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עמוד בית
Fri, 24.05.24

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January 2023
Yehonatan Azulai BA, Shepard Schwartz MD, Eyal Heiman MD, Elihay Berliner MD, Giora Weiser MD

Background: Clinical dysentery causes hundreds of thousands of deaths annually worldwide. However, current recommendations reserve antibiotics for those either clinically sick or with highly suspected cases of shigellosis. This treatment stems from rising antibiotic resistance. Children diagnosed with clinical dysentery in the pediatric emergency department (PED) are regarded more cautiously.

Objectives: To explore the use of antibiotics in children diagnosed with clinical dysentery in the PED.

Methods: A retrospective case study of children with clinical dysentery at a single PED during the years 2015 and 2018. Demographics as well as clinical findings were compared to culture results and antibiotic treatment.

Results: The study included 281 children who were diagnosed with clinical dysentery during the study period; 234 (83%) were treated with antibiotics. However, cultures were positive in only 162 cases (58%). Only 32% were Shigella spp. Younger age, fever, and leukocytosis were related to antibiotic treatment.

Conclusions: The diagnosis of clinical dysentery is misgiven commonly in the PED leading to widespread use of antibiotics when not indicated. This treatment may impact antibiotic resistance patterns. Further studies and interventions are necessary to create clear guidelines in the PED setting.

May 2022
Herman Avner Cohen MD, Maya Gerstein MD, Vered Shkalim Zemer MD, Sophia Heiman MD, Yael Richenberg MD, Eyal Jacobson MD, and Oren Berkowitz PhD PA-C

Background: On 18 March 2020, the Israeli Health Ministry issued lockdown orders to mitigate the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objectives: To assess the association of lockdown orders on telemedicine practice and the effect of social distancing on infectious diseases in a primary care community pediatric clinic as well as the rate of referrals to emergency departments (ED) and trends of hospitalization.

Methods: Investigators performed a retrospective secondary data analysis that screened for visits in a large pediatric center from 1 January to 31 May 2020. Total visits were compared from January to December 2020 during the same period in 2019. Visits were coded during the first lockdown as being via telemedicine or in-person, and whether they resulted in ED referral or hospitalization. Month-to-month comparisons were performed as well as percent change from the previous year.

Results: There was a sharp decline of in-person visits (24%) and an increase in telemedicine consultations (76%) during the first lockdown (p < 0.001). When the lockdown restrictions were eased, there was a rebound of 50% in-person visits (p < 0.05). There was a profound decrease of visits for common infectious diseases during the lockdown period. Substantial decreases were noted for overall visits, ED referrals, and hospitalizations in 2020 compared to 2019.

Conclusions: COVID-19 had a major impact on primary care clinics, resulting in fewer patient-doctor encounters, fewer overall visits, fewer ED referrals, and fewer hospitalizations

June 2021
Aviya R. Jacobs MSc, Noam Ben-Yosef MD, Yariv Tiram MD, Elchanan Juravel MD, Akiva Nachshon MD, Anat Scheiman Elazary MD, Auryan Szalat MD, Eran Zimran MD, and Mordechai Muszkat MD
January 2020
Eitan Neeman MD, Nitza Heiman Newman MD MHA, Yuval Cavari MD, Yael Feinstein MD, Yulia Fuxman MD and Isaac Lazar MD

Background: Temporary abdominal closure (TAC) surgical technique relates to a procedure in which the post-surgical abdominal wall remains open in certain indications. The Bogota bag (BB) technique is a tension-free TAC method that covers the abdominal contents with a sterilized fluid bag. There are very few reports of pediatric patients treated with this technique.

Objectives: To describe our institution’s 15 years of experience using the BB technique on pediatric patients.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study describing our experience treating patients with BB was conducted. The medical files of 17 pediatric patients aged 0–18 years were reviewed.

Results: Between January 2000 and December 2014, 17 patients were treated with BB at our medical center (6 females, median age 12 years). Indications for BB were a need for a surgical site re-exploration, mechanical inability for primary abdominal closure, and high risk for ACS development. Median BB duration was 5 days and median bag replacement was 2 days. Median ICU length of stay (LOS) was 10 days and hospital LOS was 27 days. The ICU admission and BB procedure was tolerated well by 6 patients who were discharged home without complications. Of the remaining 11 patients, 6 patients died during the admission (35%) and the others presented with major complications not related to the BB but to the patient's primary disease.

Conclusions: This report represents the largest series of children treated with BB. The technique is simple to perform, inexpensive, and has very few complications.

April 2009
Shlomo Cohen-Katan, B Med Sc, Nitza Newman-Heiman, MD, Orna Staretz-Chacham, MD, Zahavi Cohen, MD, Lily Neumann, PhD and Eilon Shany, MD.

Background: Despite progress in medical and surgical care the mortality rate of congenital diaphragmatic hernia remains high. Assessment of short-term outcome is important for comparison between different medical centers.

Objectives: To evaluate the short-term outcome of infants born with symptomatic CDH[1] and to correlate demographic and clinical parameters with short-term outcome.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in which demographic, obstetric and perinatal characteristics were extracted from infants' files. For comparison of categorical variables chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used and for continuous variables with categorical variables the Mann-Whitney test was used. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated by receiver operator curve.

Results: The study group comprised 54 infants with CDH, of whom 20 (37%) survived the neonatal period. Demographic characteristics were not associated with survival. Regarding antenatal characteristics, absence of polyhydramnion and postnatal diagnosis were correlated with better survival. Apgar scores (above 5 at 1 minute and 7 at 5 minutes), first arterial pH after delivery (above 7.135) and presence of pulmonary hypertension were significantly correlated with survival. Also, infants surviving up to 6 days were 10.71 times more likely to survive the neonatal period.

Conclusions: The survival rate of symptomatic newborns with CDH at our center was 37% for the period 1988–2006. Prenatal diagnosis, Apgar score at 5 minutes and first pH after delivery were found to be the most significant predictors of survival. Prospective work is needed to evaluate the long-term outcome of infants with CDH.






*This work was part of the MD thesis of Shlomo Cohen-Katan

[1] CDH = congenital diaphragmatic hernia


November 2002
Arnon Blum, MD, Julia Sheiman, MD and Yonathan Hasin, MD
June 2001
Alexander Blankstein, MD, Ilan Cohen, MD, Zehava Heiman, MD, Moshe Salai, MD, Lydia Diamant, RT, Michael Heim, MD and Aharon Chechick, MD

Background: Foreign bodies are sometimes overlooked in the initial evaluation of soft tissue wounds in the emergency room setting. The physical examination identifies foreign bodies that are superficial enough to be seen or palpated, while radiographs reveal those that are radio-opaque. If these two criteria are not met, however, the foreign body may remain undetected. These patients present later with long-standing pain in the area of penetration sometimes associated with localized tenderness.

Objectives: To assess the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis and management of patients with a suspected retained foreign body.

Methods: Ultrasound was used in 21 patients with suspected retained foreign bodies and the diagnosis was positive in 19. Fifteen underwent a surgical exploration in which the ultrasound was used as an adjunctive modality either pre- or intraoperatively to assist in the localization of the foreign body.

Results: All procedures were successful. No postoperative complications were recorded at an average follow-up of 2 years. Three patients gradually became asymptomatic and were left untreated. One patient was lost to follow-up.

Conclusion: Sonography is an extremely effective tool for the late diagnosis of retained foreign bodies in the soft tissues. We suggest that its availability in the emergency room may decrease the rate of misdiagnosis and avoid these unfortunate cases, although this remains tc be proven.
 

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