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עמוד בית
Sun, 26.05.24

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February 2016
Amjad Shalabi MD, Ehud Raanani MD, Amihai Shinfeld MD, Rafael Kuperstein MD, Alexander Kogan MD, Alexander Lipey MD, Eyal Nachum MD and Dan Spiegelstein MD

Background: Prolonged life expectancy has increased the number of elderly high risk patients referred for surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). These referred high risk patients may benefit from sutureless bioprosthesis procedures which reduce mortality and morbidity.

Objectives: To present our initial experience with sutureless aortic bioprotheses, including clinical and echocardiographic results, in elderly high risk patients referred for AVR. 

Methods: Forty patients (15 males, mean age 78 ± 7 years) with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis underwent AVR with the 3F Enable™ or Perceval™ sutureless bioprosthesis during the period December 2012 to May 2014. Mean logistic EuroScore was 10 ± 3%. Echocardiography was performed preoperatively, intraoperatively, at discharge and at follow-up.

Results: There was no in-hospital mortality. Nine patients (22%) underwent minimally invasive AVR via a right anterior mini-thoracotomy and one patient via a J-incision. Four patients underwent concomitant coronary aortic bypass graft, two needed intraoperative repositioning of the valve, one underwent valve exchange due to inappropriate sizing, three (7.5%) had a perioperative stroke with complete resolution of neurologic symptoms, and one patient (2.5%) required permanent pacemaker implantation due to complete atrioventricular block. Mean preoperative and postoperative gradients were 44 ± 14 and 13 ± 5 mmHg, respectively. At follow-up, 82% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I and II.

Conclusions: Sutureless AVR can be used safely in elderly high risk patients with relatively low morbidity and mortality. The device can be safely implanted via a minimally invasive incision. Mid-term hemodynamic results are satisfactory, demonstrating significant clinical improvement.

 

February 2014
Edward Koifman, Paul Fefer, Ilan Hay, Micha Feinberg, Elad Maor and Victor Guetta
Background: Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair using the MitraClip® system has evolved as a new tool in the treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR).

Objectives: To present our initial experience with MitraClip implantation in 20 high risk patients at Sheba Medical Center.

Methods: Twenty high surgical risk patients with symptomatic significant MR underwent MitraClip implantation. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were recorded at baseline and at follow-up.

Results: The patients’ mean age was 76 years and 65% were male. Coronary artery disease was present in 85% and 45% had previous bypass surgery. Renal failure was present in 65%, atrial fibrillation in 60%, and 30% had an implantable cardioverter defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization therapy device. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 36%. Grade III-IV MR was present in all patients with the vast majority suffering from functional MR secondary to ventricular remodeling. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was III-IV in 90%. Patients were followed for a mean of 231 days. Acute reduction of MR grade to ≤ 2 was accomplished in 19 of the 20 patients (95%) with a 30 day mortality of 5%. At follow-up MR was reduced to ≤ 2 in 64% of patients, and NYHA class improved in 70% of patients. An additional 2 patients (11%) died during follow-up.

Conclusions: MitraClip implantation is feasible and safe in high risk highly symptomatic patients with significant MR. Acute and mid-term results are comparable to similar high risk patient cohorts in the literature. Continued surveillance and longer follow-up are needed to elucidate which patients are most likely to benefit from the procedure.

July 2011
I. Mor-Yosef Levi, I.Z. Ben-Dov, A. Klimov, G. Pizov and A.I. Bloom

Background: Transjugular kidney biopsy (TJKB) was first described in 1990. Indications for TJKB include uncorrectable bleeding disorders and conditions precluding the prone position. Objectives: To describe our initial experience with TJKB.

Methods: Between February 2008 and December 2009 all patients in whom percutaneous biopsy was contraindicated or unsuccessful underwent image-guided TJKB using a standard set with a 19 gauge core biopsy needle. Prospectively collected data included indication, number of needle passes, contrast dose, tissue yield, and complications.

Results: Twelve patients, age range 15–76 years (mean 55), underwent 14 TJKB procedures. Indications for the transjugular route included bleeding diathesis, dyspnea, ventral hernia, ascites, marked obesity, need for concomitant liver biopsy or concomitant insertion of tunneled dialysis catheter, discrepant kidney size, and failed percutaneous attempt. Thirteen biopsies were performed in 11 patients; in one patient TJKB was abandoned due to unfavorable renal vein anatomy. Four patients were premedicated with desmopressin and one with platelet transfusion, due to prolonged bleeding time. Three to six passes (mean 3.8) were made per biopsy, with an overall yield of 9.6 ± 8.2 glomeruli, providing a definite diagnosis in nine patients and a probable diagnosis in two. In two patients the first biopsy attempt yielded insufficient tissue, necessitating a repeat procedure. There were two minor bleeding episodes not requiring intervention. Serum creatinine was unchanged after the procedure and hemoglobin levels asymptomatically dropped by 0.3 ± 1.0 g/dl within 48 hours, requiring no treatment.

Conclusions: TJKB appears to safely allow adequate tissue diagnosis in patients at increased risk for complications from or contraindications to percutaneous renal biopsy.
 

August 2010
H. Danenberg, A. Finkelstein, R. Kornowski, A. Segev, D. Dvir, D. Gilon, G. Keren, A. Sagie, M. Feinberg, E. Schwammenthal, S. Banai, C. Lotan and V. Guetta

Background: The prevalence of aortic stenosis increases with advancing age. Once symptoms occur the prognosis in patients with severe aortic stenosis is poor. The current and recommended treatment of choice for these patients is surgical aortic valve replacement. However, many patients, mainly the very elderly and those with major comorbidities, are considered to be at high surgical risk and are therefore denied treatment. Recently, a transcatheter alternative to surgical AVR[1] has emerged.

Objectives: To describe the first year experience and 30 day outcome of transcatheter aortic self-expandable CoreValve implantation in Israel.

Methods: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the CoreValve system has been performed in Israel since September 2008. In the following year 55 patients underwent CoreValve TAVI[2] in four Israeli centers.

Results: Patients' mean age was 81.7 ± 7.1 years; there were 35 females and 20 males. The mean valve area by echocardiogram was 0.63 ± 0.16 cm2. The calculated mean logistic Euroscore was 19.3 ± 8%. Following TAVI, mean transvalvular gradient decreased from baseline levels of 51 ± 13 to 9 ± 3 mmHg. The rate of procedural success was 98%. One patient died on the first day post-procedure (1.8%) and all-cause 30 day mortality was 5.5% (3 of 55 patients). One patient had a significant post-procedural aortic regurgitation of > grade 2. Symptomatic improvement was evident in most patients, with reduction in functional capacity grade from 3.2 ± 0.6 at baseline to 1.4 ± 0.7. The most common post-procedural complication was complete heart block, which necessitated permanent pacemaker implantation in 37% of patients.

Conclusions: The Israeli first year experience of transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the CoreValve self-expandable system demonstrates an effective and safe procedure for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in patients at high surgical risk.






[1] AVR = aortic valve replacement



[2] TAVI = transcatheter aortic valve implantation


December 2009
O. Barak, R. Elazary, L. Appelbaum, A. Rivkind and G. Almogy

Background: Current treatment options for acute calculous cholecystitis include either early cholecystectomy, or conservative treatment consisting of intravenous antibiotics and an interval cholecystectomy several weeks later. Percutaneous drainage is reserved for patients in whom conservative therapy failed or as a salvage procedure for high risk patients.

Objective: To identify clinical and radiographic factors leading to failure of conservative treatment.

Methods: We prospectively collected data on consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Parameters were compared between patients who were successfully treated conservatively and those who required percutaneous cholecystostomy. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors for failure of conservative treatment. 

Results: The study population comprised 103 patients with a median age of 60 who were treated for acute cholecystitis. Twenty-seven patients (26.2%) required PC[1]. On univariate analysis, age above 70 years, diabetes, elevated white blood cell count, tachycardia (> 100 beats/min) at admission, and a distended gallbladder (> 5 cm transverse diameter) were found to be significantly more common in the PC group (P < 0.001). WBC[2] was higher in the PC group throughout the initial 48 hours. On multivariate analysis, age above 70 (odds ratio 3.6), diabetes (OR[3] 9.4), tachycardia at admission (OR 5.6), and a distended gallbladder (OR 8.5) were predictors for cholecystostomy (P < 0.001). Age above 70 (OR 5.2) and WBC > 15,000 (OR 13.7) were predictors for failure of conservative treatment after 24 and 48 hours (P < 0.001). 

Conclusions: Age above 70, diabetes, and a distended gallbladder are predictors for failure of conservative treatment and such patients should be considered for early cholecystostomy. Persistently elevated WBC (> 15,000) suggests refractory disease and should play a central role in the clinical follow-up and decision-making process for elderly patients with acute cholecystitis.


 




[1] PC = percutaneous cholecystostomy



[2] WBC = white blood cells



[3] OR = odds ratio


February 2008
I. Kimiagar, C. Klein, J.M. Rabey, A. Peer, E. Kaluski, M. Zaretsky

Background: Carotid artery stenting is used as an alternative to surgical endarterectomy.

Objectives: To determine the outcome of CAS[1] in a retrospective cohort of patients.

Methods: Between July 1999 and March 2003, 56 consecutive patients with carotid artery stenosis who were considered ineligible for surgery were treated (45 male, 11 female, mean age 69). All cases were performed prior to the introduction of distal protective devices in Israel.

Results: Intraprocedural complications included transient neurological findings in 5 patients (8%), cerebrovascular accident in 2 (3%), hemodynamic changes in 11 (18%), and 4 procedural failures. Post-procedural complications included transient ischemic attack in 3 patients and cardiovascular accident in 6 (10%). At 30 days follow-up, three patients (5%) remained with signs of CVA[2]. Two patients (3%) died during the post-procedural period and 16 (28%) during the 5 year follow-up, one due to recurrent CVA and the remainder to non-neurological causes. Five-year carotid Doppler follow-up was performed in 25 patients (45%), which revealed normal stent flow in 21 (84%), 50–60% restenosis in 3 patients (12%) and > 70% restenosis in one patient (4%).

Conclusions: This study confirms that stent procedures are beneficial for symptomatic carotid stenosis in patients not eligible for surgery.






[1] CAS = carotid artery stenting

[2] CVA = cardiovascular accident


March 2003
I. Hadas-Halpern, M. Patlas, M. Knizhnik, I. Zaghal and D. Fisher

Background: The mainstay of therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy, which has a mortality of 14–30% in high risk patients. An alternative approach in patients suffering from acute cholecystitis with contraindications to emergency surgery is percutaneous cholecystostomy.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous cholecystostomy as the initial treatment of acute cholecystitis in high risk patients.

Methods: Eighty consecutive patients (42 men, 38 women) underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous cholecystostomy over a 5 year period. Sixty-five patients suffered from acute calculous cholecystitis, 4 patients had acalculous cholecystitis, and 11 patients had sepsis of unknown origin.

Results: Sixty-eight patients improved after the percutaneous gallbladder drainage, 10 patients died from co-morbid disease and 2 patients died from biliary peritonitis. During a 1 year follow-up, 32 of the patients underwent interval cholecystectomy, 4 additional patients died from a co-morbid disease, 18 patients did not suffer from any gallbladder symptoms, and 14 were lost to follow-up.

Conclusions: Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an effective contribution to the treatment of acute cholecystitis in high risk patients.

June 2002
Eyal Leibovitz, MD, Dror Harats, MD and Dov Gavish, MD

Background: Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol can significantly reduce the risk of CHD[1], but many patients fail to reach the target LDL-C[2] goals due to low doses of statins or low compliance.

Objectives: To treat high risk patients with atorvastatin in order to reach LDL-C goals (either primary or secondary prevention) of the Israel Atherosclerosis Society.

Methods: In this open-label study of 3,276 patients (1,698 of whom were males, 52%), atorvastatin 10 mg was given as a first dose, with follow-up and adjustment of the dose every 6 weeks. While 1,670 patients did not receive prior hypolipidemic treatment, 1,606 were treated with other statins, fibrates or the combination of both.

Results: After 6 weeks of treatment, 70% of the patients who did not receive prior hypolipidemic medications and who needed primary prevention reached target LDL-C levels. Interestingly, a similar number of patients on prior hypolipidemic treatment reached the LDL-C goals for primary prevention. The patients treated with other statins, fibrates or both did not reach the LDL-C treatment goals. Only 34% of all patients who needed secondary prevention reached the ISA[3] LDL-C target of 100 mg/dl. Atorvastatin proved to be completely safe; only two patients had creatine kinase elevation above 500 U/L, and another six had mild CK[4] elevation (<500 U/L). None of the patients had clinical myopathy, and only one had to be withdrawn from the study.

Conclusion: Atorvastatin is a safe and effective drug that enables most patients requiring primary prevention to reach LDL-C goal levels, even with a low dose of 10 mg. Patients in need of secondary prevention usually require higher doses of statins.

__________________________________


[1] CHD = coronary heart disease


[2] LDL-C = low density lipoprotein-cholesterol


[3] ISA = Israel Atherosclerosis Society


[4] CK = creatine kinase




May 2002
Marius Berman, MD, Israel L. Nudelman, MD, Zeev Fuko, MD, Osnat Madhala, MD, Margalit Neuman-Levin, MD and Shlomo Lelcuk, MD

Background: The mortality rate for cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in the elderly is 10% in low risk patients and increases threefold in high risk patients. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy may serve as a rapid and relatively safe tool to relieve symptoms of sepsis and decrease gallbladder distension.

Objective: To determine the safety and effectiveness of PTC[1] in the treatment of acute cholecystitis in elderly debilitated high risk patients.

Methods: The study sample included 10 patients aged 63–88 (mean 77.6 years) with clinical and sonographic signs of acute cholecystitis for more than 48 hours (fever, white blood cells > 12,000/mm³, positive Murphy sign and distended gallbladder) who underwent ultrasound guided PTC. All had severe underlying disease (coronary heart disease, renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and others) that places them at high risk for surgical intervention.

Results: Eight patients showed rapid regression of the clinical symptoms following PTC drainage. One patient, with bacterial endocarditis, was febrile for 5 days after catheter insertion, but with rapid resolution of the biliary colic and sepsis. One patient died from perforation of the gallbladder and small bowel. PTC catheters were withdrawn 3–25 days after the procedure, and the patients remained free of biliary symptoms. Two patients underwent successful elective cholecystectomy 3 weeks later.

Conclusion: PTC may be a safe and effective treatment for high risk elderly patients with acute cholecystitis. It can be followed by elective cholecystectomy if the underlying condition improves, as soon as the patient stabilizes and no sepsis is present, or by conservative management in high surgical-risk patients.






[1] PTC = percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy


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