• IMA sites
  • IMAJ services
  • IMA journals
  • Doctors card
  • Follow us
  • Alternate Text Alternate Text
עמוד בית
Tue, 04.10.22

Search results


March 2019
Yedidia Bentur MD, Yael Lurie MD, Alfred Cahana MD, Anna Bloom-Krasik MD, Nona Kovler MD, Gal Neuman MD, Bella Gurevych MD, Paul Sofer MD and Wendy Klein-Schwartz PharmD MPH

Background: The Israel Poison Information Center (IPIC), Rambam Health Care Campus, provides 24-hour telephone consultations on clinical toxicology and drug and reproductive toxicology. It participates in research, teaching and regulatory activities, and provides laboratory services. In 2014, nurse specialists in poison information joined the IPIC.

Objectives: To report the epidemiology of poison exposures in Israel.

Methods: We present computerized queries and a descriptive analysis of the medical records database of the IPIC for 2017.

Results: A total of 39,928 poison exposure cases were recorded, reflecting increases of 226.3% and 26.7% compared with 1995 and 2012, respectively. Children < 6 years of age were involved in 47.0% of cases; 80.4% of calls were made by the public and 17.8% by physicians; 74.2% of exposures were unintentional and 7.3% intentional. Pharmaceuticals were involved in 51.4% of cases, chemicals in 36.9%, bites and stings in 2.2%, and plants and mushrooms in 1.5%. Substances most frequently involved were analgesics, cleaning products, and antimicrobials. Clinical severity was moderate/major in 3.3%, mainly due to insecticides, drugs of abuse, and corrosives. Three fatalities were recorded (due to colchicine, organophosphates, and volatile substance inhalant abuse).

Conclusions: Poison exposures and poisonings have markedly increased in Israel, contributing substantially to morbidity. The IPIC prevented unnecessary referrals to emergency departments. Its database is a valuable national resource for collecting and monitoring poisoning exposure cases. It can be used as a real-time surveillance system for the benefit of public health. It is recommended that reporting to the IPIC become mandatory, and its activities adequately supported by national resources.

July 2016
Hussein Sliman MD, Keren Zissman MD, Jacob Goldstein MD, Moshe Y. Flugelman MD and Yaron Hellman MD
June 2016
November 2014
Yedidia Bentur MD, Yael Lurie MD, Alfred Cahana MD, Nona Kovler MD, Anna Bloom-Krasik MD, Bella Gurevych MD and Wendy Klein-Schwartz PharmD MPH

Background: The Israel National Poison Information Center (IPIC), Rambam Health Care Campus, provides 24 hour telephone consultations in clinical toxicology as well as drug and teratogen information. It participates in research, teaching and regulatory activities, and also provides laboratory services.

Objectives: To report data on the epidemiology of poisonings and poison exposures in Israel.

Methods: We made computerized queries and descriptive analyses of the medical records database of the IPIC during 2012.

Results: A total of 31,519 poison exposure cases were recorded, a 157.6% increase compared with 1995. Children < 6 years of age were involved in 43.1% of cases; 74.0% of calls were made by the public and 23.7% by physicians; 74.8% of exposures were unintentional and 9.1% intentional. Chemicals were involved in 35.8% of all cases (single and multiple substances), pharmaceuticals in 48.8%, bites and stings in 3.8%, and plants and mushrooms in 1.6%. Substances most frequently involved were analgesics, cleaning products and antimicrobials. Clinical severity was moderate/major in 3.4%. Substances most frequently involved in moderate/major exposures were corrosives, insecticides and snake venom. Four fatalities were recorded; all were intentional exposures in adults (corrosive, medications, energy drink).

Conclusions: Poison exposures and poisonings have increased significantly and have contributed substantial to morbidity and mortality in Israel. The IPIC database is a valuable national resource for the collection and monitoring of poisoning exposure cases. It can be used as a real-time surveillance system for the benefit of public health. It is recommended that reporting to the IPIC become mandatory and its activities be adequately supported by national resources.

November 2008
Y. Bentur et al

Background: The Israel National Poison Information Center, Rambam Health Care Campus, provides telephone consultations on clinical toxicology as well as drug and teratogen information around the clock. The Center participates in research, teaching and regulatory activities, and also provides laboratory services.

Objectives: To analyze data on the epidemiology of poisonings and poison exposures in Israel.

Methods: We conducted computerized queries and a descriptive analysis of the medical records database of the IPIC[1] during 2007.

Results: Overall, 26,738 poison exposure cases were recorded, a 118.5% increase compared to 1995. Children under 6 years old were involved in 45% of cases; 73% of the calls were made by the public and 25.5% by physicians; 74.4% of exposures were unintentional and 9.2% intentional. Chemicals were involved in 37.9% of cases, pharmaceuticals in 44.2%, bites and stings in 4.3% and poisonous plants in 1.2%. Substances most frequently involved were analgesics, cleaning products and antimicrobials. Clinical severity was moderate/major in 3.5%. Substances most frequently involved in moderate/major exposures were insecticides, drugs of abuse and corrosives. Eight fatalities were recorded – three unintentional exposures (all chemicals) and five intentional (chemicals, medications, drugs of abuse).

Conclusions: The rates of poison exposures and poisonings in Israel have increased significantly, contributing substantially to morbidity and mortality. The IPIC database is a valuable national resource for collecting and monitoring cases of poison exposure and can be used as a real-time surveillance system. It is recommended that reporting to the IPIC become mandatory and that its activities be adequately supported by national resources.

 






[1] IPIC = Israel National Poison Information Center


February 2006
D. Soffer, O. Zmora, J.B. Klausner, O. Szold, A. Givon, P. Halpern, C. Schulman and K. Peleg

Background: The contribution of drugs and alcohol to current trauma‑related morbidity and mortality in Israel is not known. Identification of these factors in the fast-changing demographics of the Israeli population might lead to better care and, no less importantly, to targeted prevention measures.

Objectives: To determine the incidence of alcohol‑related trauma, and to specify the time of day, the cause of trauma, and the morbidity and mortality rates as compared to non-alcohol‑associated trauma in the tertiary trauma unit of a large medical center in Tel Aviv.

Methods: Data were obtained from the Israel National Trauma Registry, based on patient records in our institution (Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center) from January 2001 to December 2003.

Results: Of the 5,529 patients who were enrolled in the study, 170 had high alcohol blood levels (> 50 mg/dl). Patients intoxicated with alcohol had higher rates of road accident injuries (35% versus 24% non‑intoxicated) and stab wounds (29% vs. 7%). The Injury Severity Score of the alcohol‑intoxicated patients was higher (32% ³ 16 vs. 12% ³ 16). The alcohol‑intoxicated patients were more likely to be non-Jewish (34% vs. 9%), young (82% aged 15–44 years) and males (91%). Most of the alcohol‑related injuries occurred during the weekend (47%) and during evening‑late night hours (from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m.; 55%).

Conclusions: Alcohol‑associated trauma differs from non-alcohol‑associated trauma in many ways. Since the population at risk can be identified, it is important that legislative, social, enforcement and educational measures be adopted to reduce the extent of alcohol abuse and thereby improve the level of public safety.
 

July 2003
O. Starretz-Hacham, S. Sofer and M. Lifshitz
July 2002
Eyal Robenshtok, MD, Shay Luria, MD, Zeev Tashma, PhD and Ariel Hourvitz, MD

Atropine is the drug of choice for treatment of organophosphate (OP) nerve agent and insecticide intoxication and has been used for this indication for several decades. Adverse reactions to atropine may occur, and are of two types: toxic and allergic. Toxic reaction, the most common form, results from the anti-muscarinic effects of the drug. Since it is most probably related to interpersonal variation in sensitivity to atropine, toxic effects may appear at the usual therapeutic doses. The second type, allergic reaction, includes local manifestations, usually after the administration of eyedrops, and systemic reaction in the form of anaphylaxis. Since most patients manifest only a mild reaction, allergy testing is not performed and the prevalence of allergy to atropine is therefore not known. Severe allergic reaction to atropine is rare, as evidenced by the small number of case reports in the literature despite the drug's extensive use. Alternative anti-muscarinic drugs recommended for OP poisoning include glycopyrrolate and scopolamine. Glycopyrrolate is a peripheral anti-muscarinic drug that has been studied in comparison to atropine for many clinical indications, while scopolamine is an anti-muscarinic drug with both peripheral and central effects. An acceptable alternative regimen for patients with proven allergy to atropine is a combination of glycopyrrolate with centrally active drugs such as benzodiazepines or scopolamine.

Alina Weissman-Brenner, MD, Avi David, Avi Vidan, MD and Ariel Hourvitz, MD

Background: Organophosphates (OP) are frequently used as insecticides in the household and in agricultural areas, thus posing a risk for accidental exposure.

Objectives: To describe the characteristics, clinical course and outcome of 97 patients admitted to emergency rooms with a diagnosis of acute OP poisoning.

Methods: The clinical details of 97 patients were collected from 6 different hospitals in Israel. Diagnosis of intoxication was based on clinical findings, butyrylcholinesterase levels and, in several cases, the material brought to the hospital. Demographic, intoxication and clinical data were analyzed.

Results: The study group comprised 64 men and 33 women whose age range was 1–70 years old (mean 19.8 ± 17.1); more than one-third of the patients were less than 10 years old. Accidental exposure was the cause of intoxication in 51.5% of the patients, and suicide in 20.6% of exposures. Intoxication occurred at home in most patients (67%), and the route of intoxication was oral in 65% of them. The patients arrived at the hospital 20 minutes to 72 hours after intoxication. Nine patients were asymptomatic; 53 presented with mild intoxication, 22 with moderate, and 13 had severe intoxication, 5 of whom died. There was a direct correlation between the degree of inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase levels and the severity of intoxication. Treatment included decontamination and antidotal medication. Duration of hospitalization ranged between 1 and to 14 days (average 2.9 days).

Conclusions: Organophosphates may cause severe morbidity and mortality. Medical staff should therefore be aware of the clinical manifestations and the antidotal treatment for this poisoning.
 

April 2002
Matityahu Lifshitz, MD and Vladimir Gavrilov, MD

Background: Adolescent suicide has become increasingly more prevalent in recent years, with self-poisoning being a frequent means of suicide attempt.

Objective:  To investigate the factors associated with adolescent self-poisoning.

Methods: Data on adolescents referred for intentional self-poisoning to the Adolescent Medical Unit during the years 1990–1998 were evaluated retrospectively. Data were obtained from the hospital medical records and included the following factors: sociodemographic data, educational status, agent and route of intake, motivation for overdose, and the extent of serious suicidal intent.

Results:  We evaluated 324 cases of adolescent self-poisoners aged 12–18 years (mean ± SD 14.8 ± 1.5 years). The female/male ratio was 8:1. Most of the patients were attending school and lived in urban areas. Oral ingestion was the only route of intake; 84.5% of the patients ingested drugs and 10.5% non-medicinal compounds. The drug most commonly taken was acetaminophen. The non-medicinal compounds were mostly pesticides and household materials. The suicide attempts were most frequently associated with transient depression, stemming from defects in child-family communication. As based on clinical psychiatric evaluation, patients who had ingested polydrugs and non-medical compounds evidenced a significantly greater suicidal intent (c² =11.9, P < 0.001) compared to those who took only one or two kinds of drugs.

Conclusions: We found that self-poisoning attempts occur most frequently in depressed females at junior high and high school, usually in the context of family dysfunction.  Non-medicinal agents and polydrug ingestion are major risk factors for evaluating the seriousness of the suicidal intent.

Eyal Meltzer, MD and Shmuel Steinlauf, MD

Background: Lithium has been a part of the psychiatric pharmacopoeia for more than half a century. Its efficacy is marred by a narrow therapeutic index and significant toxicity.

Objectives: To increase physicians’ awareness of the various manifestations of lithium intoxication.

Methods: We reviewed the clinical data of cases of lithium poisoning occurring in a municipal hospital during a 10 year period.

Results: Eight patient records were located. The mortality rate was 12.5%. All patients were women and the mean age was 66.4 years. The most common symptoms were neurological. One illustrative case is described in detail with lithium serum levels showing the usual two-phase decline.

Conclusions: Lithium poisoning can present in many forms. Increased physician awareness and the early use of effective treatment, mainly hemodialysis, will prevent mortality and protracted morbidity associated with this condition.
 

January 2002
Ronen Rubinshtein, MD, Eran Bar-Meir, MD, Ahuva Grubstein, MD and Haim Bitterman, MD
July 2000
Matityahu Lifshitz MD and Vladimir Gavrilov MD

Background: Childhood poisoning continues to challenge the diagnostic and treatment skills of the pediatrician. Generally, childhood poisoning can be attributed to suboptimal parental supervision and accessibility of products with poisoning potential.

Objective: To evaluate the pattern of acute poisoning in children with relation to different age groupings.

Methods: Pediatric patients hospitalized for acute poisoning at the Soroka Medical Center over a 5 year period (1994-98) were evaluated retrospectively. Special attention was given to poisoning in relation to age groupings.

Results: During the years 1994-98 a total of 1,143 children were admitted for acute poisoning to the Soroka Medical Center. The majority of cases occurred in children aged 2-5 and 14-18 years. Males under 14 had a higher frequency of poisoning, the poisoning usually being unintentional, whereas poisoning in females occurred mostly in the 14-18 age group and was intentional. Drugs were the most common agent of poisoning in infants (0-1 year), in older children (10-13 years), and in adolescents (14-18 years), while in children aged 2-5 and 6-9 years either cleaning products or drugs were the usual agents of poisoning. Most poisonings in children aged 2-13 occurred between 4 and 8 p.m., and for most adolescent patients (14-18 years old) between 4 p.m. and midnight. Poisoning in children aged 2-13 were usually due to accessible home products, and to medicinal errors such as overdose and improper drug administration.

Conclusions: This study defines the characteristic pattern of pediatric poisoning with respect to different age groups and gender. Unintentional childhood poisoning predominated in males and occurred mostly because of accessible home products and suboptimal parental supervision during critical hours of the day. Most adolescent poisoning occurred in females and was intentional. Parental education and intensified child supervision are indicated measures of prevention for unintentional poisoning.

Legal Disclaimer: The information contained in this website is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or medical advice on any matter.
The IMA is not responsible for and expressly disclaims liability for damages of any kind arising from the use of or reliance on information contained within the site.
© All rights to information on this site are reserved and are the property of the Israeli Medical Association. Privacy policy

2 Twin Towers, 35 Jabotinsky, POB 3566, Ramat Gan 5213604 Israel