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עמוד בית
Wed, 24.07.24

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September 2018
Ainat Klein MD, Gad Dotan MD and Anat Kesler MD

Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of unknown etiology. Its occurrence in the general population is 1/100,000, and 20/100,000 among overweight women of childbearing age. Familial occurrence is reportedly uncommon and not well-characterized.

Objectives: To describe a familial association with IIH.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all familial cases of IIH examined in the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of our medical center between January 2006 and June 2013.

Results: Of a total of 520 patients with IIH, 15 had other family members with IIH (from seven different families). The family relation was a mother and daughter in two families, a brother and sister in four families, and an aunt and two first-degree cousins in the seventh family. Symptoms, course of disease, and risk factors were similar among the relatives of all seven families, except for the age at diagnosis, which was different in one family. All of the adult patients of six families were obese (body mass index 25–35 kg/m2), and all of the members of the other family were morbidly obese. There was no association between other systemic risk factors and IIH.

Conclusions: IIH occurrence within a family is more common than previously believed, and its incidence in families is more common than in the general population. The clinical course appears to be similar in family members. Our findings suggest a genetic predisposition. Further investigation of familial cases may yield useful information on the pathogenesis and genetic nature of this condition.

January 2018
Gad Dotan MD, Eyal Cohen MD, Ainat Klein MD and Anat Kesler MD

Background: Recent evidence suggests that olfaction is impaired in patients with pseudotumor cerebri (PTC).

Objectives: To measure suprathreshold olfactory function by using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assessing its usefulness for routine clinical use.

Methods: Forty PTC patients underwent USPIT olfactory testing.

Results: Twenty-nine out of 40 (73%) PTC patients (36 women, 4 men; mean age 34 years) had reduced suprathreshold smell sensation according to UPSIT scores: 19 (47%) had mild microsmia, 9 (23%) had moderate microsmia, and one (3%) was classified as having severe microsmia. The mean UPSIT score of all patients was 32.4 (95% confidence interval 31.4–33.4). Multivariate regression analysis found that UPSIT scores were not related to disease activity, disease duration, initial intracranial pressure (ICP), or visual function.

Conclusions: Many PTC patients have reduced suprathreshold olfactory dysfunction that can be discovered by UPSIT, a rapidly administered smell test, which is suitable for clinical office use.

May 2017
Sharon Blum Meirovitch MD, Igal Leibovitch MD, Anat Kesler MD, David Varssano MD, Amir Rosenblatt MD MPH and Meira Neudorfer MD

Background: Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an inflammatory disease that affects the thyroid gland and the eye orbit. Of patients with TAO, 3%–5% have severe sight-threatening disease due to optic neuropathy Optical coherence tomography (OCT), the non-invasive imaging technology that yields high-resolution cross-sectional images of the retina, provides qualitative and quantitative data on the retina.

Objectives: To apply this technique to quantitatively assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ring thicknesses in healthy subjects and in patients with TAO to determine their relationship to the severity of the orbital disease.

Methods: All patients in the ophthalmology clinic who were diagnosed with TAO and underwent OCT imaging as part of their ocular examination comprised the study group, and healthy patients who volunteered to undergo OCT examination served as controls. Results of the complete ophthalmologic examination and OCT findings were collected from medical files, including the thickness of the RNFL and the macula.

Results: The study comprised 21 patients and 41 healthy controls. TAO patients exhibited RNFL thickening and inner macula thinning compared to healthy subjects. Mean RNFL thickness was correlated with the severity of the orbital disease.

Conclusion: The OCT findings suggest that the retina is involved in TAO, probably as early as the subclinical stage. This highlights the ability of OCT to identify retinal changes earlier and far more accurately than is detected today, enabling earlier diagnosis and more timely treatment to prevent severe visual sequelae.

December 2013
Sergiu C. Blumen, Anat Kesler, Ron Dabby, Stavit Shalev, Chaiat Morad, Yechoshua Almog, Joseph Zoldan, Felix Benninger, Vivian E. Drory, Michael Gurevich, Menachem Sadeh, Bernard Brais and Itzhak Braverman
 Background: Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) produced by the (GCG)13 expansion mutation in the PABPN1 gene is frequent among Uzbek Jews in Israel.

Objectives: To describe the phenotypic and genotypic features in five Bulgarian Jewish patients, from different families, with autosomal dominant OPMD.

Methods: We performed clinical follow-up, electrodiagnostic tests and mutation detection. Blood samples were obtained after informed consent and DNA was extracted; measurement of GCG repeats in both PABPN1 alleles and sequencing of OPMD mutations were performed according to standard techniques.

Results: We identified five patients (four females), aged 58 to 71 years, with bilateral ptosis, dysphagia, dysphonia (n=3) and myopathic motor units by electromyography. In all patients we noticed proximal weakness of the upper limbs with winging scapulae in three of them. All cases shared the (GCG)13-(GCG)10 PABPN1 genotype.

Conclusions: OPMD among Bulgarian Jews is produced by a (GCG)13 expansion, identical to the mutation in Uzbek Jews and French Canadians. In addition to the classical neurological and neuro-ophthalmological features, early shoulder girdle weakness is common in Bulgarian Jewish patients; this is an unusual feature during the early stages of OPMD produced by the same mutation in other populations. We suggest that besides the disease-producing GCG expansion, additional ethnicity-related genetic factors may influence the OPMD phenotype. OPMD is a rare disease, and the identification of five affected families in the rather small Bulgarian Jewish community in Israel probably represents a new cluster; future haplotype studies may elucidate whether a founder effect occurred. 

April 2013
S. Golan, S. Maslovitz, M.J. Kupferminc and A. Kesler
 Background: The effects of consecutive pregnancies on the course of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) are unclear in view of the scarce published data.

Objectives: To evaluate the course and management of visual and pregnancy outcomes of consecutive pregnancies with IIH.

Methods: The medical records of women with IIH in consecutive pregnancies were reviewed for neuro-ophthalmological findings, management, and visual and pregnancy outcomes.

Results: The study group comprised eight women with at least two consecutive pregnancies (mean age 27.3 ± 5.3 years). The mean duration of IIH prior to the first pregnancy was 3.4 ± 3.16 years. One woman with IIH pre-pregnancy symptoms and three women with clinical features of IIH during the second trimester of pregnancy (gestational week 21.7 ± 4.04) were treated with acetazolamide (250 mg every 8 hours). Symptoms resolved, resulting in uncomplicated first deliveries for all four. The first deliveries of four other women were by cesarean section due to obstetric indications. Only one woman developed symptoms and signs of IIH during her second pregnancy and was thus treated with acetazolamide. Two women who completed three pregnancies had no IIH symptoms during their pregnancies. The course and outcome of those pregnancies were normal.

Conclusions: IIH apparently does not worsen or even become symptomatic in consecutive pregnancies. The appropriate management of IIH in pregnant women is similar to management for non-pregnant women; neither the course nor the obstetric outcome of first and consecutive pregnancies is influenced by the presence of IIH.

May 2010
A. Kesler, I. Haber and S. Kurtz

Background: Normal-tension glaucoma is a chronic progressive optic neuropathy of unknown etiology. Neuroimaging workup in these patients is controversial.

Objectives: To determine the value of routine neurologic and neuro-ophthalmologic evaluations in patients with NTG[1].

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with NTG in our institution between 2001 and 2006. Neurologic and neuro-ophthalmologic data were evaluated.

Results: Sixty-eight patients were considered suitable for the study (35 males, 33 females age range 43–90 years). Neurologic and neuro-ophthalmologic findings were normal in all of them. The computed tomography brain scan was normal in 88% and duplex carotid Doppler scan was normal in 92%.

Conclusions: Pathologic findings in neurologic and neuro-ophthalmologic assessments were uncommon in NTG. Therefore, contrary to earlier suggestions, neurologic and neuro-ophthalmologic evaluations in typical normal-tension glaucoma patients appear to have no added value.




 

[1] NTG  = normal-tension glaucoma


 

 
 
 
October 2008
A. Kesler, L. Berkner, M. Sadeh, R. Levite and D. Varssano

Background: Ocular hypotony is a common unexplained feature of myotonic dystrophy type 1. Spuriously low applanation tonometric readings can be caused by thin corneas, flat corneal curvature and corneal edema.

Objectives: To determine whether structure abnormalities of the cornea cause spuriously low readings in applanation tonometry.

Methods: We utilized a TMS-2N corneal topographer, a NonconRobo SP-6000 Specular microscope and a Corneo-Gage Plus 1A Pachymeter to examine seven patients with DM1[1] and eight healthy controls. Intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and endothelial cell density were measured, and simulated keratometry readings were made. Cornea guttata and irregularity of corneal topography patterns were also sought.

Results: The mean intraocular pressure was 9.86 ± 1.29 mmHg for all patients (intraocular operated and non‑operated eyes) and 12.88 ± 1.89 mmHg for the controls (P = 0.000021, two-tailed t-test). Central corneal thickness was 530.57 ± 35.30 micron for all patients and 535.00 ± 39.62 micron for the controls (P = 0.75, two-tailed t-test). Endothelial cell density was 3164 ± 761 cells/mm2 for all patients and 3148 ± 395 cells/mm2 for the controls (P = 0.94, two-tailed t-test). Simulated keratometry readings were similar in both groups when the operated eyes were excluded. Cornea guttata and irregularity of corneal topography patterns were also noted in the study group.

Conclusions: Corneal thickness, corneal curvature and corneal hydration were within normal limits and thus were not the cause for the low applanation tonometry reading in DM1. The presence of cornea guttata and irregularity of corneal topography patterns in DM1 warrants further investigation. 






[1] DM1 = myotonic dystrophy type 1


January 2007
A. Kesler, P. Pianka, E. Rubinow, Y. Segev and N. Bornstein.
October 2005
A. Kesler, A. Mosek, N. Fithlicher and Y. Gidron
 Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, also known as pseudotumor cerebri, is a relatively rare disorder of increased intracranial pressure >250 mm water, with a normal neuroimaging and normal cerebrospinal fluid content.

Objectives: To examine whether hostility, anxiety and autobiographical memory (a correlate of depression) are associated with IIH[1].

Methods: Using a case-control cross sectional design, 20 patients with IIH were compared with 9 healthy controls of similar age, weight and height, and 11 headache controls. Patients were assessed for hostility and anxiety. The Autobiographical Memory Test was used to assess episodic memories.

Results: The IIH group reported significantly more anxiety and more general episodic memories than the healthy controls, but not the headache control group. The headache control patients reported more general memories than did the healthy controls.

Conclusions: Patients with headaches, whether of general origin or related to IIH, have a poor psychosocial profile. While the study design does not permit any conclusions regarding causality, our results support the need to consider psychological factors in evaluating and treating IIH and headache patients. 

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[1] IIH = idiopathic intracranial hypertension

April 2002
Anat Kesler, MD, Ronit Galili-Mosberg, MD and Natan Gadoth, MD
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