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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.07.24

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January 2021
Yasmin Abu-Ghanem MD, Nir Kleinmann MD, Tomer Erlich MD, Harry Z. Winkler MD, and Dorit E. Zilberman MD

Background: Dietary modifications and patient-tailored medical management are significant in controlling renal stone disease. Nevertheless, the literature regarding effectiveness is sparse.

Objectives: To explore the impact of dietary modifications and medical management on 24-hour urinary metabolic profiles (UMP) and renal stone status in recurrent kidney stone formers.

Methods: We reviewed our prospective registry database of patients treated for nephrolithiasis. Data included age, sex, 24-hour UMP, and stone burden before treatment. Under individual treatment, patients were followed at 6–8 month intervals with repeat 24-hour UMP and radiographic images. Nephrolithiasis-related events (e.g., surgery, renal colic) were also recorded. We included patients with established long-term follow-up prior to the initiation of designated treatment, comparing individual nephrolithiasis status before and after treatment initiation.

Results: Inclusion criteria were met by 44 patients. Median age at treatment start was 60.5 (50.2–70.2) years. Male:Female ratio was 3.9:1. Median follow-up was 10 (6–25) years and 5 (3–6) years before and after initiation of medical and dietary treatment, respectively. Metabolic abnormalities detected included: hypocitraturia (95.5%), low urine volume (56.8%), hypercalciuria (45.5%), hyperoxaluria (40.9%), and hyperuricosuria (13.6%). Repeat 24-hour UMP under appropriate diet and medical treatment revealed a progressive increase in citrate levels compared to baseline and significantly decreased calcium levels (P = 0.001 and 0.03, respectively). A significant decrease was observed in stone burden (P = 0.001) and overall nephrolithiasis-related events.

Conclusions: Dietary modifications and medical management significantly aid in correcting urinary metabolic abnormalities. Consequently, reduced nehprolithiasis-related events and better stone burden control is expected.

December 2016
Yasmin Abu-Ghanem MD, Nir Kleinmann MD, Harry Z. Winkler MD and Dorit E. Zilberman MD

Background: The prevalence and etiology of nephrolithiasis vary, depending on geography, gender and ethnicity. 

Objectives: To analyze the demographic data of return nephrolithiasis patients in a tertiary care center.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our prospective registry database of return patients seen at our outpatient clinic for nephrolithiasis. Data included gender, age at first visit, age at first stone event, body mass index (BMI), self-reported hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and hyperlipidemia. All patients were seen at least twice and had undergone a metabolic workup. 

Results: A total of 260 return patients were seen during the period 2010–2015. The male:female ratio was 3.1:1. Mean age at the first stone event was 44.1 years. Median time elapsed since the first stone event to medical evaluation was 5 years (interquartile range 1–12 years). Hypertension was reported by 33.1% of the patients, DM by 23.5% and hyperlipidemia by 30.4%. All three diseases were reported by 11.5% of patients. The metabolic abnormalities detected were hypocitraturia (60%), low urine volume (LUV) (60%), hypercalciuria (40.8%), hyperoxaluria (24.2%), hyperuricosuria (16.5%) and hyperuricemia (13.5%). Stone compositions from most to least frequent were calcium-oxalate (81%), calcium-phosphate (11.9%) and uric acid (7.1%). We also found that 24.6% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and showed higher rates of hypertension, DM, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria compared with non-obese patients. Significantly higher rates of obesity and LUV were detected in females compared with males. Patients over age 45 had lower rates of hyperuricemia compared with patients ≥ 45 years old (P = 0.038).

Conclusions: Factors related to nephrolithiasis can potentially differ among populations and countries. Our findings emphasize the significance of individualized national health programs to address local issues.


December 2015
Adi Abulafia MD, Eli Rosen MD, Ehud I. Assia MD and Guy Kleinmann MD

Background: Cataract extraction is the most commonly performed ophthalmic surgical procedure. There is no registry for documenting cataract surgical procedures and the overall risk of its complications over time in Israel.

Objectives: To present trends in the number and type of selected parameters associated with cataract surgical procedures in Israel between 1990 and 2014.

Methods: Questionnaires had been sent annually to all surgical centers in which cataract surgery was performed in Israel during the study period. The trends that were investigated included annual rates, surgical sites, surgical techniques, use of an intraocular lens (IOL) and type and rates of postoperative endophthalmitis (POE). 

Results: A total of 812,112 cataract surgical procedures were reported during the 25 year study period. Responses to the questionnaire increased from 75% in 1990 to 100% in 2006 onwards. The annual number of reported cataract surgical procedures increased from 16,841 (3.5 per 1000) in 1990 to 57,419 in 2014 (6.9 per 1000), representing an increase of 197%. There was a shift from performing the surgery in the public health system to private medical centers. The surgical technique changed from predominantly manual extracapsular cataract extraction (56% in 1999) to predominantly phacoemulsification (98.7% in 2014). POE rates decreased from 0.25% in 2002 to 0.028% in 2014. 

Conclusions: There was a continuous increase in the rate of surgical cataract procedures, and more were performed in private medical facilities. There was also a major shift towards advanced cataract procedures and a decreased rate of POE. 

August 2005
D. Leibovici, A. Cooper, A. Lindner, R. Ostrowsky, J. Kleinmann, S. Velikanov, H. Cipele, E. Goren and Y.I. Siegel
 Background: Stents offer a simple and effective drainage method for the upper urinary tract. However, ureteral stents are associated with frequent side effects, including irritative voiding symptoms and hematuria.

Objectives: To determine the side effects associated with ureteral stents and their impact on sexual function and quality of life.

Methods: Symptom questionnaires were administered to 135 consecutive patients with unilateral ureteral stents. The questionnaire addressed irritative voiding symptoms, flank pain, hematuria, fever, loss of labor days, anxiety, sleep impairment, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, dyspareunia, painful ejaculation, and a subjective overall impact on quality of life. The items were graded from 1 (minimal or no symptoms) to 5 (maximal symptoms). The patients were seen and questionnaires filled at 2 weekly intervals following stent insertion until stent extraction. Following removal of the stent, stent patency, impaction and migration rates were determined. Admissions to hospital and ancillary procedures to retreive stents were noted.

Results: The findings presented refer to questionnaire items scoring 3 or more. Dysuria, urinary frequency and urgency were reported by 40%, 50% and 55% of the patients, respectively. Flank pain, gross hematuria or fever was reported by 32%, 42% and 15% respectively. Among working patients, 45% lost at least 2 labor days during the first 14 days, and 32% were still absent from work by day 30. A total of 435 labor days were lost in the first month. Anxiety and sleep disturbance were reported by 24% and 20% respectively, and 45% of patients reported impairment in their quality of life. Decreased libido was reported by 45%, and sexual dysfunction by 42% of men and 86% of women. Stent removal necessitated ureteroscpoy in 14 patients (10.5%), due to upward migration in 11 (8.2%) and incrustration and impaction in 3. Spontaneous stent expulsion occurred in one patient. Forty-six (34%) stents were obstructed at the time of removal. Obstructed stents were associated with a longer mean dwell time as compared to the whole population, 75 versus 62 days respectively (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Ureteral stents are associated with frequent side effects and significantly impact on patient quality of life. Our findings should be considered when deciding on ureteral stent insertion and dwell time.

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