the infants in the study group had a higher prevalence of early asymptomatic hypoglycemia (study 30.7% vs. control 18.3%, P = 0.016), short symptomatic bradycardia events, other cardiac manifestations (P = 0.016), and longer hospitalization (P < 0.001). No life-threatening medical conditions were documented. The birth weight was significantly lower for the high-dose subgroup compared to the low-dose subgroup (P = 0.03), and the high-dose subgroup had a higher incidence of small-for-gestational-age (P = 0.02).

Conclusions: No alarming or life-threatening medical conditions were observed among term infants born to BB treated mothers. These infants can be safely observed for 48 hours after birth close to their mothers in the maternity ward. Glucose follow-up is needed, especially in the first hours of life.


September 2019
Maayan Gruber MD, Colin Brown MD, Murali Mahadevan and Michel Neeff MD

Background: Ophthalmic pathologies may further complicate the sensory input of patients with congenital hearing loss; however, data on children with coexisting impairment of vision and hearing is outdated, from before universal implementation of hearing screening programs.

Objectives: To examine the different ophthalmic pathologies among children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) before or after the introduction of a universal newborn hearing screening program (UNHSP).

Methods: Retrospective cohort study was conducted of 91 children diagnosed with congenital SNHL between 2005 and 2016 in a tertiary pediatric hospital. All patients completed an ophthalmologic examination, including assessment of visual acuity, refraction, ocular motility, slit lamp examination, and indirect funduscopy. Radiological assessment and genetic analysis were offered to all caregivers.

Results: Average age at diagnosis was 4.1 years. Nineteen children (21%) were diagnosed with an ophthalmic condition, of which the most common were refractive pathologies. Diagnosis of an ophthalmic pathology was twice as likely in the pre-UNHSP era (14 children, 27%) compared to the post-UNHSP era (5 children, 13%). Out of 91 children, 57 (63%) underwent a computed tomography scan and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging was positive for structural abnormalities in 23 children (40%). There was no correlation between imaging and ophthalmic conditions. Genetic analysis was performed in 67 patients (74%).

Conclusions: The ophthalmic assessment of babies and children with congenital SNHL may yield in significant numbers of children with concomitant ophthalmic pathologies. Implementation of a UNHSP allows early diagnosis and treatment of coexisting ophthalmic and hearing conditions.

June 2018
Rom Mendel MD, Maayan Yitshak-Sade PhD, Michael Nash MD and Ben-Zion Joshua MD

Background: The most common complication after tonsillectomy is bleeding. We investigated whether performing the procedure during the summer or the winter affects the bleeding rate.

Objectives: To investigate whether there is an association between meteorological conditions and the occurrence of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in the southern Israel Negev region.

Methods: All patients who underwent tonsillectomy from 2001–2013 at the Soroka Medical Center were included. We collected patient demographic data and indications for surgery. Meteorological data were obtained from a weather station operated by the Israel Ministry of Environmental Protection.

Results: Of 4438 patients who underwent tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, 432 (9.73%) experienced hemorrhage. Patients who suffered from PTH were significantly older: median age 9.61 years vs.4.7 years, P < 0.0001. When comparing patients without PTH to those who bled within 0–3 days after surgery, there was a higher risk for bleeding during the warmer seasons: relative risk (RR) 1.38, 95% confidence interval ([95%CI] 1.07–1.77), RR 1.45 (95%CI 1.17–1.80), and 1.62 (95%CI 1.27–2.06) comparing the winter to spring, summer, and fall, respectively. A statistically significant positive association was also found with the average temperature on the day of surgery. Bleeding more than 3 days after surgery was less likely in summer: RR 0.82, 95%CI 0.69–0.97. We found no association with temperature on the day of surgery and PTH after postoperative day 3.

Conclusions: Seasonality, and to an extent temperature, seem to play only a minor role in PTH.

May 2018
Viktoria Leikin-Zach MD, Eilon Shany MD, Maayan Yitshak-Sade PhD, Ron Eshel B Med Sc, Tali Shafat MD, Avraham Borer MD and Rimma Melamed MD

Background: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production is the most common antimicrobial resistance mechanism in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), with colonization and blood stream infections being a major threat to this population. Since 2013, all NICU admissions at our facility were screened twice weekly for ESBL colonization.

Objectives: To determine independent risk factors for colonization of infants with ESBL-producing bacteria in the NICU.

Methods: A retrospective case study of ESBL-colonized infants vs. controls (matched by date of birth and gestational age) was conducted in the NICU of Soroka University Medical Center, Israel, between 2013 and 2014. Epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical data were extracted from medical files. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess associations between ESBL colonization and possible clinical risk factors.

Results: Of 639 admissions during the study period, 87 were found to be ESBL-colonized (case infants) and were matched to 87 controls. Five case infants became infected (5.7%) with ESBL strains. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common isolated bacteria. The mean time from admission to colonization was 15 days. Univariable analysis showed an association of male gender and highest Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes with ESBL colonization (P < 0.05). Multivariable analysis yielded only a possible association of higher Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.515, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.993-2.314; HR 1.603, 95%CI 0.958–2.682, respectively) with ESBL colonization.

Conclusions: Future studies should focus on maternal colonization and possible strategies for preventing vertical transmission of ESBL strains to high-risk neonates.

March 2018
Leah Leibovitch MD, Iris Zohar MD, Ayala Maayan-Mazger MD, Ram Mazkereth MD, Tzipora Strauss MD and Ron Bilik MD

Background: The estimated incidence of esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) is 1:3500 live births. During childhood these patients have various co-morbidities, but the overall quality of life among adults is similar to that of the general population.

Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term co-morbidities and quality of life among infants born with EA ± TEF at a large single medical center.

Methods: Medical records of 65 children born over a 21 year period were reviewed for short- and long-term medical data. Telephone interviews were conducted with 46 of their parents regarding medical problems and quality of life after home discharge.

Results: The main long-term co-morbidities during the first 2 years of life, 4–6 years of age, and during adolescence (12–16 years) included gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in 56.5%, 35.8%, and 18.7%, respectively; stridor in 84.8%, 45.2%, and 12.5%, respectively; hyper-reactive airway disease (HRAD) in 43.5%, 35.5%, and 36.5%, respectively; recurrent pneumonia in 43.5%, 32.3%, and 18.8%, respectively; and overall recurrent hospitalizations in 87%, 41.9%, and 25%, respectively. The quality of life was reportedly affected among 100%, 75%, and 33.3% respectively.

Conclusions: Long-term follow-up of patients with EA ± TEF indicates a high burden of co-morbidities during the first 6 years of life, with a gradual decrease in symptoms thereafter. Nevertheless, HRAD continued to impact the daily life of about one-third of the older adolescents, and GERD one-fifth. A long-term multidisciplinary follow-up should be conducted to prevent late onset complications that may affect the quality of life.

October 2017
Efraim Siegler MD, Maayan Shiner PhD, Yakir Segev MD, Lena Mackuli MD, Nitza Lahat MD and Ofer Lavie MD

Background: Invasive cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV).

Objectives: To describe the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV types in women at risk for cervical neoplasia.

Methods: Our study summarized HPV types detected in 6654 samples that were sent to the serology laboratory from cervical clinics in northern Israel between 2006–2014. The HPV test was performed during investigation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) results on Pap tests or due to complaints suggestive of cervical neoplasia. HPV types were classified as high risk (HPV-HR) and low risk (HPV-LR).

Results: Of the samples, 46.4% (3085/6654) were HPV-HR positive. Of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2-3 (CIN 2-3) or cancer, 292/318 (91.8%) and 137/145 (94.5%), respectively, were HPV-HR positive. HPV 16 and HPV 18 were detected in 11.8% of the total samples and in 48.2% and 64.9% of the women with CIN 2-3 and with cancer, respectively. HPV was negative in 8/145 (5.5%) and 26/318 (8.2%) of women with cervical cancer and CIN 2-3, respectively.

Conclusions: This study shows the prevalence of HPV types in women at risk for cervical neoplasia. The sensitivity of all HPV types for CIN 2-3 and cervical cancer was 91.8% and 94.5%, respectively; and of HPV-HR types, 89% and 92.4%, respectively. Triage of HPV-HR types should be considered in women with ASCUS because HPV-HR types were discovered in only 36.7%. The distribution of HPV types in our population is similar to that reported for other developed countries.



July 2014
Karen Olshtain-Pops MD, Chen Stein-Zamir MD MPH, Nitza Abramson MD MPH, Hiwot Nagusa, Michele Haouzi-Bashan BA and Shlomo Maayan MD

Background: Ethiopian immigration to Israel was initiated in 1981. Most immigrants were rural dwellers who migrated first to Addis Ababa or Gondar, where they waited for eligibility status from Israel to leave Ethiopia. Soon after arriving in Israel, all immigrants were offered screening tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis.

Objectives: To evaluate the association of age, gender, marital status and length of time spent in urban areas in Ethiopia with the prevalence of HIV and syphilis seropositivity.

Methods: All adult Ethiopian immigrants who arrived at the Jerusalem immigration center between 1999 and 2002 and consented to HIV and syphilis screening tests were interviewed.

Results: Altogether, 678 immigrants (51% females) were screened; 39 (5.8 %) were seropositive for HIV and 33 (4.9%) for syphilis. The length of time the immigrants spent in Ethiopian cities before leaving for Israel was significantly associated with HIV: odds ratio (OR) 2.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–6.71, and syphilis seropositivity  OR 3.87, 95%CI  1.56–9.62.

Conclusions: The length of transit time Ethiopian immigrants from rural areas spend in Ethiopian cities is significantly associated with HIV and syphilis seropositivity. Efforts should be made to shorten this time in order to reduce the risk of infection

July 2009
N. Hiller, N. Simanovsky, C. Bahagon, N. Bogot and C. Maayan

Background: Lung disease in patients with famHiat dys-autonomia is caused mainly by recurrent aspiration of gastric contents, food and liquids swallowed incorrectly.

Objective: To describe chest computed tomography findings in patients with familial dyautonomia.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of chest CT findings was performed for 34 FD patients (15 females, 19 males) with a mean age of 18± 12.8 years.

Results: The CT revealed bronchial wall thickening (in 94% of the patients), atelectasis (in 73%), ground glass opacities (in 53%), focal hyperinflation (in 44%), fibrosis (in 29%) and bronchiectasis (in 26%). The extrapulmonary abnormalities were scoliosis (79%) and esophageal dilatation (35%). Silent fractures were noted in two vertebral bodies and one rib.

Conclusions: Pulmonary changes were consistent with chronic inflammation in the bronchi and interstitial tissues. Ground  glass opacities and fibrosis support the theory that these changes could be due to gastric aspiration. Bronchiectasis is less frequent. Esophageal dilatation with fluid overflow adds to aspiration. Fractures can be asymptomaflc and are often missed.


March 2009
A. Maayan-Metzger, A. Barzilai, N. Keller and J. Kuint

Background: Early-onset neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among newborn infants.

Objectives: To determine the incidence, type of pathogens and resistance to antibiotics among newborns with early-onset neonatal sepsis, and to identify the risk factors predisposing infants to resistant pathogens in order to reevaluate antibiotic regimens appropriate for resistant bacteria in these high risk neonates.

Methods: We retrospectively studied maternal and neonatal variables of 73 term and near-term infants and 30 preterm infants, born over a period of 10.5 years and exhibiting early-onset neonatal sepsis (positive blood cultures in the first 72 hours of life).

Results: Predominant pathogens in term and near-term infants were gram-positive compared with gram-negative organisms (mostly Escherichia coli) in preterm infants. Mothers of infants with antibiotic-resistant organisms were more likely to have prolonged rupture of membranes and prolonged hospitalization before delivery and to be treated with antibiotics. No trends towards more resistant strains of pathogens were recorded over the 10.5 years of the study period.

Conclusions: Early-onset neonatal sepsis in term infants differs in bacterial species from that in preterm infants, with predominantly gram-positive organisms in term and near-term infants and gram-negative organisms in preterms. Rates of bacterial resistance to the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin, though higher among infants born to mothers with prolonged hospitalization who had been treated with antibiotics, still remained very low in our department. Thus, it seems that our classic antibiotic regimen is still appropriate for both term and preterm newborns.

September 2008
H. Maayan, G. Izbicki, J. Heyd, R. Cyter, S. Silberman and M. Deeb
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