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עמוד בית
Fri, 01.03.24

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October 2018
Ahmad Hassan MD, Ronen Jaffe MD, Ronen Rubinshtein MD, Basheer Karkabi MD, David A. Halon MB ChB, Moshe Y. Flugelman MD and Barak Zafrir MD

Background: Contemporary data on clinical profiles and long-term outcomes of young adults with coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited.

Objectives: To determine the risk profile, presentation, and outcomes of young adults undergoing coronary angiography.

Methods: A retrospective analysis (2000–2017) of patients aged ≤ 35 years undergoing angiography for evaluation and/or treatment of CAD was conducted.

Results: Coronary angiography was performed in 108 patients (88% males): 67 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 41 non-ACS chest pain syndromes. Risk factors were similar: dyslipidemia (69%), positive family history (64%), smoking (61%), obesity (39%), hypertension (32%), and diabetes (22%). Eight of the ACS patients (12%) and 29 of the non-ACS (71%) had normal coronary arteries without subsequent cardiac events. Of the 71 with angiographic evidence of CAD, long-term outcomes (114 ± 60 months) were similar in ACS compared to non-ACS presentations: revascularization 41% vs. 58%, myocardial infarction 32% vs. 33%, and all-cause death 8.5% vs. 8.3%. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) was diagnosed in 25% of those with CAD, with higher rates of myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.62, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.15–5.99) and revascularization (HR 4.30, 95%CI 2.01–9.18) during follow-up. Only 17% of patients with CAD attained a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treatment goal < 70 mg/dl.

Conclusions: CAD in young adults is associated with marked burden of traditional risk factors and high rates of future adverse cardiac events, regardless of acuity of presentation, especially in patients with FH, emphasizing the importance of detecting cardiovascular risk factors and addressing atherosclerosis at young age.

June 2011
A. Markel

Hypercholesterolemia is one of the main factors in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The advent of statins led to huge progress in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, yet the proportion of patients with prohibitive lipid values and the high incidence of cardiovascular events despite treatment are still very high. Niacin, one of the older drugs used to treat hyperlipidemia, was shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides and to markedly increase high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. This drug came into disuse owing to frequent side effects, mainly flushing, but in recent years a reemergence of its application has occurred, and multiple clinical trials have shown its effectiveness in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and in the reduction in cardiovascular events. New formulations such as extended-release niacin (ERN) have been developed with the purpose of reducing side effects. Lately, a new compound, laropiprant, which selectively antagonizes the prostaglandin 2 (PGD2) receptor responsible for flushing, has been developed. Laropiprant, when combined with ERN,[1] significantly reduces the incidence of flushing. New and ongoing trials will definitively prove in the long term whether this drug combination significantly reduces the severity of flushing and the incidence of cardiovascular events.






[1] ERN = extended release niacin


June 2005
D. Harats, E. Leibovitz, M. Maislos, E. Wolfovitz, T. Chajek-Shaul, E. Leitersdorf, D. Gavish, Y. Gerber and U. Goldbourt, for the HOLEM study group
 Background: Hypercholesterolemia control status is lacking throughout the western world.

Objectives: To examine whether the treatment recommendations given to ischemic heart disease patients at hospital discharge are compatible with the guidelines of the Israeli Medical Societies and the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program for coronary artery disease prevention; and to study the effects of brief educational sessions on the adherence of physicians with the guidelines.

Methods: We included consecutive IHD[1] patients admitted to four central hospitals in Israel between 1998 and 2000. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, we reviewed discharge letters to document treatment recommendations given to each patient. In phase 2 we educated the practitioners by reviewing the Israeli Medical Societies and the NCEP[2] guidelines and the quality of their recommendations in phase 1, after which we reevaluated the discharge letters.

Results: The study included 2,994 patients: 627 in phase 1 and 2,367 in phase 2. Of the patients who needed cholesterol-lowering according to their low density lipoprotein levels, 37.4% were not prescribed such drugs at discharge (under-treatment group). This proportion was reduced by education to 26.6% (P < 0.001) in phase 2. Of the treated patients, 65.6% did not reach the target LDL[3] goal in phase 1 (under-dosage group) as compared to 60.2% in phase 2 (P = 0.23). In phase 2 there was an increase in the percent of patients reaching LDL levels <130 mg/day (69.3% vs. 63.8% of patients prescribed medication, P = 0.01), but the percent of patients reaching LDL levels <100 was not different in phase 2 after adjusting for age and gender (the odds ratio for reaching target LDL was 1.16, with 95% confidence interval of 0.95–1.43).

Conclusions: Physician recommendations to IHD patients discharged from hospital were suboptimal. We documented a high proportion of under-treated and under-dosage patients. Brief educational sessions have a beneficial effect on the usage of statins; however, additional effort in guideline implementations is needed.


 





[1] IHD = ischemic heart disease

[2] NCEP = National Cholesterol Education Program

[3] LDL = low density lipoprotein



 
August 2004
E. Leibovitz, N. Hazanov, A. Frieman, I. Elly and D. Gavish

Background: Elevated fibrinogen levels are considered a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and might be used as a predictor of risk for the development of atherothrombotic events. Several studies have reached equivocal conclusions regarding the effect of statins on fibrinogen.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on plasma fibrinogen levels in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and no other risk factors.

Methods: Twenty-two patients with low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels above 170 mg/dl (4.40 mmol/L) and with no other risk factors were included in the study. None of the patients had ever received hypolipidemic medication. Patients were followed for 24 weeks (6 office visits 4 weeks apart). During office visits, lipid profile, complete blood count, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein levels were measured.

Results: After 24 weeks of follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 33% (287 ± 10 to 192 ± 8 mg/dl, P < 0.001), LDL-C[1] by 45% (198 ± 8 to 111 ± 7 mg/dl, P < 0.001) and triglycerides by 21% (189 ± 26 to 138 ± 15 mg/dl, P <0.001). Fibrinogen levels dropped by 18% (355 ± 26 to 275 ± 7 mg/dl, P = 0.01). CRP[2] levels decreased from 0.51 ± 0.15 to 0.28 ± 0.10 mg/dl, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.09). High density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, white blood cell and platelet counts did not change.

Conclusions: We found that atorvastatin reduces plasma fibrinogen in patients with hypercholesterolemia.






[1] LDL-C = low density lipoprotein-cholesterol

[2] CRP = C-reactive protein


September 2003
A. Peleg, T. Hershcovici, R. Lipa, R. Anbar, M. Redler and Y. Beigel

Background: The beneficial effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutyaryl co-enzyme A reductase inhibitors on cardiovascular risk reduction has been clearly established. Concerns have been raised that lowering blood cholesterol by other hypolipidemic drugs or by a non-pharmacologic approach may have deleterious effects on psychopathologic parameters. Garlic is one of the most commonly used herbal remedies and is considered to have hypocholesterolemic as well as other cardio-protective properties. Its effect on psychopathologic parameters has never been reported.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of garlic on lipid parameters and depression, impulsivity, hostility and temperament in patients with primary type 2 hyperlipidemia.

Methods: In a 16 week prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study, 33 patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and no evidence of cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned to receive either garlic or placebo. Garlic in the form of alliin 22.4 mg/day was given to 13 patients, and placebo to 20. Both groups received individual dietary counseling. The changes in lipid profile and the various psychopathologic parameters were determined at the beginning and end of the trial. The differences in lipid parameters were evaluated by Student’s t-test. The psychological data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures and Neuman-Keuls test.

Results: No significant changes were observed in levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides, or in the psychopathologic parameters evaluated.

Conclusion: Short-term garlic therapy in adults with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia does not affect either lipid levels or various psychopathologic parameters.

July 2003
M. Vaturi, Y. Beigel, Y. Adler, M. Mansur, M. Fainaru and A. Sagie

Background: Decreased elasticity of the aorta is associated with aging and several risk factors of atherosclerosis. The data regarding this phenomenon in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia are rather sparse.

Objectives: To evaluate non-invasively the elasticity of the proximal ascending aorta of 51 heterozygous FH[1] patients compared to 42 normal age and gender-matched controls.

Methods: Aortic elasticity was estimated by transthoracic echocardiography using the “pressure-strain” elastic modulus and aortic strain formulas.

Results: The elastic modulus score was higher in the FH group than in the controls (1.12 ± 0.91 106 dynes/cm2 vs. 0.65 ± 0.46 106 dynes/cm2 respectively, P = 0.01). This was consistent in both the pediatric (0.5 ± 0.2 106 dynes/cm2 vs. 0.4 ± 0.1 106 dynes/cm2 respectively, P = 0.009) and adult subgroups (1.3 ± 1.0 106 dynes/cm2 vs. 0.8 ± 0.5 106 dynes/cm2 respectively, P = 0.0004). Aortic strain was significantly lower in patients with FH than in controls (6 ± 4% vs. 9 ± 5% respectively, P = 0.0002). These findings reflected decreased elasticity of the proximal ascending aorta in the FH patients. In multivariate analysis, age, serum cholesterol level and serum triglycerides level were the independent predictors of the elastic modulus score, whereas age was the predictor of aortic strain.

Conclusions: The elasticity of the proximal ascending aorta is decreased in heterozygous FH patients.






[1] FH = familial hypercholesterolemia


September 2002
Ronen Durst, MD, Deborah Rund, MD, Daniel Schurr, MD, Osnat Eliav, MSc, Dina Ben-Yehuda, MD, Shoshi Shpizen, BSc, Liat Ben-Avi, BSc, Tova Schaap, MSc, Inna Pelz, BSc and Eran Leitersdorf, MD

Background: Low density lipoprotein apheresis is used as a complementary method for treating hypercholesterolemic patients who cannot reach target LDL[1]-cholesterol levels on conventional dietary and drug treatment. The DALI system (direct absorption of lipoproteins) is the only extracorporeal LDL-removing system compatible with whole blood.

Objective: To describe our one year experience using the DALI[2] system.

Methods: LDL apheresis was used in 13 patients due to inability to reach target LDL-C levels on conventional treatment. They included seven patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, three who had adverse reactions to statins, and three patients with ischemic heart disease who did not reach LDL-C target level on medical treatment.

Results: The average triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-C and LDL-C levels before and after treatment in all patients were: 170 ± 113 vs. 124 ± 91, 269 ± 74 vs. 132 ± 48, 42 ± 8 vs. 37 ± 7.9, and 196 ± 77 vs. 80 ± 52 mg/dl, respectively. Comparing the results of a subgroup of seven patients who had previously been treated with plasma exchange, it is noteworthy that while the reduction in triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C are comparable, the effect on HDL[3]-C concentration was less apparent: from an average of 39.7 ± 8.7 and 23 ± 5.7 mg/dl before and after plasma exchange to an average of 43.9 ± 8.1 and 38.4 ± 7 mg/dl before and after LDL apheresis, respectively. Five patients developed treatment-related adverse events: three experienced allergic reactions manifested as shortness of breath, urticaria and facial flushing; one patient developed rhabdomyolysis, an adverse reaction that was not reported previously as a result of LDL apheresis; and one patient had myopathy with back pain. All untoward effects occurred during the first few treatment sessions.

Conclusions: LDL apheresis using the DALI system is highly efficacious for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. It is associated with a significant number of side effects occurring during the first treatment sessions. In patients not experiencing adverse effects in the early treatment period, it is well tolerated, and can provide remarkable clinical benefit even after short-term therapy.

________________


[1] LDL = low density lipoprotein

[2] DALI = direct absorption of lipoproteins

[3] HDL = high density lipoprotein

October 2000
Raana Shamir, MD, Aaron Lerner, MD, MHA and Edward A. Fisher, MD, PhD
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