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עמוד בית
Fri, 12.07.24

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June 2024
Milana Gelman MD, Tzipora Galperin MD, Esther Maor-Sagie MD, Yochai Yoeli MD, Mordechai Hallak MD, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv MD, Amir Naeh MD

Background: The prevalence of pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) in women of reproductive age has surged globally, contributing to increased rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a crucial marker for diagnosing and monitoring PGDM, with periconceptional levels influencing the risk of congenital anomalies and complications.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between periconceptional HbA1c levels and perinatal complications in pregnant women with poorly controlled PGDM.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of pregnancies between 2010 and 2019, HbA1c > 6% at 3 months prior to conception or during the first trimester. Outcomes of periconceptional HbA1c levels were compared.

Results: The cohort included 89 women: 49 with HbA1c 6–8%, 29 with HbA1c 8–10%, and 11 with HbA1c > 10%. Higher HbA1c levels were more prevalent in type 1 diabetics and were associated with increased end-organ damage risk. Women with elevated HbA1c levels tended toward unbalanced glucose levels during pregnancy. The cohort exhibited high rates of preterm delivery, hypertensive disorders, cesarean delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Overall live birth rate was 83%. While a significant correlation was found between HbA1c levels and preterm delivery, no consistent association was observed with other adverse outcomes.

Conclusions: Periconceptional glycemic control in PGDM pregnancies is important. Elevated HbA1c levels are associated with increased risks of adverse outcomes. Beyond a certain HbA1c level, risks of complications may not proportionally escalate.

August 2019
Yulia Treister-Goltzman MD and Roni Peleg MD

The Bedouins living in southern Israel are a Muslim-Arab population that is transitioning from a nomadic lifestyle to life in permanent settlements. The population has unique characteristics that could affect hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurements. The objective of this study was to describe the socio-demographic and unique morbidity characteristics of this community and their effect on HbA1c measurements. Consanguinity, especially among cousins in the Bedouin population, results in a high prevalence of autosomal recessive genetic diseases such as thalassemia (underestimate of HbA1c), hemoglobinopathies (underestimate and overestimate), Gilbert’s disease, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, an X-linked disorder, which can cause hyperbilirubinemia with an overestimate of HbA1c. Furthermore, nutritional deficiencies, autosomal recessive diseases, high birth rates, parasitic infections, and poverty can all cause high rates of anemia (iron and vitamin B12 deficiencies) that can raise HbA1c levels. Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia is found among Bedouin tribes in the Negev region and can lead to an underestimation of HbA1c levels. Pregnancy can also affect HbA1c levels. Medical teams working in the Bedouin community and in other Muslim populations with similar morbidity characteristics throughout the world should identify patients with medical conditions that can affect HbA1c measurements and be aware of possible measurement alternatives such as fructosamine and glycated albumin.

February 2016
Michal Laufer Perl MD, Ariel Finkelstein MD, Miri Revivo MHA, Shlomo Berliner MD, Itzhak Herz MD, Itay Rabinovich MD, Tomer Ziv-Baran PhD, Dalit Gotler, Gad Keren MD, Shmuel Bana MD and Yaron Arbel MD

Background: Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease. Nevertheless, the role of specific biomarkers as indicators for both coronary and carotid diseases is debatable.

Objectives: To evaluate the association of biomarkers with coronary and carotid disease.

Methods: We studied 522 consecutive patients with stable angina. All underwent coronary angiography and carotid duplex study on the same day. Patients with no apparent carotid plaques were evaluated for carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) using an automated system that sampled over 100 samples in each carotid artery. Biochemical markers of cardiovascular disease risk were obtained at the time of coronary angiography, including serum lipid levels, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), white blood cell count, fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).

Results: The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 11; 73% were males. Significant carotid stenosis was associated with higher hs-CRP (9.4 ± 17 vs. 6.3 ± 13 mg/L, P = 0.001), while high HbA1c (6.7 ± 1.6 vs. 5.8 ± 0.8%, P < 0.001) and low high density lipoprotein levels (40 ± 9 vs. 47 ± 14 mg/dl, P < 0.001) were linked with advanced coronary artery disease severity. In contrast, CIMT was not related to any of the biomarkers evaluated.

Conclusions: Although atherosclerosis is considered a systemic disease, different biomarkers are associated with coronary and carotid artery disease. Identifying the specific biomarkers for each disease is important for both prevention and for exposing the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism.

 

June 2013
A. Hilmi, Y. Pasternak, M. Friger, N. Loewenthal, A. Haim and E. Hershkovitz
 Background: The existent glycemic control of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients in daily practice might not reach the goals determined in guidelines. Ethnic diversity was also shown to influence glycemic control.

Objectives: To evaluate glycemic control, prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at presentation, diabetic complications rate, and associated autoimmune diseases in a pediatric T1DM patient population in the Negev area.

Methods: Clinical and demographic details of 168 T1DM patients were evaluated, including HbA1C levels, long-term complications, related autoimmune diseases, and insulin pump usage. The data were analyzed and the Jewish and Bedouin patient groups compared.

Results: Only 13.1% of the patients had reached the HbA1C levels recommended by the current guidelines at the first and second year follow-up visits, and 9.5% and 7.1% at the third and fourth year visits, respectively. A significant difference in HbA1c levels between Jewish and Bedouin patients was found (P = 0.045 at the first year follow-up, P ≤ 0.01 thereafter). Significant difference was found between the Jewish and the Bedouin groups regarding presentation with DKA, 33% and 56% of the patients respectively (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Existent glycemic control in daily practice is far from the guideline goals. Bedouin ethnicity was associated with less favorable diabetes control, emphasizing the need for better awareness of T1DM and its treatment options in this population. More resources should be directed to address T1DM in the general population, especially among the Bedouin.

 

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