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עמוד בית
Sun, 21.04.24

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March 2021
Ariel Kenig MD, Ofer Perzon MD, Yuval Tal MD PhD, Sigal Sviri MD, Avi Abutbul MD, Marc Romain MD, Efrat Orenbuch-Harroch MD, Naama Elefant MD, and Aviv Talmon MD
October 2020
Keren Tzukert MD, Roy Abel MD, Irit Mor Yosef Levi MD, Ittamar Gork MD, Liron Yosha Orpaz MD PhD, Henny Azmanov MD, and Michal Dranitzki Elhalel MD MsC
May 2020
Yael Peled MD, Eilon Ram MD, Jacob Lavee MD, and Zohar Dotan MD

Background: Heart transplantation (HT) success rate is limited by a high incidence of cancer post-HT. Data on kidney cancer following solid organ transplantation, especially HT, are limited, and only a few cases have been reported.

Objectives: To report a unique case series of detected kidney cancer following HT.

Methods: Between 1997 and 2018, 265 patients who underwent HT were enrolled and prospectively followed in the HT registry of the Sheba Medical Center.

Results: The series included 5 patients, 4 men and a woman (age range 35–50 years at HT). The patients were diagnosed with kidney tumors 6–11 years after HT (age range at diagnosis 40–72 years). Two of the men were identical twin brothers. At HT four patients received induction therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin and all received an initial immunosuppressive regimen based on cyclosporine. All male HT recipients had a history of heavy smoking. Two male patients developed allograft vasculopathy, but all had preserved heart function. The 72-year-old woman developed a kidney tumor of the native kidney 5 years after re-HT and kidney transplantation. Two patients had features of multifocal papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and eventually underwent bilateral nephrectomy, while another patient underwent left partial nephrectomy with preserved renal function.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case series study describing kidney tumors following HT. With the improving outcomes and life expectancy of HT patients, a better understanding of the factors that determine cancer risk is of the utmost importance and may have a major impact on the non-cardiac surveillance.

May 2019
Nesrin Ghanem-Zoubi MD, Johad Khoury MD, Merav Arnon MD, Danny Zorbavel MD, Yuval Geffen PhD and Mical Paul MD

Background: With the widespread use of antifungal agents, the frequency of non-albicans Candida (NAC) blood-stream infections (BSI) is increasing.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and risk factors for NAC BSI, focusing on prior antifungal and immunosuppressive therapy.

Methods: The authors conducted an observational, retrospective cohort study among adult patients with candidemia at the Rambam Health Care Campus, a tertiary medical center in Israel, between 2009 and 2015. Comparisons between patients with Candidemia albicans and NAC candidemia were performed. Regression analysis, with NAC BSI as the dependent variable and significant risk factors for NAC as independent variables, was performed.

Results: A total of 308 episodes of candidemia were included. C. albicans was isolated in 30.8% of patients (95/308), while NAC spp. were isolated in the rest. Significant independent risk factors for NAC included immunosuppression therapy (odds ratio [OR] 0.38, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.19–0.76) and previous azole use (OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.06–0.710). The interaction between prior azole and immunosuppression therapy in the model was not significant, and after its inclusion in the model only immunosuppression remained significantly associated with NAC. In the subgroup of patients who did not receive prior azoles, immunosuppression therapy, neutropenia, and bone marrow transplantation were significantly associated with NAC.

Conclusions: Independent of previous azole treatment, immunosuppressive therapy was a significant risk factor for NAC in our cohort.

November 2018
Nir Hod MD MHA, Reut Anconina MD, Daniel Levin MD, Ekaterina Tiktinsky MD, Dina Ezroh Kazap MD, Itai Levi MD, Maria Zektser MD, Vered Stavi MD, Gilbert Sebbag MD and Sophie Lantsberg MD
March 2018
Ilan Rozenberg MD, Andres Kotliroff MD, Tania Zahavi MD and Sydney Benchetrit MD

Background: Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in Caucasian adults. Most patients have good renal prognosis, but 30–40% may progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD). 

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive treatment (IST) in high-risk patients.

Methods: All IMN patients diagnosed by kidney biopsy from 2004–2010 were included. Clinical and laboratory data were collected at each follow-up visit. Risk assessment for renal progression classified patients as high risk if: 24 hour protein excretion > 6 g/day, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and severe disabling or life-threatening clinical symptoms of NS were present.

Results: Among 290 biopsies, 37 patients (12.7%) were IMN. They were allocated to the high-risk IST group (n=16) or low-risk supportive treatment (ST) group (n=21) according to the likelihood of developing renal failure. Mean follow-up was 47 ± 17.3 months. Complete and partial remission rate was 68.7% for high-risk IST vs. 90.4% for low-risk ST. In the high-risk IST group, eGFR was significantly lower at 30 months (65.5 ± 28.6 vs. 85.3 ± 21.6 at baseline, P < 0.05). Four high-risk patients reached ESRD. In the low-risk ST group, eGFR remained stable at 30 and 60 months. 

Conclusions: This study showed a high remission rate for IMN. IST with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide provided favorable renal outcomes in most high-risk patients. The very high remission rate obtained in the low-risk patients confirms the adequacy of supportive treatment in this group.

March 2014
Yigal Helviz, Moshe Hersch, David Raveh, Lev Shmulovich and Sharon Einav
October 2013
O. Eyal, M. Aharon, R. Safadi and M. Dranitzki-Elhalel
 Background: Vitamin D deficiency was shown to be prevalent among renal transplant recipients in northern countries, but little is known regarding risk factors.

Objectives: To test vitamin D levels in kidney transplant recipients residing closer to the equator, compare them to levels in liver transplant recipients and hemodialysis patients, and identify possible risk factors.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study 103 kidney transplant recipients, 27 liver transplant recipients and 50 hemodialysis patients followed at our institute were tested for vitamin D levels. Demographic data, medical history and current treatment were recorded from the medical files.

Results: Inadequate vitamin D levels (< 30 ng/ml) were found in 75% of all patients and 75% of all kidney transplant recipients. Vitamin D levels were higher among dialysis patients than transplant recipients, though deficiency rates were similar. No association was found between kidney function and vitamin deficiency. Deficiency was associated with higher prednisone doses, use of mycophenolate sodium, tacrolimus, and iron supplements, or lower doses of vitamin D supplementation.

Conclusions: Despite potential higher ultraviolet B exposure, inadequate vitamin D levels were prevalent in our study group. Importantly, some immunosuppressive medications were associated with vitamin D deficiency and high doses of vitamin D were associated with less deficiency.

January 2013
M. Michael, A. Shimoni and A. Nagler
 Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Therapy of established acute GVHD depends heavily on corticosteroids, which have limited efficacy and are considerably toxic. It is still a matter of debate whether there is an alternative therapy to corticosteroids. Second-line treatment for acute GVHD after failure of steroids is not well substantiated due to the lack of controlled studies. This review examines the current treatment for acute GVHD, as well as novel therapeutics, such as cellular approaches (e.g., adoptive transfer of mesenchymal stem cells) and enhancement of regulatory T cells (e.g., photopheresis). These approaches avoid the toxicity of generalized immunosuppression and are likely to play a prominent future role in acute GVHD therapy.

December 2009
M. Ephros, B. Friedman, R. Elhasid, Z. Kra-Oz, P. Shaked-Mishan, J. Sattinger and I. Kassis

Background: Adenoviral infection in children undergoing stem cell transplantation is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Identification of adenoviral infection by polymerase chain reaction from blood facilitates accurate and rapid diagnosis and surveillance. The incidence of adenoviral infection among children undergoing SCT[1] in Israel is not known.

Objective: To estimate the incidence of adenoviral infection in pediatric SCT patients and to characterize the morbidity associated with proven infection.

Methods: Blood samples obtained weekly from children who underwent allogeneic SCT were retrospectively tested for adenovirus using standard PCR[2]. A total of 657 samples collected from 32 patients were examined. Correlation was made between the presence of adenovirus in samples and clinical records.

Results: Of the 32 patients 4 had adenoviral infection by PCR (12.5%). Clinical disease was present in all four patients concurrent with positive PCR. Gastrointestinal complaints and abnormal hepatocellular enzymes were uniformly present. One patient died due to disseminated disease. T cell depletion was a significant risk factor for adenoviral infection (P = 0.03).

Conclusions: In the patient population studied, the incidence of adenoviral infection in children undergoing SCT was 12.5%. The combination of gastrointestinal symptoms and abnormal hepatocellular enzymes should raise the suspicion of adenoviral infection, especially when occurring during the first few months after SCT. 


 




[1] SCT = stem cell transplantation



[2] PCR = polymerase chain reaction


November 2009
S. Malnick, M. Somin, N. Beilinson, A. Basevitch, G. Bregman and O. Zimhony
We report four cases of Strongyloides hyperinfection among Ethiopian immigrants, of which three were fatal. Many immigrants from countries in which Strongyloides is endemic settle in developed countries. A high index of suspicion will lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Testing for Strongyloides infestation in this susceptible population by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serology, stool testing or duodenal aspiration may prevent the fatal complications of hyperinfection
April 2002
Tomas Kozak, MD and Ivan Rychlik, MD

Intractable forms of autoimmune diseases follow a rapid course, with a significantly shortened life expectancy sometimes comparable to that of malignant diseases. Immunoablative therapy, including high dose cytotoxic agents and hematopoietic autologous stem cell rescue, was recently introduced as an aggressive approach to treat autoimmune diseases that have a rapid course and are resistant to conventional therapy. The most frequent indication for this type of treatment is multiple sclerosis, seconded by systemic sclerosis. The results of immunoablative treatment with documented responses in both diseases are encouraging. The data are mature enough to begin comparative randomized studies of immunoablative versus conventional treatment to validate the benefit of the aggressive approach. A randomized trial involving SSc[1] was recently launched (ASTIS) and a trial involving MS[2] is under preparation. Considerably less experience with immunoablative treatment has been gained in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and other disorders with an autoimmune pathophysiology. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in humans offers more long-lasting immunosuppression than reeducation of lymphocytes. In fact, allogeneic transplantation may replace the whole immune system. However, this attractive approach is still associated with considerable morbidity and mortality and is not yet justified for treatment of automimmune diseases. Non-myeloablative allogeneic transplantation and sub-myeloblative high dose cyclophosphamide without stem cell support are alternative approaches that could be explored in pilot studies.

_______________________________


[1] SSc = systemic sclerosis


[2] MS = multiple sclerosis


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