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עמוד בית
Mon, 26.02.24

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September 2014
Liora Ore MD MPH, Hanna J. Garzozi MD, Naama Schwartz MA and Michal Cohen-Dar MD MPH

Background: The detection and correction of refractive errors is one of the priorities of the World Health Organization Initiative Vision 2020.

Objectives: To determine the factors related to a child having an ocular abnormality (poor vision, refractive error or other abnormality) among schoolchildren in northern Israel.

Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted among 2113 students aged 6-7 and 13-14 years old in 70 schools in northern Israel. Medical examination included vision history, clinical eye examination and vision testing. If a parent’s informed consent was available, eye drops (cycloplegia) were delivered for fundus and retinoscopy testing. An ophthalmologist was asked to determine the need for the child’s referral for further diagnostic procedures, treatment and/or follow-up. Multivariate analysis was limited to 1708 children, using data pertaining to the ophthalmologist’s decision regarding referral, as well as vision and retinoscopy results.

Results: Vision and/or ocular abnormality was prevalent in 21.5% (95% confidence interval 17.4–26.6%), predominantly among 13-14 year olds and Jewish children. Abnormal clinical findings were found in 5.7% of the students. Retinoscopy showed a higher prevalence of hypermetropia among 6-7 year olds and a higher prevalence of myopia and astigmatism among the 13-14 year olds. The multivariate analysis suggests an independent effect of retinoscopy abnormality (odds ratio = 3.85), vision abnormality (OR [1]= 2.42), Jewish ethnicity (OR = 1.62) and 13-14 year old age group (OR = 1.26) on the ophthalmologist’s referral decision.

Conclusions: Vision and/or ocular abnormality is an important health problem among schoolchildren in northern Israel. The independent effect of ethnicity and age on the ophthalmologist’s referral decision should be further explored.


OR = odds ratio 

September 2011
Y. Feldman-Idov, Y. Melamed and L. Ore

Background: Wounds of the lower extremities are a significant problem, being severe and costly to treat. Adjunctive treatment with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBOT) has proven to be a useful and cost-effective means of treating ischemic wounds, mainly in diabetic patients.

Objectives: To describe patients with ischemic wounds treated at the Rambam and Elisha Hyperbaric Medical Center and their wound improvement following HBOT.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients (N=385) treated in the center during 19982007 for ischemic non-healing wounds in the lower extremities.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.9 years (SD 13.97). Most of them were diabetic (69.6%) and male (68.8%). Half of the subjects had a wound for more than 3 months prior to undergoing pre-HBOT transcutaneous oximetry (TcPO2) testing. Most of the wounds were classified as Wagner degree 1 or 2 (39.1% and 46.2% respectively). The median number of treatments per patient was 29. Only 63.1% of patients had continuous treatments. Approximately 20% of patients experienced mild side effects. An improvement occurred in 282 patients (77.7%) following HBOT: 15.2% fully recovered, 42.7% showed a significant improvement (and were expected to heal spontaneously), and 19.8% a slight improvement.

Conclusions: HBOT can benefit the treatment of non-healing ischemic wounds (especially when aided by pretreatment TcPO2 evaluation; data not shown). Our experience shows that this procedure is safe and contributes to wound healing.

November 2010
O. Vinitsky, L. Ore, H. Habiballa and M. Cohen Dar

Background: The incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Israel began to rise in 2000, peaking at 41.0 per 100,000 in the Kinneret subdistrict during the first half of 2003.

Objectives: To examine the morbidity rates of CL[1] in northern Israel during the period 1999–2003, which would indicate whether new endemic areas were emerging in this district, and to identify suspicious hosts.

Methods: The demographic and epidemiologic data for the reported cases (n=93) were analyzed using the GIS and SPSS software, including mapping habitats of suspicious hosts and localizing sites of infected sand flies.

Results: The maximal incidence rate in the district was found in the city Tiberias in 2003: 62.5/100,000 compared to 0–1.5/100,000 in other towns. The cases in Tiberias were centered on the peripheral line of two neighborhoods, close to the habitats of the rock hyraxes. Sand flies infected with Leishmania tropica were captured around the residence of those affected. Results of polymerase chain reaction were positive for Leishmania tropica in 14 of 15 tested patients.

Conclusions: A new endemic CL area has emerged in Tiberias. The most suspicious reservoir of the disease is the rock hyrax.

[1] CL = cutaneous leishmaniasis

August 2009
L. Shema, L. Ore, R. Geron and B. Kristal

Background: Radiological procedures utilizing intravascular contrast media are being widely applied for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This has resulted in increasing incidence of procedure-related contrast-induced nephropathy. In Israel, data on the incidence of CIN[1] and its consequences are lacking.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of CIN among hospitalized patients in the Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya (northern Israel), and to explore the impact of CIN on mortality and length of stay.

Methods: The study group was a historical cohort of 1111 patients hospitalized during the year 2006 who underwent contrast procedure and whose serum creatinine level was measured before and after the procedure. Data were electronically extracted from different computerized medical databases and merged into a uniform platform using visual basic application.

Results: The occurrence of CIN among hospitalized patients was 4.6%. Different CIN rates were noticed among various high risk subgroups such as patients with renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus (14.1%–44%). Average in-hospital length of stay was almost twice as long among patients with CIN compared to subjects without this condition. Furthermore, the in-hospital death rate among CIN patients was 10 times higher. A direct association was observed between severity of CIN based on the RIFLE classification and risk of mortality.

Conclusions: Low CIN occurrence was demonstrated in the general hospitalized patients (4.6%), and high rates (44%) in selected high risk subgroups of patients (with renal insufficiency or diabetes mellitus). Furthermore, prolonged length of stay and high in-hospital mortality were directly related to CIN severity.

[1] CIN = contrast-induced nephropathy

May 2009
L. Shema, L. Ore, R. Geron and B. Kristal

Background: Acute kidney injury remains a common significant clinical problem. Yet there are scant data in Israel on the incidence of hospital-acquired AKI[1] and on diagnosis validity.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of AKI among hospitalized patients in the Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya, compare discharge summaries to laboratory diagnosis, and investigate the impact of AKI on mortality and length of stay.

Methods: Computerized medical and laboratory data of 34,802 hospitalized subjects were collected. AKI was diagnosed according to three different definitions. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of AKI based on ICD-9 diagnosis compared to patient's laboratory data as the gold standard.

Results: The overall AKI annual incidence rate was 1–5.1%, depending on the AKI definition used. The incidence of AKI based on ICD-9 diagnosis was significantly lower compared to the laboratory-based diagnosis. Average in-hospital length of stay was 2.4 times longer among patients with AKI compared to subjects without this condition. Furthermore, the in-hospital death rate among AKI patients was 14 times higher than among non-AKI hospitalized subjects, with a positive association between AKI severity and risk of death.

Conclusions: Using AKI laboratory diagnosis as the gold standard revealed ICD-9 diagnosis to be 9.1% sensitive and 99.4% specific. Hospital-acquired AKI is a major contributor to prolonged length of stay and high mortality rates; therefore, interventions to reduce in-hospital disease incidence are required.

[1] AKI = acute kidney injury

March 2009
L. Ore, H.J. Garzozi, A. Tamir and M. Cohen-Dar

Background: Uncorrected refractive error is the leading cause of visual impairment in children. In 2002 a screening project was launched in Israel to provide data on the effectiveness of the illiterate E-chart in identifying Jewish and Arab schoolchildren in need of a comprehensive eye examination.

Objectives: To present the aims, design and initial results of the visual screening project and the prevalence of vision abnormality in the study population.

Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted during 2002–2003 among first- and eighth-graders in 70 schools in northern Israel. The nurse's test included use of the illiterate E-chart to measure visual acuity. The medical examination included vision history, clinical eye examination, VA[1] and retinoscopy. The ophthalmologist's evaluation as to whether a child needed a referral for diagnostic procedures, treatment and/or follow-up was recorded and compared with explicit referral criteria formulated after data collection.

Results: Of 1975 schoolchildren, 31% had abnormal VA, defined as VA worse than 6/6 in at least one eye, and a quarter had VA equal or worse than 6/12 in both eyes. The prevalence of vision abnormality among the children was 22.4% when based on the evaluation of the field ophthalmologist and 26.1% when based on two sets of explicit severity scores and referral criteria.

Conclusions: Vision abnormality is a significant health problem among northern Israeli schoolchildren. This project is unique in scope and importance, providing evidence to assist policy making with regard to vision screening for schoolchildren (including data on test reliability and validity) and optimal VA cutoff level, and confirming the need for clinical guidelines regarding referral criteria.

[1] VA = visual acuity

August 2007
Click on the icon on the upper right hand side for the article by Naomi Bar-Joseph, MSc, Gad Rennert, MD, Ada Tamir, PhD, Liora Ore, MD and Gad Bar-Joseph, MD. IMAJ 2007: 8: August: 603-606

Background: In the western world, trauma is the leading cause of disability and mortality in the 1–39 years age group. Road accidents constitute the most frequent cause of mortality among children older than 1 year and falls from a height are the most frequent cause of injuries requiring hospitalization.

Objectives: To analyze the epidemiology and characteristics of severe pediatric trauma due to falls from a height in northern Israel. This analysis should aid in planning an effective intervention plan.

Methods: This observational study included all patients aged 0–14 who died or were admitted to an intensive care unit in northern Israel following a steep fall. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively for 3 years and prospectively for 1 year.

Results: A total of 188 children were severely injured or died following such a fall, with an annual rate of 11.4 per 100,000 children. Over 85% of severe injuries due to falls occurred among non-Jewish children, with an incidence rate 6.36 times higher than among Jewish children (20.17 and 3.17 per 100,000 children, respectively). In the non-Jewish sector 93.7% of the falls occurred at or around the child’s home, mainly from staircases, balconies and roofs.

Conclusions: A very high incidence of severe trauma due to domestic falls from a height was found among non-Jewish children in northern Israel. Domestic falls represent an important epidemiological problem in the non-Jewish pediatric sector, and an effective prevention plan should include measures to modify parents’ attitudes towards safety issues and the creation of a safe domestic environment.

April 2003
G. Amit, S. Goldman, L. Ore, M. Low and J.D. Kark

Background: Although the preferred management of a patient presenting with an acute myocardial infarction is in a coronary care unit, data based on discharge diagnoses in Israel indicate that many of these patients are treated outside such units.

Objectives: To compare the demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment and mortality of AMI[1] patients treated inside and outside a CCU[2].

Methods: We compiled a registry of all patients admitted to three general hospitals in Haifa, Israel during January, March, May, July, September and November 1996.

Results: The non-CCU admission rate was 22%. CCU patients were younger (61.6 vs. 65.5 years), less likely to report a past AMI (18% vs. 34%), and arrived earlier at the emergency room. Non-CCU patients were more likely to present with severe heart failure (30 vs. 11%). Non-CCU patients received less aspirin (81 vs. 95%) and beta-blockers (62 vs. 80%). Upon discharge, these patients were less frequently prescribed beta-blockers and cardiac rehabilitation programs. CCU-treated patients had lower unadjusted mortality rates at both 30 days (odds ratio=0.35) and in the long term (hazards ratio=0.57). These ratios were attenuated after controlling for gender, age, type of AMI, and degree of heart failure (OR[3]=0.91 and HR[4]=0.78, respectively).

Conclusions: A relatively high proportion of AMI patients were treated outside a CCU, with older and sicker patients being denied admission to a CCU. The process of evidence-based care by cardiologists was preferable to that of internists both during the hospital stay and at discharge. In Israel a significant proportion of all AMI admissions are initially treated outside a CCU. Emphasis on increasing awareness in internal medicine departments to evidence-based care of AMI is indicated.

[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction

[2] CCU = coronary care unit

[3] OR = odds ratio

[4] HR = hazards ratio

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