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עמוד בית
Sat, 22.06.24

Search results

May 2024
Jen Barak Levitt MD, Shira Barmatz MD, Shira Fisch-Gilad MD, Yossef H. Taieb MD, Adam Dalal MD, Khashayar Afshari MD, Nazgol Haddadi MD, Dana Tzur Bitan MD, Arnon Dov Cohen MD PhD, Daniel Mimouni MD, Emmilia Hodak MD, Shany Sherman MD

Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease involving apocrine gland-bearing regions. There is an under-representation of non-Caucasians in epidemiologic studies of HS. The characteristics of HS in Israeli Arabs have not yet been studied.

Objectives: To investigate the demographic and clinical profile of HS in the Israeli Arab population.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in two cohorts of patients with HS in Israel. The patients were derived from the database of a large health management organization (n=4191, 639 Arabs; population-based) and a major tertiary medical center (n=372, 49 Arabs). Demographic and clinical data were compared between ethnic groups.

Results: The prevalence of HS in Israeli Arabs was found to be 0.5%, fivefold higher than in Jews. Arab patients were younger (35.3 vs. 40.5 years, P < 0.001) and mostly male (52% vs. 35.7%, p < 0.001), with lower rates of co-morbidities, including smoking (40.8% vs. 55.7%, p < 0.001), hyperlipidemia, and depression as well as a higher rate of dissecting cellulitis (10.2% vs. 1.9%, p = 0.008). HS was more severe in Arabs, but of shorter duration, with mainly axillary involvement (79.6% vs. 57.9%, p = 0.004). Treatment with hormones was more common in Jews, and with biologic agents in Arabs.

Conclusions: The findings suggest a different phenotype of HS in Arabs, warranting further study.

Oshrit Hoffer PhD, Moriya Cohen BS, Maya Gerstein MD, Vered Shkalim Zemer MD, Yael Richenberg MD, Shay Nathanson MD, Herman Avner Cohen MD

Background: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is the predominant bacterial pathogen of pharyngitis in children. However, distinguishing GAS from viral pharyngitis is sometimes difficult. Unnecessary antibiotic use contributes to unwanted side effects, such as allergic reactions and diarrhea. It also may increase antibiotic resistance. 

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a machine learning algorithm on the clinical evaluation of bacterial pharyngitis in children.

Methods: We assessed 54 children aged 2–17 years who presented to a primary healthcare clinic with a sore throat and fever over 38°C from 1 November 2021 to 30 April 2022. All children were tested with a streptococcal rapid antigen detection test (RADT). If negative, a throat culture was performed. Children with a positive RADT or throat culture were considered GAS-positive and treated antibiotically for 10 days, as per guidelines. Children with negative RADT tests throat cultures were considered positive for viral pharyngitis. The children were allocated into two groups: Group A streptococcal pharyngitis (GAS-P) (n=36) and viral pharyngitis (n=18). All patients underwent a McIsaac score evaluation. A linear support vector machine algorithm was used for classification.

Results: The machine learning algorithm resulted in a positive predictive value of 80.6 % (27 of 36) for GAS-P infection. The false discovery rates for GAS-P infection were 19.4 % (7 of 36).

Conclusions: Applying the machine-learning strategy resulted in a high positive predictive value for the detection of streptococcal pharyngitis and can contribute as a medical decision aid in the diagnosis and treatment of GAS-P.

September 2023
Galit Almoznino DMD MSc MHA MPH, Maayan Sherman DMD, Doron J. Aframian DMD PhD, Yaron Haviv DMD PhD

Migraine is very common headache disorder, usually starting at a young age with a higher prevalence in females. In this narrative review, we summarize the prevalence, burden, and socio-demographic characteristics of migraineurs worldwide and specifically in Israel. We searched standard electronic bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Google Scholar, and Up to Date using combinations of search terms and reviewed the articles we found. The factors reviewed included prevalence and incidence, burden, sex differences, age distribution, cognitive function, socioeconomic status, religion, country of origin, and urban vs. rural dwelling.

July 2023
Maayan Diti Machnes MD, Herman Avner Cohen MD, Maya Gerstein MD, Yiska Loewenberg Weisband MD, Moriya Cohen MD, Moshe Hoshen PhD, Vered Shkalim Zemer MD

Background: Group A Streptococcus (GAS), the predominant bacterial pathogen of pharyngitis, is sometimes difficult to distinguish clinically from viral pharyngitis. Despite the high prevalence of viral pharyngitis in children, antibiotic treatment is common.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of an antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) on antibiotic prescription in children with GAS pharyngitis (GAS-P) at a large pediatric community clinic.

Methods: Antibiotic prescription data were collected from October 2016 to March 2017 (pre-intervention period) and from October 2017 to March 2018 (post-intervention period). The intervention was a one-day seminar for primary care pediatricians on the diagnosis and treatment of GAS-P in children according to national guidelines.

Results: The overall prevalence of testing differed between the two time periods. There was a decrease in children who did not undergo any testing (from 68% to 63%), an increase in streptococcal rapid antigen detection testing (28% to 32%), and a slight increase in throat cultures (3% to 4%) (p = 0.02). There was no change in the types of antibiotics prescribed before and after the intervention (p = 0.152).

Conclusions: The ASP resulted in a slight reduction in the percentage of children who did not undergo laboratory testing for GAS-P and a slight reduction in the percentage of children who received antibiotic treatment. The ASP did not reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and macrolides.

January 2023
Naama Hermann MD, Pnina Mor CNM PhD, Orit Kaidar-Person MD, Rinat Bernstein-Molho MD, Mali Brodsky RN MSc, Dana Madorsky Feldman MD, Anath A. Flugelman MD MPH MA, Hadar Aboody Nevo MD, Danna Meshoulam Avital MD, Miri Sklair-Levy MD, Eitan Friedman MD PhD, Tanir M. Allweis MD

Background: Population screening for the BRCA mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish women was recently implemented in Israel and is expected to lead to a 10-fold increase in the diagnosis of asymptomatic carriers. Performing the screening follow-up within multidisciplinary dedicated clinics for carriers is recommended for early detection and risk reduction.

Objectives: To determine the availability, capacity, and practices of dedicated screening clinic for BRCA carriers in Israel.

Methods: A telephone-based survey of all public hospitals in Israel was conducted October 2020 to August 2021 to determine whether they had a dedicated clinic. Dedicated clinics were defined as multidisciplinary screening clinics offering at least breast and gynecological screening and risk reducing services on site. The clinic director or nurse navigator answered a questionnaire about screening practices followed by a semi-structured interview.

Results: Of the ten dedicated BRCA clinics found in Israel, nine participated. Approximately 4500 BRCA carriers are currently being followed. No specialized clinics are available in the southern district or in the northernmost half of the northern district of Israel, leading to a disparity between periphery and center. Screening recommendations, although asserted as adhering to international guidelines, vary among clinics including age at initiating of clinical exam, use of adjunct imaging modalities, and follow-up during lactation and after risk reducing surgery.

Conclusions: There is a suboptimal distribution of dedicated clinics for BRCA carriers in Israel. Nationally centralized attempt to create guidelines that will unify screening practices is warranted, especially considering the expected increase in demand.

May 2022
Herman Avner Cohen MD, Maya Gerstein MD, Vered Shkalim Zemer MD, Sophia Heiman MD, Yael Richenberg MD, Eyal Jacobson MD, and Oren Berkowitz PhD PA-C

Background: On 18 March 2020, the Israeli Health Ministry issued lockdown orders to mitigate the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objectives: To assess the association of lockdown orders on telemedicine practice and the effect of social distancing on infectious diseases in a primary care community pediatric clinic as well as the rate of referrals to emergency departments (ED) and trends of hospitalization.

Methods: Investigators performed a retrospective secondary data analysis that screened for visits in a large pediatric center from 1 January to 31 May 2020. Total visits were compared from January to December 2020 during the same period in 2019. Visits were coded during the first lockdown as being via telemedicine or in-person, and whether they resulted in ED referral or hospitalization. Month-to-month comparisons were performed as well as percent change from the previous year.

Results: There was a sharp decline of in-person visits (24%) and an increase in telemedicine consultations (76%) during the first lockdown (p < 0.001). When the lockdown restrictions were eased, there was a rebound of 50% in-person visits (p < 0.05). There was a profound decrease of visits for common infectious diseases during the lockdown period. Substantial decreases were noted for overall visits, ED referrals, and hospitalizations in 2020 compared to 2019.

Conclusions: COVID-19 had a major impact on primary care clinics, resulting in fewer patient-doctor encounters, fewer overall visits, fewer ED referrals, and fewer hospitalizations

December 2021
Ada Rosen MD, Sorin Elias MD, Hadas Ganer Herman MD, Alexander Condrea MD, and Shimon Ginath MD

Background: The current approach to performing sacral neuromodulation consists of a two-stage procedure, the first of which includes insertion of the sacral electrode under fluoroscopic visualization of the S3 foramen. Alternatively, in certain situations computed tomography (CT)-guided insertion can be used.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of CT in cases of reinsertion of the electrode due to infection, dislocation, or rupture.

Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent neuromodulation device reinsertion between 2005 and 2016 for fecal incontinence were reviewed. Study outcomes included procedure course, successful placement, and long-term treatment success.

Results: During the study period, we inserted a neuromodulation device in 67 patients. A CT-guided insertion of a sacral electrode was performed in 10 patients. In nine patients, the insertion and the final location of the electrode were successful. In one patient, the electrode migrated upward due to a malformation of the S3 foramen on both sides and had to be placed in S4. In a mean follow-up of 68.4 ± 30.0 months following the re-insertion, there was a significant reduction in the number of incontinence episodes per day (P < 0.001) and the number of pads used per day (P = 0.002).

Conclusions: CT-guided insertion of a sacral electrode is a safe and promising option, especially in recurrent and or selected cases

September 2021
Boris Zingerman MD, Yaacov Ori MD, Asher Korzets MD, Michal Herman-Edelstein MD, Netta Lev MD, Benaya Rozen-Zvi MD, and Eli Atar MD

Background: Among dialysis patients, occlusive mesenteric vascular disease has rarely been reported.

Objectives: To report on the experience of one center with regard to diagnosing and treating this complication.

Methods: The retrospective case-series involved six patients (3 females, 3 males; age 52–88 years; 5/6 were smokers) on chronic hemodialysis at a single center. All patients with symptoms suggestive of occlusive mesenteric disease and a subsequent angiographic intervention were included. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from patient charts for the period before and after angioplasty and stenting of the mesenteric vessels. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the relevant data before and after the intervention.

Results: All participants had variable co-morbidities and postprandial abdominal pain, food aversion, and weight loss. CT angiography was limited due to heavy vascular calcifications. All underwent angioplasty with stenting of the superior mesenteric artery (4 patients) or the celiac artery (2 patients). All procedures were successful in resolving abdominal pain, malnutrition, and inflammation. Weight loss before was 15 ± 2 kg and weight gain after was 6 ± 2 kg. C-reactive protein decreased from 13.4 ± 5.2 mg/dl to 2.2 ± 0.4 mg/dl (P < 0.05). Serum albumin increased from 3.0 ± 0.2 g/dl to 3.9 ± 0.1 g/dl (P < 0.05). Two patients underwent a repeat procedure (4 years, 5 months, respectively). Follow-up ranged from 0.5–7 years.

Conclusions: Occlusive mesenteric ischemia occurs among dialysis patients. The diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion, and it is manageable by angiography and stenting of the most involved mesenteric artery.

June 2019
Hadas Ganer Herman MD, Nili Raz MD, Eran Gold MD, Jacob Bar MD MSc, Alexander Condrea MD and Shimon Ginath MD

Background: Hysterectomy is common in the management of symptomatic uterine prolapse. Vaginal wall repair is often necessary, for which vaginal mesh remains a popular option.

Objectives: To evaluate the risk of mesh erosion following mesh-augmented vaginal prolapse repair, with or without concomitant vaginal hysterectomy.

Methods: This retrospective cohort comprised 70 women who underwent vaginal mesh-augmented pelvic organ prolapse repair from 2007 to 2010. Of the participants, 36 (51.4%) had a vaginal hysterectomy concomitant to the anterior and/or posterior vaginal mesh repair (hysterectomy group) and 34 (48.6%) underwent mesh repair without vaginal hysterectomy (no hysterectomy group).

Results: There were no inter-group differences in age, parity, menopausal state, hormonal use, or presenting symptoms. Previous prolapse repair surgery was much more common in the no hysterectomy group (29.4% vs. 5.5%, P = 0.01). Eleven patients (32.3%) in the no hysterectomy group had previously undergone hysterectomy. Anterior mesh repair was performed in 77.7% and 67.6% of hysterectomy and no hysterectomy patients, respectively. Posterior mesh repair was performed in 27.7% and 44.1%, respectively. One patient in the hysterectomy group underwent immediate removal of mesh due to infection. Surgically treated mesh erosion (limited local excision) occurred in three patients (8.3%) in the hysterectomy group (3, 16, and 18 months following surgery) and in two patients (5.8%) in the no hysterectomy group at 6 months following surgery (P = 0.67).

Conclusions: Vaginal mesh-augmentation concomitant with vaginal hysterectomy for pelvic organ prolapse repair does not carry an increased risk of erosion.

April 2019
Lotem Dafna MD, Hadas Ganer Herman MD, Shimon Ginath MD, Amir Shalev MD, Ram Kerner MD, Ran Keidar MD, Jacob Bar MD MsC and Ron Sagiv MD

Background: When a woman with an endometrioma presents with acute abdominal pain, it is unclear whether ovarian torsion should be suspected.

Objectives: To compare patient characteristics, imaging results, and surgical management of endometriomas in elective versus emergent surgeries.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included women treated at our institution during the period 1990–2015 who presented with histologically verified endometrioma and who underwent either planned surgery or emergent surgery due to suspected adnexal torsion.

Results: Of 225 surgeries performed, 174 were elective and 51 emergent. Patients in the emergent group were significantly younger (33.9 ± 11.1 vs. 39.01 ± 10.9 years, P = 0.004). Abdominal pain was the main complaint of all the emergent surgery patients and the leading complaint in 21% of the elective surgery patients (P < 0.001), with right-sided predominance in both groups. Sonographic parameters were similar in both groups. Bilateral ovarian cysts were noted in 11.7% and 11.0% of emergent and elective patients, respectively (P = 0.87). Laboratory evaluation was notable for a higher white blood cell count and CA125 levels among emergent patients. All patients in the emergent group and 93% of patients in the elective group were managed laparoscopically. No cases of torsion were noted. The rate of intra-pelvic adhesions was similar in both groups (56.8% vs. 66.6%, P = 0.19).

Conclusions: Endometrioma may present with acute abdominal pain. However, adnexal torsion in these patients is rare. These cases can be managed using a minimally invasive approach, assuming an optimal surgical setting.

Yulia Gamerman MPT, Moshe Hoshen MD, Avner Herman Cohen MD, Zhana Alter PT, Luzit Hadad PT and Itshak Melzer PT PhD

Background: Falls while turning are associated with increased risk of hip fracture in older adults. Reliable and clinically valid methods for turn ability assessments are needed.

Objectives: To explore the inter-observer reliability and known group validity of the TURN 180 test.

Methods: We divided 78 independent older adults (mean age 76.6 ± 6.5 years) into three groups: non-fallers, infrequent fallers (1–2 falls per year), and recurrent fallers (> 2 falls per year). Participants underwent performance-based tests: Timed Up and Go (TUG), Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). TUG was videotaped for later analysis of the TURN 180 test by two blinded observers.

Results: A significant difference was found in the TURN 180 test parameters among the groups (P < 0.04). TURN 180 was highly correlated with TUG (r = 0.81–0.89, P < 0.001) and BBS (r = -0.704–0.754, P < 0.0001) and moderately with POMA (r = -0.641–0.698, P < 0.0001). The number of steps was found to be the strongest parameter to determine fallers among older adults (specificity 96.3%, sensitivity 40%). Inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.91–0.96, P < 0.0001) was found to be excellent for the number of steps, time taken to accomplish a turn, and total test score categories.

Conclusions: The TURN 180 test is highly reliable and can identify the older adults who fall. Our results show that the TURN 180 test can serve as a good performance-based examination for research or clinical setting.

December 2018
Hadas Ganer Herman MD, Zviya Kogan MD, Amran Dabas MD, Ram Kerner MD, Hagit Feit MD, Shimon Ginath MD, Jacob Bar MD MsC and Ron Sagiv MD

Background: Different clinical and sonographic parameters have been suggested to identify patients with retained products of conception. In suspected cases, the main treatment is hysteroscopic removal.

Objectives: To compare clinical, sonographic, and intraoperative findings in cases of hysteroscopy for retained products of conception, according to histology.

Methods: The results of operative hysteroscopies that were conducted between 2011 and 2016 for suspected retained products of conception were evaluated. Material was obtained and evaluated histologically. The positive histology group (n=178) included cases with confirmed trophoblastic material. The negative histology group (n=26) included cases with non-trophoblastic material.

Results: Patient demographics were similar in the groups, and both underwent operative hysteroscopy an average of 7 to 8 weeks after delivery/abortion. A history of vaginal delivery was more common among the positive histology group. The main presenting symptom in all study patients was vaginal bleeding, and the majority of cases were diagnosed at their routine postpartum/abortion follow-up visit. Sonographic parameters were similar in the groups. Intraoperatively, the performing surgeon was significantly more likely to identify true trophoblastic tissue as such than to correctly identify non-trophoblastic tissue (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Suspected retained trophoblastic material cannot be accurately differentiated from non-trophoblastic material according to clinical, sonographic, and intraprocedural criteria. Thus, hysteroscopy seems warranted in suspected cases.

November 2017
Talia Levy, Salim Bader, Kay-Geert Hermann MD, Gal Yaniv MD, Gahl Grinberg MD, Oshry Mozes MD, Merav Lidar MD and Iris Eshed MD

Background: Enthesopathy may lead to calcification of the stylohyoid ligament and can cause elongation of the styloid process (SP).

Objectives: To evaluate whether SP elongation is associated with two common enthesitis-related diseases: ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).

Methods: Cervical spine computed tomography (CT) examinations of patients with DISH (n=64, Resnick criteria), AS (n=24, New York criteria) and a controls (no radiological signs of DISH or AS, n=54) were retrospectively evaluated. The DISH group was further divided into patients with and without cervical DISH. The length of right and left SP was measured independently by two readers on coronal and sagittal curved reformats. The average right and left styloid length and average length per person were compared among the groups.

Results: Demographic characteristics were similar between the DISH and control groups (average age 68.2 ± 15.7, 69.2 ± 12.7 years, male:female ratio 48:16 and 35:19, respectively, P > 0.05), whereas age was significantly lower (average age: 53 ± 15 years, P < 0.0001) in the AS group, which was also composed mainly of men. The AS and DISH groups had significantly longer SP compared to controls (AS 37.9 ± 9.6 mm, DISH 34.4 ± 9 mm, control 30.3 ± 10.1 mm, P < 0.05). There was no correlation between age and SP length. Inter-reader reliability of SP measurements was excellent in all groups (ICC = 0.998, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: SP elongation is associated with both AS and DISH substantiating the enthesopathy-related pathophysiology of this finding.

November 2016
Herman A. Cohen MD, Bella Savitsky MPH, Arie Ashkenasi MD and Moshe Hoshen PhD

Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Recently, increases in ADHD prevalence and methylphenidate use have been reported. There is evidence that children and adolescents use ADHD medication only during the school year. 

Objectives: To investigate trends in methylphenidate dispensing over a period of 3 years (2010–2012) at the monthly level and to investigate whether there is any monthly variation, especially during the summer season.

Methods: The database of Clalit Health Services (the largest of the four health funds in Israel) was used to identify (i) patients aged 6–17 years with a diagnosis of ADHD, and (ii) methylpenidate dispensation during the period 2010–2012. 

Results: Among children aged 6–17 years diagnosed with ADHD, 43% were treated with methylphenidate. For the period 2010 to 2012 there was an annual drop in methylphenidate dispensing, beginning in June and continuing through the 2 months of summer vacation, with a 2.5-fold reduction from July as compared to May. This decline was consistently followed by a rise in medications dispensed starting August. A similar small drop was observed during the Passover school vacation. The summer drop decreased over the years.

Conclusions: Our findings showed a decrease in the number of methylphenidate prescriptions dispensed during the summer months and Passover as compared to the rest of the year. However, this phenomenon appears to be decreasing. Given that ADHD is a chronic disease state that can effectively be managed with pharmacotherapy, discontinuation of treatment may be harmful for patients and should be considered only on a patient-by-patient basis.


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