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עמוד בית
Sun, 16.06.24

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August 2007
G. Chodick, C.M. Ronckers, V. Shalev and E. Ron

Background: The use of computed tomography in Israel has been growing rapidly during recent decades. The major drawback of this important technology is the exposure to ionizing radiation, especially among children, who have increased organ radiosensitivity and a long lifetime to potentially develop radiation-related cancer.

Objective: To estimate the number of excess lifetime cancer deaths related to annual CT scans performed in children in Israel.

Methods: We used CT scan utilization data from 1999 to 2003 obtained from the second largest health management organization in the country to project age and gender-specific CT scan use nationwide. Based on published organ doses for common CT examinations and radiation-related cancer mortality risk estimates from studies in survivors of the atomic bomb, we estimated the excess lifetime risks for cancer mortality attributed to use of CT in children and adolescents (up to 18 years old) in Israel.

Results: We estimated that 17,686 pediatric scans were conducted annually in Israel during 1999–2003. We project that 9.5 lifetime deaths would be associated with 1 year of pediatric CT scanning. This number represents an excess of 0.29% over the total number of patients who are eventually estimated to die from cancer in their lifetime.

Conclusions: Pediatric CT scans in Israel may result in a small but not negligible increased lifetime risk for cancer mortality. Because of the uncertainty regarding radiation effects at low doses, our estimates of CT-related cancer mortality should be considered with caution. Nevertheless, physicians, CT technologists, and health authorities should work together to minimize the radiation dose for children to as low as reasonably achievable and encourage responsible use of this essential diagnostic tool.

April 2007
R. Beigel, S. Matetzky, P. Fefer, D. Dvir and H. Hod
A. Laish-Farkash, S. Matetzky, S. Kassem, H. Haj-Iahia and H. Hod

Background: Unconscious adults with spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest should be cooled to 32–34ºC (ILCOR recommendations, 2003) when the initial rhythm is ventricular fibrillation.

Objectives: To assess the technique, safety and efficacy of mild induced hypothermia in patients after OHCA[1] due to VF[2].

Methods: Patients were cooled using the MTRE CritiCoolÔ external cooling system. Cold intravenous fluids were added to achieve faster cooling in 17 patients. Data were collected prospectively and patients were analyzed according to their neurological outcome on discharge, defined by their cerebral performance category.

Results: From February 2002 to September 2006, 51 comatose VF patients with OHCA underwent MIH[3]. Treatment was discontinued early in five because of hemodynamic instability; goal temperature was reached in 98% and maintained for an average of 19.5 hours; 61% had a favorable outcome (CPC[4] 1–2) and 37% died. Improved outcome was observed with longer hypothermia time and possibly when time from collapse to return of spontaneous circulation was < 25 minutes.

Conclusions: MIH, using an external cooling system, is simple and feasible, reduces mortality and protects neurological function. Four major factors seem to influence outcome: age, co-morbidities, duration of hypothermia, and possibly the length of time from collapse to ROSC[5].

[1] OHCA = out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

[2] VF = ventricular fibrillation

[3] MIH = mild induced hyperthermia

[4] CPC = cerebral performance category

[5] ROSC = return of spontaneous circulation

N. Lipovetzky, H. Hod, A. Roth, Y. Kishon, S. Sclarovsky and M. S. Green

Background: Previous studies found some factors such as physical exertion, anger and heavy meals to be triggers for acute coronary syndrome.

Objectives: To estimate the relative risk of an ACS[1] episode associated with positive and negative emotional experiences and anger as potential work-related triggers.

Methods: A total of 209 consecutive patients were interviewed a median of 2 days after a cardiac event that occurred at work or up to 2 hours later. The case-crossover design was used. Positive and negative emotional experiences and anger episodes in the hours immediately before the onset of ACS were compared with episodes in the comparable hours during the previous workday. For anger the episodes were compared with the usual frequency at work during the previous year. Positive and negative emotional experiences were assessed by the PANAS questionnaire (Positive and Negative Affect Scale), and anger by the Onset Anger Scale.

Results: The relative risks of an acute coronary event during the first hour after exposure to negative and positive emotional experiences were RR[2] = 14.0 (95% confidence interval 1.8–106.5) and RR = 3.50 (95% CI[3], 0.7–16.8) respectively and RR = 9.0 (95% CI, 1.1–71) for an episode of anger. Using conditional logistic regression analysis, the highest relative risk was associated with negative emotional experiences.

Conclusions: Negative emotional experiences and anger at work can trigger the onset of an ACS episode. This could have implications for recognizing a cardiac event as a work accident. The implementation of stress-reduction programs in the workplace or use of preventive medications in workers at high risk for coronary heart disease should be investigated.

[1] ACS = acute coronary syndrome

[2] RR = relative risk

[3] CI = confidence interval

December 2006
O. Bairey, R. Ruchlemer and O. Shpilberg

Background: Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the colon is a rare and consequently poorly studied extranodal lymphoma. Most of the previous publications used old pathologic classifications and old diagnostic and treatment approaches.

Objective: To examine the clinical presentation, pathologic classification, treatment and outcome of patients with NHL[1] of the colon.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed of all patients with NHL and involvement of the colon in two medical centers. The patient group consisted of 17 patients over a 13 year period.

Results: Fourteen patients had primary involvement and 3 secondary. The ileocecal region and cecum were the most frequent sites of involvement, occurring in 76% of patients. Most patients had bulky disease: three had a diameter > 5 cm and eight a diameter > 10 cm. Aggressive histology was found in 12 patients: diffuse large B cell lymphoma in 11 and peripheral T cell lymphoma in 1. Three patients had mantle cell lymphoma and two had indolent lymphomas: mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (n=1) and small lymphocytic (n=1). Eleven patients underwent hemicolectomy: right sided in 9 and left sided in 2, and 5 DLBCL[2] patients required emergency surgery for intestinal perforation. The median overall survival was 44 months (range 1–147). Disease stage influenced prognosis; six of seven patients with limited-stage DLBCL who received aggressive chemotherapy achieved complete remission and enjoyed prolonged survival, whereas patients with aggressive disseminated disease had resistant disease and poor survival (median 8 months).

Conclusions: Most colonic lymphomas are aggressive B cell lymphomas. Diagnosis is often delayed. Early diagnosis may prevent perforation. Those with limited-stage disease when treated with aggressive chemotherapy may enjoy prolonged survival. 

The role of elective hemicolectomy to prevent perforation should be examined in prospective trials.

[1] NHL = non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

[2] DLBCL = diffuse large B cell lymphoma  

N. Hod, G. Fire, I. Cohen, M. Somekh and T. Horne
April 2006
F. Magora, S. Cohen, M. Shochina and E. Dayan

Background: Virtual reality immersion has been advocated as a new effective adjunct to drugs for pain control. The attenuation of pain perception and unpleasantness has been attributed to the patient's attention being diverted from the real, external environment through immersion in a virtual environment transmitted by an interactive 3-D software computer program via a VR[1] helmet.

Objectives: To investigate whether VR immersion can extend the amount of time subjects can tolerate ischemic tourniquet pain.

Methods: The study group comprised 20 healthy adult volunteers. The pain was induced by an inflated blood pressure cuff during two separate, counterbalanced, randomized experimental conditions for each subject: one with VR and the control without VR exposure. The VR equipment consisted of a standard computer, a lightweight helmet and an interactive software game.

Results: Tolerance time to ischemia was significantly longer for VR conditions than for those without (P < 0.001). Visual Analogue Scale (0–10) ratings were recorded for pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and the time thought about pain. Affective distress ratings of unpleasantness and of time thought about pain were significantly lower during VR as compared with the control condition (P < 0.003 and 0.001 respectively).

Conclusions: The VR method in pain control was shown to be beneficial. The relatively inexpensive equipment will facilitate the use of VR immersion in clinical situations. Future research is necessary to establish the optimal selection of clinical patients appropriate for VR pain therapy and the type of software required according to age, gender, personality, and cultural factors.

[1] VR = virtual reality

May 2005
E. Segev, D. Keret, F. Lokiec, A. Yavor, S. Wientroub, E. Ezra and S. Hayek
 Background: The preferred conservative treatment for congenital idiopathic clubfoot deformity remains a controversial issue.

Objectives: To compare the outcomes of two groups of CICF[1] patients who underwent two different treatment protocols.

Methods: The study cohort included 72 infants treated in our hospital from August 1998 to December 2002. Group 1 comprised 40 infants (61 clubfeet) who were treated by a traditional method (a modification of the Kite and Lovell technique), and group 2 consisted of 32 infants (48 clubfeet) who were treated with the Ponseti technique. Both groups were similar in age, gender and severity of the deformity (Dimeglio scoring system)

Results: After an average follow-up of 54.9 months (range 44–68), 35 (57%) clubfeet in group 1 required surgical intervention and 27 (44%) clubfeet had a residual deformity at last follow-up. In the Ponseti group, 45 (94%) clubfeet were fully corrected at last follow-up (average 29.2 months, range 16–45) while 3 (6%) clubfeet had residual deformity and required surgery. Tendo-Achilles tenotomy was performed with no complications in 47 clubfeet (in group 2) at an average age of 2.4 months (range 2–4 months).

Conclusions: Even after a relatively short follow‑up period, our success rate with the Ponseti approach already appears to be significantly higher and to bear fewer complications than the traditional treatment, in agreement with the results published by other medical centers. We now endorse the Ponseti technique of conservative manipulative treatment for congenital idiopathic clubfoot in our department.


[1] CICF = congenital idiopathic clubfoot

December 2004
N. Lipovetzky, H. Hod, A. Roth, Y. Kishon, S. Sclarovsky and M.S. Green

Background: Food intake has an immediate effect on the cardiovascular system. However, the effect of a large meal as an immediate trigger for the acute coronary syndrome has not been assessed.

Objectives: To assess the relative risk for an ACS[1] within a few hours after the ingestion of a heavy meal.

Methods: In a case-crossover study 209 patients were interviewed a median of 2 days after an ACS. Ingestion of a large meal in the few hours immediately before the onset of ACS was compared with the comparable few hours the day before and with the usual frequency of large meals over the past year. Large meals were assessed by a 5 level scale.

Results: The relative risk of an acute coronary event during the first hour after a heavy meal ingestion was RR[2] = 7 (95% confidence interval 0.75–65.8) when the day before the ACS served as the control data and RR = 4 (95% CI[3] 1.9–8.6) when the usual frequency of heavy meals ingestion during the previous year served as the control data. 

Conclusions: The ingestion of heavy meals can trigger the onset of an ACS. Education of the population to avoid heavy meals, especially in people at high risk for coronary heart disease, should be included in the prevention of ACS. Research on specific nutrients that may act as potential triggers for ACS should be considered.

[1] ACS = acute coronary syndrome

[2] RR = relative risk

[3] CI = confidence interval

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