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עמוד בית
Sun, 03.12.23

Search results

October 2023
Moran Drucker Iarovich MD, Sara Apter MD, Eli Konen MD MHA, Yael Inbar MD, Marrianne Michal Amitai MD, Eyal Klang MD

Background: Computed tomography (CT) is the main diagnostic modality for detecting pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Objectives: To assess the frequency of missed pancreatic adenocarcinoma on CT scans according to different CT protocols.

Methods: The medical records of consecutive pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients were retrospectively collected (12/2011–12/2015). Patients with abdominal CT scans performed up to a year prior to cancer diagnosis were included. Two radiologists registered the presence of radiological signs of missed cancers. The frequency of missed cancers was compared between portal and pancreatic/triphasic CT protocols.

Results: Overall, 180 CT scans of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients performed prior to cancer diagnosis were retrieved; 126/180 (70.0%) were conducted using pancreatic/triphasic protocols and 54/180 (30.0%) used portal protocols. The overall frequency of missed cancers was 6/180 (3.3%) in our study population. The frequency of missed cancers was higher with the portal CT protocols compared to the pancreatic/triphasic protocols: 5/54 (9.3%) vs. 1/126 (0.8%), P = 0.01. CT signs of missed cancers included small hypodense lesions, peri-pancreatic fat stranding, and dilated pancreatic duct with a cut-off sign.

Conclusions: The frequency of missed pancreatic adenocarcinoma is higher on portal CT protocols. Physicians should consider the cancer miss rate on different CT protocols.

July 2023
Moran Drucker Iarovich MD, Yael Inbar, MD, Sara Apter MD, Eli Konen MD MHA, Eyal Klang MD, Marrianne Michal Amitai MD

Background: Perivascular cuffing as the sole imaging manifestation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an under-recognized entity.

Objectives: To present this rare finding and differentiate it from retroperitoneal fibrosis and vasculitis.

Methods: Patients with abdominal vasculature cuffing were retrospectively collected (January 2011 to September 2017). We evaluated vessels involved, wall thickness, length of involvement and extra-vascular manifestations.

Results: Fourteen patients with perivascular cuffing were retrieved: three with celiac and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) perivascular cuffing as the only manifestation of surgically proven PDAC, seven with abdominal vasculitis, and four with retroperitoneal fibrosis. PDAC patients exhibited perivascular cuffing of either or both celiac and SMA (3/3). Vasculitis patients showed aortitis with or without iliac or SMA cuffing (3/7) or cuffing of either or both celiac and SMA (4/7). Retroperitoneal fibrosis involved the aorta (4/4), common iliac (4/4), and renal arteries (2/4). Hydronephrosis was present in 3/4 of retroperitoneal fibrosis patients. PDAC and vasculitis demonstrated reduced wall thickness in comparison to retroperitoneal fibrosis (PDAC: 1.0 ± 0.2 cm, vasculitis: 1.2 ± 0.5 cm, retroperitoneal fibrosis: 2.4 ± 0.4 cm; P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in length of vascular involvement (PDAC: 6.3 ± 2.1 cm, vasculitis: 7.1 ± 2.6 cm, retroperitoneal fibrosis: 8.7 ± 0.5 cm).

Conclusions: Celiac and SMA perivascular cuffing can be the sole finding in PDAC and may be indistinguishable from vasculitis. This entity may differ from retroperitoneal fibrosis as it spares the aorta, iliac, and renal arteries and demonstrates thinner walls and no hydronephrosis.

September 2021
Ariel Kerpel MD, Edith Michelle Marom MD, Michael Green PhD, Michal Eifer MD, Eli Konen MD, Arnaldo Mayer PhD, and Sonia L. Betancourt Cuellar MD

Background: Medical imaging and the resultant ionizing radiation exposure is a public concern due to the possible risk of cancer induction.

Objectives: To assess the accuracy of ultra-low-dose (ULD) chest computed tomography (CT) with denoising versus normal dose (ND) chest CT using the Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS).

Methods: This prospective single-arm study comprised 52 patients who underwent both ND and ULD scans. Subsequently AI-based denoising methods were applied to produce a denoised ULD scan. Two chest radiologists independently and blindly assessed all scans. Each scan was assigned a Lung-RADS score and grouped as 1 + 2 and 3 + 4.

Results: The study included 30 men (58%) and 22 women (42%); mean age 69.9 ± 9 years (range 54–88). ULD scan radiation exposure was comparable on average to 3.6–4.8% of the radiation depending on patient BMI. Denoising increased signal-to-noise ratio by 27.7%. We found substantial inter-observer agreement in all scans for Lung-RADS grouping. Denoised scans performed better than ULD scans when negative likelihood ratio (LR-) was calculated (0.04–-0.08 vs. 0.08–0.12). Other than radiation changes, diameter measurement differences and part-solid nodules misclassification as a ground-glass nodule caused most Lung-RADS miscategorization.

Conclusions: When assessing asymptomatic patients for pulmonary nodules, finding a negative screen using ULD CT with denoising makes it highly unlikely for a patient to have a pulmonary nodule that requires aggressive investigation. Future studies of this technique should include larger cohorts and be considered for lung cancer screening as radiation exposure is radically reduced.

August 2020
Noam Nissan MD PhD, Ariel Kerpel MD, Daniela Noa Zohar MD, David Orion MD, Sharon Amit MD PhD, Edith Michelle Marom MD and Eli Konen MD MHA
April 2020
Ariel Kerpel MD, Noam Nissan MD, Maximiliano Klug MD, Sharon Amit MD PhD, Eli Konen MD and Edith M Marom MD
August 2018
Einat Slonimsky, Osnat Konen, Elio Di Segni, Eliyahu Konen and Orly Goitein

Background: Correct diagnosis of cardiac masses is a challenge in clinical practice. Accurate identification and differentiation between cardiac thrombi and tumors is crucial because prognosis and appropriate clinical management vary substantially.

Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic performances of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in differentiating between cardiac thrombi and tumors.

Methods: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all CMR scans was performed to distinguish between cardiac thrombi and tumors during a 10 year period in a single academic referral center (2004–2013). Cases with an available standard of reference for a definite diagnosis were included. Correlation of CMR differentiation between thrombi and tumors with an available standard of reference was performed. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), and accuracy were reported.

Results: In this study, 101 consecutive patients underwent CMR for suspicious cardiac masses documented on transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography. CMR did not detect any cardiac pathology in 17% (17/101), including detection of anatomical variants and benign findings in 18% (15/84). Of the remaining 69 patients, CMR diagnosis was correlated with histopathologic result in 74% (51/69), imaging follow-up in 22% (15/69), and a definite CMR diagnosis (lipoma) in 4% (3/69). For tumors, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 96.6%, 98%, 86.6%, 96.2%, and 96.6%, respectively. For thrombi, the results were 93.6%, 86.7%, 98.04%, 92.9%, and 97%, respectively.

Conclusions: CMR is highly accurate in differentiating cardiac thrombi from tumors and should be included in the routine evaluation of cardiac masses.

October 2016
Michal M. Amitai MD, Eldad Katorza MD, Larisa Guranda MD, Sara Apter MD, Orith Portnoy MD, Yael Inbar MD, Eli Konen MD, Eyal Klang MD and Yael Eshet MD

Background: Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain pose a diagnostic challenge. Delay in diagnosis may result in significant risk to the fetus. The preferred diagnostic modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), since ultrasonography is often inconclusive, and computed tomography (CT) would expose the fetus to ionizing radiation

Objectives: To describe the process in setting up an around-the-clock MRI service for diagnosing appendicitis in pregnant women and to evaluate the contribution of abdominal MR in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting with acute abdominal pain over a 6 year period who underwent MRI studies. A workflow that involved a multidisciplinary team was developed. A modified MRI protocol adapted to pregnancy was formulated. Data regarding patients' characteristics, imaging reports and outcome were collected retrospectively. 

Results: 49 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis were enrolled. Physical examination was followed by ultrasound: when positive, the patients were referred for MR scan or surgery treatment; when the ultrasound was inconclusive, MR scan was performed. In 88% of women appendicitis was ruled out and surgery was prevented. MRI diagnosed all cases with acute appendicitis and one case was inconclusive. The overall statistical performance of the study shows a negative predictive value of 100% (95%CI 91.9–100%) and positive predictive value of 83.3% (95%CI 35.9–99.6%).

Conclusions: Creation of an around-the-clock imaging service using abdominal MRI with the establishment of a workflow chart using a dedicated MR protocol is feasible. It provides a safe way to rule out appendicitis and to avoid futile surgery in pregnant women.

December 2015
Orly Goitein MD, Elio Di Segni MD, Yael Eshet MD, Victor Guetta MD, Amit Segev MD, Eyal Nahum MD, Ehud Raanani MD, Eli Konen MD and Ashraf Hamdan MD

Background: Trans-catheter valve implantation (TAVI) is a non-surgical alternative for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Pre-procedural computed tomography angiography (CTA) allows accurate “road mapping,” aortic annulus sizing and the detection of incidental findings.

Objectives: To document the prevalence of non-valvular extra-cardiac findings on CTA prior to TAVI and the impact of these findings on the procedure.  

Methods: Ninety AS patients underwent CTA as part of pre-TAVI planning. Scans extended from the clavicles to the groin. Non-vascular non-valvular findings were documented and graded as follows: (A) significant findings causing TAVI cancellation or postponement, (B) significant findings leading to a change in the TAVI procedure approach, (C) non-significant findings not affecting the TAVI procedure. 

Results: TAVI was planned for 90 patients; their average age was 80.2 ± 7.5 years, 53% were females. Overall, non-valvular cardiac, extra-cardiac and extra-vascular significant and non-significant incidental findings were documented in 97% of scans (87/90). Significant pathologies causing TAVI cancellation or postponement (category A) were documented in 8%. Significant findings affecting the TAVI procedure (category B) were found in 16% of patients. 

Conclusions: Pre-TAVI CTA detected non-valvular extra-vascular pathologies leading to procedure cancellation/postponement or procedure modification in 8% and 16%, respectively. Comprehensive CTA evaluation that acknowledges the importance of such findings is of major importance since it might alter the TAVI procedure or even render it inappropriate. 


June 2015
Michal M. Amitai MD, Lisa Raviv-Zilka MD, Marjorie Hertz MD, Zippora Erlich PhD, Eli Konen MD, Shomron Ben-Horin MD and Sara Apter MD


Background: Only a few studies have compared the accuracy of magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease and its complications.

Objectives: To compare the sensitivity of MRE and CTE analysis in their ability to detect, sign-by-sign, 10 classical imaging signs of Crohn's disease.

Methods: The study group comprised 42 biopsy-proven Crohn's disease patients who underwent both CTE and MRE within an average period of 6 weeks. Agreement between the two modalities in detecting the 10 most significant radiological signs of CD was evaluated using the Kappa index. The sensitivity of MRE and CTE was calculated using a standard of reference composed of all the findings seen by CTE and/or MRE. We analyzed MRE and CTE sensitivity separately in two groups, according to the time interval between the examinations.

Results: Agreement between CTE and MRE was more than 70% in 8 of the 10 signs: mural thickening, phlegmon, stenosis, skip lesions, mucosal stratification, fistula, abscess, and creeping fat. The Kappa level of agreement values for CTE versus MRE varied between substantial for phlegmon and skip lesions; moderate for fistula, creeping fat, abscess and mural thickening; and fair for stenosis and dilatation. CTE detected more findings than MRE, except for creeping fat and fistula. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity of CTE and MRE in the two groups defined by the time interval (time < 1.5 and time > 1.5 months) except for detection of dilatation.

Conclusions: Almost all imaging signs of Crohn's disease were detected equally well by both modalities regardless of the time interval between examinations. We therefore consider MRE to be reliable for imaging and follow-up in patients with Crohn's disease who may need recurrent imaging.


March 2014
Orly Goitein, Yishay Salem, Jeffrey Jacobson, David Goitein, David Mishali, Ashraf Hamdan, Rafael Kuperstein, Elio Di Segni and Eli Konen
 Background: Patients with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) have a high incidence of extracardiac vascular and non-vascular malformations. Those additional abnormalities may have an impact on the precise planning of surgical or non-surgical treatment.

Objectives: To assess the role of electrocardiography-gated CT-angiography (ECG-CTA) in the routine evaluation of CHD in neonates and infants particularly for the assessment of extracardiac findings.

Methods: The study cohort comprised 40 consecutive patients who underwent trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) and ECG-CTA. TTE and ECG-gated CTA findings regarding extracardiac vascular structures, coronary arteries and airways were compared with surgical or cardiac catheterization findings. Scans were evaluated for image quality using a subjective visual scale (from 1 to 4). Effective radiation dose was calculated for each scan.

Results: Median age was 28 ± 88 days and mean weight 3.7 ± 1.5 kg. Diagnostic quality was good or excellent (visual image score 3–4) in 39 of 40 scans (97.5%). ECG-CTA provided important additional information regarding extracardiac vascular structures and airway anatomy, complementing TTE in 75.6% of scans. Overall sensitivity of ECG-gated CTA for detecting extracardiac findings as compared with operative and cardiac catheterization findings was 97.6%. The calculated mean effective radiation dose was 1.4 ± 0.07 mSv (range 1.014–2.3 mSv).

Conclusions: ECG-CTA is an accurate modality for demonstrating extracardiac structures in complex CHD. It provides important complementary information to TTE regarding extracardiac vascular structures and coronary artery anatomy. This modality may obviate the need for invasive cardiac catheterization, thus exposing the patient to a much lower radiation dose. 

May 2013
A. Hamdan, O. Goitein, S. Matetzky, S. Yishay, E. Di Segni, D. Yakubovitch, D. Silverberg, M. Halak, M. Eldar and E. Konen
Background: Over the past few years dobutamine stress magnetic resonance (DSMR) has proven its efficacy as an integral part of the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD).

Objectives: To present the feasibility and safety of DSMR in Israel.

Methods: Thirty patients with suspected or known CAD were studied. DSMR images were acquired during short breath-holds in three short axis views and four-, two-, and three-chamber views. Patients were examined at rest and during a standard dobutamine-atropine protocol. Regional wall motion was assessed in a 16-segment model and the image quality was evaluated using a four-point scale for the visibility of the endocardial border.

Results: In 28 patients (93.4%) DSMR was successfully performed and completed within an average of 55 ± 6 minutes. One patient could not be examined because of claustrophobia and another patient, who was on beta-blockers, did not reach the target heart rate. Image quality was excellent and there was no difference between the rest and stress images in short axis (3.91 ± 0.29 vs. 3.88 ± 0.34, P = 0.13, respectively) and long axis (3.83 ± 0.38 vs. 3.70 ± 0.49, P = 0.09, respectively) views. Segmental intra-observer agreement for wall motion contractility at rest and stress cine images was almost perfect (κ = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.93–0.84, and κ = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.88–0.76) respectively. No serious side effects were observed during DSMR.

Conclusion: The present study confirms the feasibility, safety and excellent image quality of DSMR for the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases.



January 2013
V. Nir, E. Nadir, M. Mekonen and M. Feldman
 Background: Ethnic differences in the incidence of spitting up have not been reported. The nursing team at our well-baby nursery observed that newborn infants of Ethiopian origin appeared to spit up more than the others.

Objective: To determine whether there are such ethnic differences and what, if anything, is their clinical relevance.

Methods: Of the 3663 enrolled infants born at the Hillel Yaffe Medical Center during the 12 month study period, 55 were of Ethiopian origin and their medical records were retrospectively surveyed. The retrieved data were compared with those of 167 randomly selected non-Ethiopian newborns (controls). Exclusion criteria were preterm delivery, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, and congenital birth defects.

Results: Newborn infants of Ethiopian origin spit up 57% more than control infants. The difference in the number of spit ups was more obvious when only the infants who spit up were compared (2.3 ± 1.7 Ethiopian newborns vs. 1.5 ± 0.9 controls, P = 0.002), although the percentage of infants who spit up was the same in the two groups. There was no difference in weight gain, days of hospitalization, bilirubin levels or nutrition type between the groups.

Conclusions: Infants of Ethiopian origin spit up more than the control newborn infants of non-Ethiopian origin, while other clinical parameters were similar. In the absence of other pathological signs, spitting up is a non-relevant clinical condition.



August 2011
O. Goitein, R. Beigel, S. Matetzky, R. Kuperstein, S. Brosh, Y. Eshet, E. Di Segni and E. Konen

Background: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is an established modality for ruling out coronary artery disease. However, it has been suggested that CCTA may be a source of non-negligible radiation exposure.

Objectives: To evaluate the potential degradation in coronary image quality when using prospective gated (PG) CCTA as compared with retrospective gated (RG) CCTA in chest pain evaluation.

Methods: The study cohort comprised 216 patients: 108 consecutive patients in the PG CCTA arm and 108 patients matched for age, gender and heart rate in the RG CCTA arm. Scans were performed using a 64-slice multidetector CT scanner. All 15 coronary segments were evaluated subjectively for image quality using a 5-point visual scale. Dose-length product was recorded for each patient and the effective radiation dose was calculated

Results: The PG CCTA technique demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of step artifacts in the middle and distal right coronary artery, the distal left anterior descending artery, the second diagonal, the distal left circumflex artery, and the second marginal branches. Nevertheless, the diagnostic performance of these scans was not adversely affected. The mean effective radiation doses were 3.8 ± 0.9 mSv vs.17.2 ± 3 mSv for PG CCTA and RG CCTA, respectively (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Artifacts caused by the PG CCTA technique (64 MDCT) scanners tended to appear in specific coronary segments but did not impair the overall diagnostic quality of CCTA and there was a marked reduction in radiation exposure. We conclude that 64-slice PG CCTA is suitable for clinical use, especially for acute chest pain "fast track" evaluation targeted at relatively young subjects in a chest pain unit.

March 2011
S. Shrot, E. Konen, M. Hertz and M. Amitai

Background: Assessment of small intestinal disease remains a challenge for both clinicians and radiologists. Modern magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) is a non-radiation modality that can demonstrate both intestinal wall pathologies and extraluminal lesions.

Objectives: To analyze the results of 213 MRE scans performed since 2005.

Methods: Consecutive MRE[1] scans performed in our academic medical center between December 2005 and November 2009 were reviewed for patients' demographic data, indications for the examination, and main imaging findings. The imaging findings recorded were mural changes and intraluminal filling defects; there were also mesenteric findings and extraintestinal inflammatory findings.

Results: During the study period 213 MRE scans were performed; 70% of them for proven or suspected Crohn's disease (CD) of the small bowel. Another indication was small bowel neoplasm (6% of the scans). Bowel wall thickening and enhancement were seen in 60% and 53% of MRE scans, respectively. Mesenteric involvement was found in 52% of the patients. Incidental extraintestinal findings were detected in 17% of the scans. In 22% of the scans there was no pathological finding.

Conclusions: Our 4-year clinical experience with MRE shows that this non-invasive and non-radiating modality is a powerful technique for evaluation and long-term follow-up of small bowel pathologies. The most common clinical indication was the evaluation of Crohn’s disease. With physicians’ increased awareness, the future use of MRE in the evaluation of other small bowel pathologies such as neoplasm and celiac disease will increase.

[1] MRE = magnetic resonance enterography

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