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עמוד בית
Sun, 25.02.24

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July 2019
Darja Kanduc PhD

Background: Although cross-reactions between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) autoantigens occur, a complete analysis of the potential EBV peptide cross-reactome has not been performed.

Objectives: To analyze the whole EBV proteome searching for peptides common to SLE-related proteins and endowed with an immunological potential.

Methods: Fifty-one SLE-related proteins were analyzed for hexapeptide sharing with EBV proteome using publicly available databases.

Results: An extremely high number of hexapeptides are shared between 34 human SLE autoantigens and EBV proteins. The peptide sharing mostly occurs with complement components C4 and Interleukin-10 (IL-10).

Conclusion: This study thoroughly describes the EBV vs. SLE autoantigens peptide overlap and powerfully supports cross-reactivity as a major mechanism in EBV-associated SLE etiopathogenesis.

October 2014
March 2010
O. Amir, O. Rogowski, M. David, N. Lahat, R. Wolff and B.S. Lewis

Background: Interleukin-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and consequently is considered by many to have a protective role in heart failure, as opposed to the notorious tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

Objectives: To test the hypothesis of the possible beneficial impact of IL-10[1] on mortality in systolic heart failure patients in relation to their circulating TNFα[2] levels.

Methods: We measured circulating levels of IL-10 and TNFα in 67 ambulatory systolic heart failure patients (age 65 ± 13 years).

Results: Mortality was or tended to be higher in patients with higher levels (above median level) of circulating TNFα (9/23, 39% vs. 6/44, 14%; P = 0.02) or IL-10 (10/34, 30% vs. 5/33, 15%; P = 0.10). However, mortality was highest in the subset of patients with elevation of both markers above median (7/16, 44% vs. 8/51, 16%; P = 0.019). Elevation of both markers was associated with more than a threefold hazard ratio for mortality (HR[3] 3.67, 95% confidence interval 1.14–11.78).

Conclusions: Elevated circulating IL-10 levels in systolic heart failure patients do not have a protective counterbalance effect on mortality. Moreover, patients with elevated IL-10 and TNFα had significantly higher mortality, suggesting that the possible interaction in the complex inflammatory and anti-inflammatory network may need further study.

 






[1] IL = interleukin

[2] TNFα = tumor necrosis factor-alpha

[3] HR = hazard ratio


March 2003
R. Eliakim and F. Karmeli

Background: Chronic nicotine administration has a dual effect on inflammatory bowel disease: augmentation of jejunitis and amelioration of colitis. We previously showed that chronic nicotine administration has divergent regional effects on small bowel and colonic mucosal mediators and blood flow.

Objective: To examine the effects of nicotine administration on cytokine levels in normal rat small bowel mucosa, colonic mucosa, and blood.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–250 g were given nicotine (12.5 μg/ml) that was dissolved in tap water. Rats were sacrificed on days 1, 2, 7 and 14 after nicotine initiation; blood was withdrawn, and small bowel and colon were resected, washed and weighed. Mucosal scrapings were extracted in 2 ml Krebs-Hemselest buffer for determination of interleukins-2, 6 and 10 using the Biosource International Immunoassay Kit.

Results: Nicotine decreased IL-10[1] and increased IL-6 levels in small bowel mucosa (from 3.5 ±  0.5 to 0.4 ± 0.1 pg/ml and from 1.9±0.4 to 13.6±0.4 pg/ml respectively; P < 0.05). Nicotine decreased IL-2 levels in the colon (from 15.8±3.0 to 7.9±1.0 pg/ml; P < 0.05), having no effect on IL-10 or IL-6 levels. Rats treated with nicotine had lower IL-6 and IL-2 blood levels compared to control rats.

Conclusions: Nicotine has different regional effects on small bowel and colonic cytokine mucosal levels, which might explain some of its opposite effects on small bowel and colonic inflammation.






[1] IL = interleukin


February 2001
Donato Alarcon-Segovoia, MD, MS, PhD

The future promises good news for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, some of which can already be foreseen. Increased knowledge on genes that participate in the predis­position, pathogenesis, pharmacogenetics of, and protection against this disease may permit intervention at this level. Also, better understanding about the role of sex hormones has allowed trials of weak androgens or prolactin inhibitors. New immunomodulators or i mmunosuppresors may enable more precise treatment at the immunoregulatory level, and greater knowledge on the disturbance of circuits has already provided hints and even allowed trials of anti-interleukin-10 antibodies, an IL-10 decreasing agent, tolerance-induction strategies or intervention at the level of T cell co-stimulation, as well as immune ablation with subsequent stem cell transplantation. Autoantibodies can be removed, controlled by means of anti­idiotypes, which are blocked from reaching their target antigen or uncoupled from the tissues they have reached. All these treatment strategies will gradually become decanted in order to achieve the optimal treatment of SEE, which may turn out to be its cure.

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