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עמוד בית
Mon, 06.02.23

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July 2015
Nili Greenberg MSc, Rafael Carel MD and Boris A. Portnov PhD DSc

Studies of the respiratory effects of air pollution in Israel published in peer-reviewed journals have been infrequent. Most empiric evidence relates to the association between air pollution and childhood asthma; other air pollution effects on other illnesses are less thoroughly studied. Our evaluation provides a possible explanation for the quite contradictory results demonstrated in the various studies. Actual effect estimates appear to differ considerably, ranging from no air pollution effect to a reasonably strong association detected between PM10 and asthma. We attribute these discrepancies to different research methodologies and different types of data used in various studies.

June 2015
Gabriel Greenberg MD, Tamir Bental MD, Eli I. Lev MD, Abid Assali MD, Hanna Vaknin-Assa, MD and Ran Kornowski MD

Background: Several trials support the trans-radial route of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) since it reduces access site vascular complications and bleeding. 

Objectives: To examine the effects of trans-radial interventions (TRI) on clinical outcomes in a 'real world' cohort of patients undergoing PCI.

Methods: We analyzed 4873 consecutive patients who underwent PCI at a tertiary center and identified 373 patients who underwent TRI. Patients (radial vs. femoral) were compared using a propensity score analysis to best match between groups. Outcome parameters included total mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), repeat target vessel revascularization (TVR) rates, length of hospitalization and ∆Ht/Hb/creatinine values during hospitalization. These were evaluated at 6 months and 1 to 3 years after PCI.

Results: The rates of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) and its constituents were similar in the trans-radial vs. trans-femoral groups at all time intervals: 6.7% vs. 5.5% at 6 months, 10.3% vs. 10% at 1 year, 15.7% vs. 15% at 2 years, 15.7% vs. 16% at 3 years, respectively (P = 0.6). The length of hospitalization was shorter in the TRI group (2.87 days ± 2.04 vs. 3.3 days ± 3.12, P = 0.023). We did not find significant differences between the groups in the mean ∆Ht/Hb/creatinine values during the hospitalization course.

Conclusions: In a 'real-world' setting of PCI, the TRI route of PCI is as safe and efficient as the femoral approach. TRI is associated with shorter duration of hospitalization.

 

May 2014
Eyal Lotan MD MSc, David Orion MD, Mati Bakon MD, Rafael Kuperstein MD and Gahl Greenberg MD
March 2014
Lela Migirov, Gahl Greenberg, Ana Eyal and Michael Wolf
Cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that is characterized by independent and progressive growth with destruction of adjacent tissues, especially the bone tissue, and tendency to recurrence. Treatment of cholesteatoma is essentially surgical. The choice of surgical technique depends on the extension of the disease, and preoperative otoscopic and radiological findings can be decisive in planning the optimal surgical approach. Cholesteatoma confined to the middle ear cavity and its extensions can be eradicated by use of the minimally invasive transmeatal endoscopic approach. Computerized tomography of the temporal bones fails to distinguish a cholesteatoma from the inflammatory tissue, granulations, fibrosis or mucoid secretions in 20–70% of cases showing opacification of the middle ear and mastoid. Using the turbo-spin echo (TSE), also known as non-echo planar imaging (non-EPI) diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging, cholesteatoma can be distinguished from other tissues and from mucosal reactions in the middle ear and mastoid. Current MRI sequences can support the clinical diagnosis of cholesteatoma and ascertain the extent of the disease more readily than CT scans. The size determined by the TSE/HASTE (half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin echo) DW sequences correlated well with intraoperative findings, with error margins lying within 1 mm. Our experience with more than 150 endoscopic surgeries showed that lesions smaller than 8 mm confined to the middle ear and its extension, as depicted by the non-EPI images, can be managed with transmeatal endoscopic approach solely. We call upon our otolaryngologist and radiologist colleagues to use the newest MRI modalities in the preoperative evaluation of candidates for cholesteatoma surgery.

February 2014
July 2013
G. Yaniv, G. Twig, O. Mozes, G. Greenberg, C. Hoffmann and Y. Shoenfeld
 Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder involving multiple organs. One of the main sites of SLE morbidity is the central nervous system (CNS), specifically the brain. In this article we review several imaging modalities used for CNS examination in SLE patients. These modalities are categorized as morphological and functional. Special attention is given to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its specific sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). These modalities allow us to better understand CNS involvement in SLE patients, its pathophysiology and consequences.

 

June 2013
E.D. Amster, S.S. Fertig, U. Baharal, S. Linn, M.S. Green, Z. Lencovsky and R.S. Carel
 Background: From 2 to 5 December 2010, Israel experienced the most severe forest fire in its history, resulting in the deaths of 44 rescue workers. Little research exists on the health risks to emergency responders during forest fires, and there is no published research to date on occupational health among firefighters in Israel.

Objectives: To describe the exposures experienced by emergency responders to smoke, fire retardants and stress; the utilization of protective equipment; and the frequency of corresponding symptoms during and following the Carmel Forest fire.

Methods: A cohort of 204 firefighters and 68 police who took part in rescue and fire-abating activities during the Carmel Forest fire were recruited from a representative sample of participating stations throughout the country and interviewed regarding their activities during the fire and their coinciding symptoms. Unpaired two-sample t-test compared mean exposures and symptom frequency for firefighters and police. Chi-square estimates of OR and 95% CI are provided for odds of reporting symptoms, incurring injury or being hospitalized for various risk factors.

Results: Of the study participants, 87% reported having at least one symptom during rescue work at the Carmel Forest fire, with eye irritation (77%) and fatigue (71%) being the most common. Occupational stress was extremely high during the fire; the average length of time working without rest was 18.4 hours among firefighters.

Conclusions: Firefighters and police were exposed to smoke and occupational stress for prolonged periods during the fire. Further research is needed on the residual health effects from exposure to forest fires among emergency responders, and to identify areas for improvement in health preparedness.  

May 2013
G. Yaniv, O. Mozes, G. Greenberg, M. Bakon and C. Hoffmann
 Background: Misinterpretation of head computerized tomographic (CT) scans by radiology residents in the emergency department (ED) can result in delayed and even erroneous radiology diagnosis. Better knowledge of pitfalls and environmental factors may decrease the occurrence of these errors.

Objectives: To evaluate common misinterpretations of head CT scans by radiology residents in a level I trauma center ED.

Methods: We studied 960 head CT scans of patients admitted to our ED from January 2010 to May 2011. They were reviewed separately by two senior neuroradiologists and graded as being unimportant (score of 1), important but not requiring emergent treatment (score of 2), and important requiring urgent treatment (score of 3). We recorded the time of day the examination was performed, the year of residency, the site, subsite and side of the lesion, the pathology, the anatomical mistake, false-positive findings, and the attending neuroradiologists' score.

Results: A total of 955 examinations were interpreted of which 398 had misinterpreted findings that were entered into the database, with the possibility of multiple errors per examination. The overall misinterpretation rate was 41%. The most commonly missed pathologies were chronic infarcts, hypodense lesions, and mucosal thickening in the paranasal sinuses. The most common sites for misdiagnosis were brain lobes, sinuses and deep brain structures. The highest percentage of misinterpretation occurred between 14:30 and 20:00, and the lowest between 00:00 and 08:00 (P < 0.05). The overall percentage of errors involving pathologies with a score of 3 by at least one of the neuroradiologists was 4.7%. Third-year residents had an overall higher error rate and first-year residents had significantly more false-positive misinterpretations compared to the other residents.

Conclusions: The percentage of errors made by our residents in cases that required urgent treatment was comparable to the published data. We believe that the intense workload of radiology residents contributes to their misinterpretation of head CT findings.

 

August 2012
S. Ben Shimol, L. Dukhan, I. Belmaker, S. Bardenstein, D. Sibirsky, C. Barrett and D. Greenberg

Background: Human brucellosis is common in southern Israel among the semi-nomadic Bedouin, a population that consumes unpasteurized dairy products. Though camel milk ingestion is a known mechanism for brucellosis acquisition, only a few reports of sporadic cases have been published in the medical literature.

Objectives: To describe a local brucellosis outbreak in 15 extended Bedouin family members, following ingestion of infected camel milk.

Methods: Data regarding patient’s clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome were collected from the hospital and the health fund clinics’ computerized database. Camel’s blood and milk were tested for Brucella serology and culture. Cases were defined by positive Rose Bengal test, symptoms correlating with brucellosis, and consumption of infected camel milk.

Results: Fifteen patients were diagnosed with acute brucellosis from March to June 2011. Sixty percent of cases had serum agglutination test titers of 1:160 or higher and 4/8 (50%) had positive blood culture for Brucella melitensis. Arthralgia and fever were the most consistent clinical manifestations. Blood and milk serology and milk culture taken from the female camel were positive for Brucella melitensis.

Conclusions: The treating physicians must consider the possibility of infected camel milk ingestion as the mode of infection, both in sporadic cases and in outbreaks of brucellosis.

June 2012
R. Haimov-Kochman, R. Har-Nir, E. Ein-Mor, V. Ben-Shoshan, C. Greenfield, I. Eldar, Y. Bdolah and A. Hurwitz

Background: Studies suggest that global semen quality is declining, but the debate remains open owing to geographic variation.

Objectives: To evaluate temporal trends of sperm parameters – namely concentration, motility and total motile sperm count – in sperm donated during the period 1995–2009.

Methods: In a retrospective longitudinal cohort study we analyzed the sperm count and motility of 2182 semen samples provided on a weekly basis by 58 young, healthy, fertile, university-educated, paid donors.

Results: Despite the lowering of criteria for sperm parameters satisfactory for donation that were implemented in 2004, 38% of applicants for sperm donation are now rejected based on semen quality as compared to a third of applicants 10–15 years ago (P < 0.001). If the old strict criteria were in place 88% of candidates would be rejected today (P < 0.0001). Over the study period, the average sperm parameters dropped from a concentration of 106 ± 25 million spermatozoa/ml with 79% ± 4.3% motility to 68 ± 14 million/ml with 66% ± 4.5% motile sperm (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively). The total motile sperm count per ejaculate also decreased, from 66.4 ± 18.2 million to 48.7 ± 12 million (P < 0.005). When the previous criteria were implemented for the analysis of the latest group of sperm donors, only 18% of donors had an acceptable sperm quality, with an average concentration of 87 ± 12 million spermatozoa/ml, 73% ± 2.6% motile sperm and total motile sperm count of 53.1 ± 3.8 million per ejaculate – still significantly lower than 15 years ago (P = 0.01, P = 0.003, P = 0.058 respectively).

Conclusions: The rapid deterioration of sperm quality among fertile semen donors is alarming and may lead to cessation of sperm donation programs.

May 2012
E. Moisseiev, D. Goldenberg, D. Gold, M. Neuderfer and Z. Habot-Wilner
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