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עמוד בית
Mon, 26.02.24

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January 2021
Eytan Cohen MD, Ili Margalit MD, Tzippy Shochat MSC, Elad Goldberg MD, and Ilan Krause MD

Background: Low folate levels are associated with megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects, and an increased risk of cancer. Data are scarce regarding the sex aspect of this deficiency.

Objectives: To assess sex differences in folate levels in a large cohort of patients and to investigate the effect of low folate levels on homocysteine concentrations.

Methods: Data were collected from medical records of patients examined at a screening center in Israel between 2000 and 2014. Cross sectional analysis was conducted on 9214 males and 4336 females.

Results: The average age was 48.4 ± 9.5 years for males and 47.6 ± 9.4 years for females. Average folate levels were 19.2 ± 8.6 and 22.4 ±10.3 nmol/L in males and females, respectively (P < 0.001). The prevalence of folate levels below 12.2 nmol/L was 19.5% in males compared to 11.6% in females (P < 0.001). In patients with low folate levels and normal B12 levels, homocysteine levels above 15 μmol/L were found in 32.4% of males and 11.4% of females (P < 0.001). Males had a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) of having folate levels below 12.2 nmol/L: OR 1.84 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.66–2.05) in a non-adjusted model, and OR 2.02 (95%CI 1.82–2.27) adjusted for age, smoking status, body mass index, kidney function, albumin, and triglycerides levels.

Conclusions: Folate levels are lower in males compared to females, which may contribute to the higher homocysteine levels found in males and thus to their increased risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

September 2016
Yoav Hammer MD, Eytan Cohen MD, Amos Levi MD and Ilan Krause MD

Background: Both cigarette smoking and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are linked to cardiovascular morbidity and development of atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between cigarette smoking and renal function is not clearly understood. 

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and renal function, and determine whether the intensity of cigarette smoking influences renal function.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of subjects attending the screening center at the Rabin Medical Center. Subjects were classified as smokers, non-smokers and past smokers. Renal function was evaluated by means of the CKD-EPI equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Multivariate and gender-based analyses were performed.

Results: The study population comprised 24,081 participants, of whom 3958 (17%) were classified current smokers, and 20,123 non-smokers of whom 4523 were classified as past smokers. Current smokers presented a higher eGFR compared to the non-smoking group (100.8 vs. 98.7, P < 0.001) as well as higher rates of proteinuria (15.3% vs. 9.3%, P < 0.001). The difference in eGFR between smokers and non-smokers was more significant in males than in females. Past smokers had the lowest eGFR of all groups, this difference remained significant after age adjustments (P = 0.005). 

Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is associated with higher eGFR compared to non-smoking. This difference was more pronounced in males than females, implying a gender-based difference. The higher prevalence of proteinuria in smokers suggests a mechanism of hyperfiltration, which might result in future progressive renal damage.


November 2012
E. Cohen, I. Krause, A. Fraser, E. Goldberg and M. Garty

Background: There is a striking increase in the number of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a result of the global epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Increasing evidence suggests that uric acid may play a role in MetS.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of MetS in a large cohort from Israel and its association with hyperuricemia using the latest three definitions of MetS.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the database from a screening center in Israel, using the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Harmonizing definitions of MetS, to assess 12,036 subjects with an age range of 20–80 years.

Results: The mean age of the study sample was 46.1 ± 10.2 years and 69.8% were male. The prevalence of MetS was 10.6%, 18.2% and 20.2% in the revised NCEP ATP III, the IDF and the Harmonizing definitions respectively. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in subjects with MetS, for all three MetS definitions, was similar: 20.0%, 19.9% and 19.1% respectively. There was a graded increase in the prevalence of MetS among subjects with increasing levels of uric acid. The increasing trend persisted after stratifying for age and gender and after multivariate analysis (P for trend < 0.001).

Conclusions: This large cohort shows a high prevalence of MetS in Israel, but is still lower than the prevalence in western countries. Hyperuricemia is common in those subjects and might be considered a potential clinical parameter in the definition of MetS.

January 2008
Y. Shoenfeld, B. Gilburd, M. Abu-Shakra, H. Amital, O. Barzilai, Y. Berkun, M. Blank, G. Zandman-Goddard, U. Katz, I. Krause, P. Langevitz, Y. Levy, H. Orbach, V. Pordeus, M. Ram, Y. Sherer, E. Toubi and Y. Tomer
Y. Shoenfeld, G. Zandman-Goddard, L. Stojanovich, M. Cutolo, H. Amital, Y. Levy, M. Abu-Shakra, O. Barzilai, Y. Berkun, M. Blank, J.F. de Carvalho, A. Doria, B. Gilburd, U. Katz, I. Krause, P. Langevitz, H. Orbach, V. Pordeus, M. Ram, E. Toubi and Y. Sherer
Y. Shoenfeld, M. Blank, M. Abu-Shakra, H. Amital, O. Barzilai, Y. Berkun, N. Bizzaro, B. Gilburd, G. Zandman-Goddard, U. Katz, I. Krause, P. Langevitz, I.R. Mackay, H. Orbach, M. Ram, Y. Sherer, E. Toubi and M.E. Gershwin
August 2002
Ilan Krause, MD and Abraham Weinberger, MD
September 1999
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