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עמוד בית
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June 2023
Jonathan Abraham Demma MD, Lisandro Luques MD PhD, Lior Cohen MD, Uri P. Dior MD, Gad Marom MD, Asaf Kedar MD, Naama Lev Cohain MD, Alon Pikarsky MD, Gidon Almogy MD, Liat Appelbaum MD

Background: Abdominal pathology in pregnant patients is a frequent challenge for emergency department physicians. Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice but is inconclusive in approximately one-third of cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming increasingly available, even in acute settings. Multiple studies have defined the sensitivity and specificity of MRI in this population.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of MRI findings in pregnant patients presenting with acute abdominal complaints to the emergency department.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single institution. Data were collected on pregnant patients who underwent an MRI for acute abdominal complaints between 2010 and 2019 at a university center. Patient demographics, diagnosis at admission, ultrasound and MRI findings, and discharge diagnosis were recorded and evaluated.

Results: In total, 203 pregnant patients underwent an MRI for acute abdominal complaints during the study period. MRI was found without pathology in 138 cases (68%). In 65 cases (32%), the MRI showed findings that could explain the patient's clinical presentation. Patients presenting with long-standing abdominal pain (> 24 hours), fever, leukocytosis, or elevated C-reactive protein values were at a significantly increased risk of having an acute pathology. In 46 patients (22.6%), MRI findings changed the primary diagnosis and management while in 45 patients (22.1%) MRI findings improved characterization of the suspected pathology.

Conclusions: MRI is helpful when clinical and sonographic findings are inconclusive, leading to changes in patient management in more than one-fifth of patients.

August 2018
Amihai Rottenstreich MD, Adi Schwartz, Yosef Kalish MD, Ela Shai PhD, Liat Appelbaum MD, Tali Bdolah-Abram and Itamar Sagiv MD

Background: Risk factors for bleeding complications after percutaneous kidney biopsy (PKB) and the role of primary hemostasis screening are not well established.

Objectives: To determine the role of primary hemostasis screening and complication outcomes among individuals who underwent PKB.

Methods: We reviewed data of 456 patients who underwent PKB from 2010 to 2016 in a large university hospital. In 2015, bleeding time (BT) testing was replaced by light transmission aggregometry (LTA) as a pre-PKB screening test.

Results: Of the 370 patients who underwent pre-PKB hemostasis screening by BT testing, prolonged BT was observed in 42 (11.3%). Of the 86 who underwent LTA, an abnormal response was observed in 14 (16.3%). Overall, 155 (34.0%) patients experienced bleeding: 145 (31.8%) had minor events (hemoglobin fall of 1–2 g/dl, macroscopic hematuria, perinephric hematoma without the need for transfusion or intervention) and 17 (3.7%) had major events (hemoglobin fall > 2 g/dl, blood transfusion or further intervention). Abnormal LTA response did not correlate with bleeding (P = 0.80). In multivariate analysis, only prolonged BT (P = 0.0001) and larger needle size (P = 0.005) were identified as independent predictors of bleeding.

Conclusions: Bleeding complications following PKB were common and mostly minor, and the risk of major bleeding was low. Larger needle size and prolonged BT were associated with a higher bleeding risk. Due to the relatively low risk of major bleeding and lack of benefit of prophylactic intervention, the use of pre-PKB hemostasis screening remains unestablished.

December 2009
O. Barak, R. Elazary, L. Appelbaum, A. Rivkind and G. Almogy

Background: Current treatment options for acute calculous cholecystitis include either early cholecystectomy, or conservative treatment consisting of intravenous antibiotics and an interval cholecystectomy several weeks later. Percutaneous drainage is reserved for patients in whom conservative therapy failed or as a salvage procedure for high risk patients.

Objective: To identify clinical and radiographic factors leading to failure of conservative treatment.

Methods: We prospectively collected data on consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Parameters were compared between patients who were successfully treated conservatively and those who required percutaneous cholecystostomy. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors for failure of conservative treatment. 

Results: The study population comprised 103 patients with a median age of 60 who were treated for acute cholecystitis. Twenty-seven patients (26.2%) required PC[1]. On univariate analysis, age above 70 years, diabetes, elevated white blood cell count, tachycardia (> 100 beats/min) at admission, and a distended gallbladder (> 5 cm transverse diameter) were found to be significantly more common in the PC group (P < 0.001). WBC[2] was higher in the PC group throughout the initial 48 hours. On multivariate analysis, age above 70 (odds ratio 3.6), diabetes (OR[3] 9.4), tachycardia at admission (OR 5.6), and a distended gallbladder (OR 8.5) were predictors for cholecystostomy (P < 0.001). Age above 70 (OR 5.2) and WBC > 15,000 (OR 13.7) were predictors for failure of conservative treatment after 24 and 48 hours (P < 0.001). 

Conclusions: Age above 70, diabetes, and a distended gallbladder are predictors for failure of conservative treatment and such patients should be considered for early cholecystostomy. Persistently elevated WBC (> 15,000) suggests refractory disease and should play a central role in the clinical follow-up and decision-making process for elderly patients with acute cholecystitis.


 




[1] PC = percutaneous cholecystostomy



[2] WBC = white blood cells



[3] OR = odds ratio


September 2009
M. Bala, A. I. Bloom, L. Appelbaum, P. Levensart, A.I. Rivkind
January 2005
L. Appelbaum, R. Lederman, R. Agid and E. Libson

Background: Involvement of the liver by lymphoma is almost always secondary. A definite diagnosis can be made only after histologic examination. Recently, there has been a trend to replace surgical biopsies with percutaneous core-needle biopsies for the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders.

Objectives: To describe our experience with percutaneous image-guided needle biopsies of the liver in 15 cases of primary and secondary hepatic lymphoma.

Methods: Between 1997 and 2002, 15 of all the percutaneous computerized tomography-guided core-needle liver biopsies performed at our institution yielded the diagnosis of lymphoma. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these patients.

Results: Seven patients had primary hepatic lymphoma (all non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma), and eight had secondary (three Hodgkin`s disease and five non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma). No major complications were caused by the percutaneous biopsies, and all biopsies were diagnostic. The imaging findings were non-specific but were characteristic and similar to previously described series. Imaging demonstrated hypodense lesions by CT, or hypoechoic or anechoic lesions by ultrasound in all but two cases in which hilar lesions resulted in biliary dilatation, both demonstrated by ultrasound

Conclusions: Review of our primary cases indicated no association with cirrhosis or AIDS in contradistinction to the worldwide experience. There were no significant complications in the 15 patients in the study, and a definite diagnosis of lymphoma was made in all the cases with no need to proceed to surgical biopsy. We highly recommend image-guided core-needle biopsy of the liver as a reliable and useful tool for the diagnosis of hepatic lymphoma.

 
 

July 2002
Dorith Shaham, MD, Tamar Sella, MD, Arnon Makori, MD, Liat Appelbaum, MD, Avraham I. Rivkind, MD and Jacob Bar Ziv, MD
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