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עמוד בית
Fri, 24.05.24

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July 2022
Ivelin Koev MD, Aharon Bloch MD, Elisha Ouzan MD, Donna R. Zwas MD, Iddo Z. Ben-Dov MD, PhD, and Israel Gotsman MD

Background: Advanced heart failure (HF) carries a high rate of recurrent HF hospitalizations and a very high mortality rate. Mechanical devices and heart transplantation are limited to a select few. Dialysis may be a good alternative for advanced HF patients with volume overload despite maximal pharmacological therapy.

Objectives: To assess the net clinical outcome of peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis in patients with advanced HF.

Methods: We analyzed all advanced HF patients who were referred for dialysis due to volume overload in our institution. Patients were followed for complications, HF hospitalizations, and survival.

Results: We assessed 35 patients; 10 (29%) underwent peritoneal dialysis and 25 (71%) underwent hemodialysis; 71% were male; median (interquartile range) age was 74 (67–78) years. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was 20 (13–32) ml/min per 1.73 m2. New York Heart Association functional capacity was III. Median follow-up time was 719 days (interquartile range 658–780). One-year mortality rate was 8/35 (23%) and overall mortality rate was 16/35 (46%). Three patients (9%) died during the first year due to line or peritoneal dialysis related sepsis, and 6 (17%) died during the entire follow-up. The median number of HF hospitalizations was significantly reduced during the year on dialysis compared to the year prior to dialysis (0.0 [0.0–1.0] vs. 2.0 [0.0–3.0], P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Dialysis is reasonably safe and significantly reduced HF hospitalization in advanced HF patients. Dialysis could be a good alternative for advanced HF patients with intractable volume overload.

March 2022
Zahi Abu Ghosh MD, Mony Shuvy MD, Ronen Beeri MD, Israel Gotsman MD, Batla Falah MD, Mahsati Ibrahimli MD, and Dan Gilon MD

Background: Cancer patients with heart failure (HF) and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) are often considered to be at risk for surgical mitral valve repair/replacement. Severe MR inducing symptomatic HF may prevent delivery of potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy and complicate fluid management with other cancer treatments.

Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) in oncology patients with HF and significant MR.

Methods: Our study comprised 145 patients who underwent PMVR, MitraClip, at Hadassah Medical Center between August 2015 and September 2019, including 28 patients who had active or history of cancer. Data from 28 cancer patients were compared to 117 no-cancer patients from the cohort.

Results: There was no significant difference in the mean age of cancer patients and no-cancer patients (76 vs. 80 years, P = 0.16); 67% of the patients had secondary (functional) MR. Among cancer patients, 21 had solid tumor and 7 had hematologic malignancies. Nine patients (32%) had active malignancy at the time of PMVR. The mean short-term risk score of the patients was similar in the two groups, as were both 30-day and 1-year mortality rates (7% vs. 4%, P = 0.52) and (29% vs. 16%, P = 0.13), respectively.

Conclusion: PMVR in cancer patients is associated with similar 30-day and 1-year survival rate compared with patients without cancer. PMVR should be considered for cancer patients presenting with HF and severe MR and despite their malignancy. This approach may allow cancer patients to safely receive planned oncological treatment

January 2020
Michal Shani MD MPH, Elisha Ozan MD, Yafit Duani MD, Andre Keren MD, Orna Gootman RN, Doron Komaneshter PhD and Israel Gotsman MD

Background: Heart failure centers with specialized nurse-supervised management programs have been proposed to improve prognosis. The Heart Failure Center in Beit Shemesh, Israel, is located within a large primary care facility. The specialist team supervised the managememt of patients both within the frame of the center and while they were hospitalized.

Objectives: To evaluate the health services utilization by heart failure patients treated at a heart failure center and their clinical outcome.

Methods: In this retrospective study, we compared the clinical outcome of patients treated at a heart failure center to patients who received the standard care in 2013–2014. The clinical outcome included primary care visits, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and death.

Results: The study comprised 430 heart failure patients; 82 were treated at the heart failure center and 348 under standard care. At baseline, no significant differences were seen in clinical parameters between the groups. Healthcare utilization was higher among the study group. No significant changes in healthcare utilization were found. During follow-up, patients treated in a heart failure center were more likely to get recommended heart failure medications. Mortality was significantly lower in patients treated in the heart failure center compared with those receiving standard care 3.6% vs. 24%, respectively (P = 0.001), hazard ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.06–0.62, P = 0.005.

Conclusions: Joint management of heart failure by primary clinics and a specialized community heart failure center reduced mortality. There was no decrease in healthcare utilizations among heart failure center patients, despite the reduction in mortality.

April 2017
Avraham Shotan MD, Barak Zafrir MD, Tuvia Ben Gal MD, Alicia Vazan MD, Israel Gotsman MD and Offer Amir MD

Background: The treatment of patients hospitalized with heart failure (HHF) and ambulatory chronic heart failure (CHF) differs in various countries.

Objective: To evaluate the management and outcomes of patients with HFF and CHF in Israel compared to those in other European countries who were included in the ESC-HF Long-Term Registry.

Methods: From May 2011 to April 2013, heart failure patients – 467 Israelis and 11,973 from other countries – were evaluated. The Israeli patients included 178 with HHF and 289 with CHF. One year outcomes, including all-cause and cardiovascular mortality as well as HHF, were evaluated.

Results: The HHF Israeli patients were older than their CHF Israeli counterparts, had more co-morbidities, included more women, and were treated less frequently with medications suggested by European guidelines. The Israeli HHF patients had similar all-cause 1 year mortality rates compared to HHF patients from other participating countries, but their cardiovascular (CV) mortality was lower, while a significantly higher rate of all-cause and HHF was noted. The Israeli CHF patients were older, suffered from more co-morbidities and had prior cardio-electronic implantable devices. In addition, they had higher mortality rates, especially non-CV, and were more frequently hospitalized, compared to CHF patients from other countries.

Conclusions: The Israeli patients with heart failure differed in their baseline characteristics and the therapeutic approach. Despite high usage of treatments recommended by official guidelines, especially among CHF patients, mortality, particularly in HHF patients, remained high.

March 2013
A. Shauer, I. Gotsman, A. Keren, D.R. Zwas, Y. Hellman, R. Durst and D. Admon
 Acute myocarditis is one of the most challenging diseases to diagnose and treat in cardiology. The true incidence of the disease is unknown. Viral infection is the most common etiology. Modern techniques have improved the ability to diagnose specific viral pathogens in the myocardium. Currently, parvovirus B19 and adenoviruses are most frequently identified in endomyocardial biopsies. Most patients will recover without sequelae, but a subset of patients will progress to chronic inflammatory and dilated cardiomyopathy. The pathogenesis includes direct viral myocardial damage as well as autoimmune reaction against cardiac epitopes. The clinical manifestations of acute myocarditis vary widely – from asymptomatic changes on electrocardiogram to fulminant heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Magnetic resonance imaging is emerging as an important tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients, and for guidance of endomyocardial biopsy. In the setting of acute myocarditis endomyocardial biopsy is required for the evaluation of patients with a clinical scenario suggestive of giant cell myocarditis and of those who deteriorate despite supportive treatment. Treatment of acute myocarditis is still mainly supportive, except for giant cell myocarditis where immunotherapy has been shown to improve survival. Immunotherapy and specific antiviral treatment have yet to demonstrate definitive clinical efficacy in ongoing clinical trials. This review will focus on the clinical manifestations, the diagnostic approach to the patient with clinically suspected acute myocarditis, and an evidence-based treatment strategy for the acute and chronic form of the disease.


August 2011
I. Gotsman, D. Zwas, Z. Zemora, R. Jabara, D. Admon, C. Lotan and A. Keren

Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) have a poor prognosis. Heart failure centers with specialized nurse-supervised management programs have been proposed to improve prognosis.

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with HF treated at a multidisciplinary HF center of Clalit Health Services in Jerusalem in collaboration with Hadassah University Hospital.

Methods: We evaluated clinical outcome including hospitalizations and death in all HF patients followed at the HF center for 1 year.

Results: Altogether, 324 patients were included and followed at the HF center; 58% were males with a mean age of 76 ± 11 years, and 58% were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class 3-4. The overall 1 year survival rate was 91% and the 1 year hospitalization rate 29%. Comparing patients in the HF center to the whole cohort of patients with a diagnosis of HF (N=6618) in Clalit Health Services in Jerusalem demonstrated a similar 1 year survival rate: 91% vs. 89% respectively but with a significantly reduced hospitalization rate: 29% vs. 42% respectively (P < 0.01). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that treatment in the HF center was a significant predictor of reduced hospitalization after adjustment for other predictors (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.530.80, P < 0.0001). A subset of patients that was evaluated (N=78) showed significantly increased compliance. NYHA class improved in these patients from a mean of 3.1 ± 0.1 to 2.6 ± 0.1 after treatment (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Supervision by dedicated specialized nurses in a HF center increased compliance, improved functional capacity in HF patients, and reduced hospitalization rate. HF centers should be considered part of the standard treatment of patients with symptomatic HF.

July 2008
I. Gotsman, A. Stabholz, D. Planer, T. Pugatsch, L. Lapidus, Y. Novikov, S. Masrawa, A. Soskolne and C. Lotan

Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process resulting in coronary artery disease.

Objectives: To determine the relationship between inflammatory markers and the angiographic severity of CAD[1].

Methods: We measured inflammatory markers in sequential patients undergoing coronary angiography. This included C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, serum cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, IL-1[2] receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha), all measured by high sensitivity enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay.

Results: There was a significant correlation between TNFα[3] and the severity of CAD as assessed by the number of obstructed coronary vessels and the Gensini severity score, which is based on the proximity and severity of the lesions. Patients had more coronary vessel disease (> 70% stenosis) with increasing tertiles of serum TNFα; the mean number of vessels affected was 1.15, 1.33, and 2.00 respectively (P < 0.001). IL-6 correlated with the Gensini severity score and coronary vessel disease (> 70% stenosis). A weaker correlation was present with IL-1 receptor antagonist. A significant correlation was not found with the other inflammatory markers. After adjustment for major risk factors, multivariate analyses showed that significant independent predictors of CAD vessel disease were TNFα (P < 0.05) and combined levels of TNFα and IL-6 (P < 0.05). IL-6 levels were independently predictive of Gensini coronary score (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: TNFa and IL-6 are significant predictors of the severity of coronary artery disease. This association is likely an indicator of the chronic inflammatory burden and an important marker of increased atherosclerosis risk.

[1] CAD = coronary artery disease

[2] IL = interleukin

[3] TNFa = tumor necrosis factor-alpha

March 2008
I. Gotsman, S. Rubonivich and T. Azaz-Livshits

Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers improve prognosis in congestive heart failure and are the treatment of choice in these patients; despite this, the rates of ACE-I[1] usage in heart failure patients remain low in clinical practice.

Objectives: To evaluate the rate of ACE-I/ARB[2] treatment in hospitalized patients with CHF[3], and analyze the reasons for non-treatment.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated 362 consecutive patients hospitalized with CHF. Patients were evaluated for ACE-I/ARB usage at discharge and were followed for 1 year.

Results: At hospital discharge 70% of the patients were prescribed ACE-I/ARB treatment. Only 69% received recommended target or sub-target dosages, proven to improve prognosis. This decreased to 63% and 59% at 6 months and 12 months of follow-up respectively, due to a shift from sub-target levels to low dosages. Justified reasons for under-treatment were apparent in only 25% not optimally treated discharged patients and this decreased to 12% and 4% at 6 and 12 months follow-up, respectively. Common reasons for non-treatment at discharge were hyperkalemia and elevation in serum creatinine, while hypotension and cough were more prominent at follow-up. Clinical parameters associated with increased treatment rates were ischemic heart disease and the absence of chronic renal failure. Patients receiving treatment had lower hospitalization and mortality rates.

Conclusions: ACE-I/ARB treatment is still underutilized in patients discharged from hospital with a diagnosis of CHF. Increasing the awareness of the importance of these drugs may increase the number of patients treated.

[1] ACE-I = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

[2] ARB = angiotensin receptor blockers

[3] CHF = congestive heart failure

May 2007
I. Gotsman, A. Meirovitz, N. Meizlish, M. Gotsman, C. Lotan and D. Gilon

Background: Infective endocarditis is a common disease with significant morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To define clinical and echocardiographic parameters predicting morbidity and in-hospital mortality in patients with infective endocarditis hospitalized in a tertiary hospital from 1991 to 2000.

Methods: All patients with definite IE diagnosed according to the Duke criteria were included. We examined relevant clinical features that might influence outcome.

Results: The study group comprised 100 consecutive patients, 77 with native valve and 23 with prosthetic valve endocarditis. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 8%. There was a higher mortality in the PVE[1] group compared to the NVE[2] group (13% vs. 7%, P = 0.07). The mortality rate in each group, with or without surgery, was not significantly different. Clinical predictors of mortality were older age and hospital-acquired endocarditis. The presence of vegetations and their size were significant predictors of major embolic events and mortality. Staphylococcus aureus was a predictor of mortality (25% vs. 5%, P < 0.005) and abscess formation. Multivariate logistic analysis identified vegetation size and S. aureus as independent predictors of mortality.

Conclusions: Mortality is higher in older hospitalized patients. S. aureus is associated with a poor outcome. Vegetation size is an independent predictor of embolic events and of a higher mortality.

[1]PVE = prosthetic valve endocarditis

[2]NVE = native valve endocarditis

April 2007
R. Durst, C. Lotan, H. Nassar, M. Gotsman, E. Mor, B. Varshitzki, P. Greganski, R. Jabara, D. Admon, D. Meerkin and M. Mosseri

Background: Femoral artery vascular complications are the most common adverse events following cardiac catheterization. Smaller diameter introducer sheaths and catheters are likely to lower the puncture site complication rate but may hinder visualization.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety and angiographic quality of 4 French catheters.

Methods: The study was designed to simulate real-life operator-based experience. Diagnostic angiography was performed with either 4F or 6F diagnostic catheters; the size of the catheter used in each patient was predetermined by the day of the month. Patients undergoing 4F and 6F diagnostic angiography were ambulated after 4 and 6 hours, respectively. The following technical parameters were recorded by the operator: ease of introducer sheath insertion, ease of coronary intubation, ease of injection, coronary opacification, collateral flow demonstration, and overall assessment. Adverse events were recorded in all patients and included minor bleeding, major bleeding (necessitating blood transfusion), minor hematoma, major hematoma, pseudo-aneurysm formation and arteriovenous fistula.

Results: The study group included 177 patients, of whom 91 were in the 4F arm and 86 in the 6F arm. Demographic and procedural data were similar in both groups. Seventy-seven percent of 6F and 50% of 4F procedures were evaluated as excellent (P < 0.05). This difference was attributed to easier intubation of the coronary ostium and contrast material injection, increased opacification of the coronary arteries, and demonstration of collateral flow with 6F catheters. Complications occurred in 22% of patients treated with 6F catheters and 10% of those treated with 4F catheters (P = 0.11). Of the 50 patients who switched from 4F to 6F 12% had complications. In patients undergoing diagnostic angiography, the complication rate was 10% vs. 27% (most of them minor) in the 4F and 6F groups, respectively (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Patients catheterized with 4F have fewer complications compared with 6F diagnostic catheters even when ambulated earlier. Although 4F had a reduced quality compared to 6F angiographies, they were evaluated as satisfactory or excellent in quality 85% of the time. 4F catheters have a potential for reduced hospitalization stay and are a good option for primary catheterization in patients not anticipated to undergo coronary intervention

February 2004
Y. Menachem and I. Gotsman

Background: Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon ulcerative cutaneous condition associated with inflammatory bowel disease. PG[1] occurs rarely in IBD[2] patients and there are insufficient data on the clinical manifestations of this disease with IBD.

Objective: To determine the incidence, clinical manifestations and treatment of PG in patients with IBD and the connection to IBD, its activity and extent.

Methods: All patients hospitalized with IBD at a university hospital during a 20 year period were evaluated for the occurrence of PG.

Results: Of 986 patients hospitalized for IBD 6 suffered from PG (0.6% incidence). Their average age was 37 with equal sex distribution and equal distribution of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. PG appeared 6.5 years on average after diagnosis of IBD in all patients. The development of PG correlated with significant clinical exacerbation of IBD, the majority having active colitis at the onset of the PG. Extra-intestinal manifestations of IBD occurred in half the patients (sacroiliitis, peripheral arthritis and erythema nodosum). Pathergy was not elicited in any patients. Four patients had multiple skin lesions, frequently on the lower extremities. Diagnosis was made by skin biopsy in four patients. There was little correlation between amelioration of IBD and the skin lesions. Treatment consisted of high dose steroids and immunomodulatory drugs (cyclosporine, azathioprine and dapsone) in conjunction with topical treatment.

Conclusions: PG is a rare extra-intestinal manifestation of IBD that coincides with the exacerbation of the intestinal disease but does not always respond to treatment of the bowel disease.

[1] PG = pyoderma gangrenosum

[2] IBD = inflammatory bowel disease

September 2003
I. Gotsman, C. Lotan and M. Mosseri

Background: Acute myocardial infarction is rare in people under the age of 30.

Objective: To determine the clinical features and outcome in young patients presenting with AMI.

Methods: All patients aged 30 years and younger hospitalized with AMI during a period of 8 years (1993–2000) were evaluated for clinical features and outcome.

Results: Of the 3,758 patients with AMI, 15 were 30 years old or younger (0.4%). The mean age was 28 (range 21–30 years) and all were male. Eight had normal coronary arteries on angiogram; seven had obstructive coronary artery disease. Patients with OCA[1] had more classical risk factors for coronary disease. A complete diagnostic work-up was abnormal in four patients with NCA[2]: thrombophilia in two patients, spasm due to alcohol withdrawal and hyperthyroidism in one patient each. All patients presented with typical new-onset chest pain. None had a previous history of angina. All patients with OCA received reperfusion therapy as compared to one patient with NCA. Peak creatine phosphokinase in NCA and OCA was 504 ± 547 and 1,328 ± 440 respectively (P < 0.01). All patients with NCA had good left ventricular function on follow-up echocardiography, compared to only three in the OCA group (P = 0.02). There was one death due to cardiogenic shock in a patient with OCA. Follow-up of 4 ± 2 years demonstrated recurrent acute coronary syndromes in four of seven patients with OCA versus none in the NCA patients (P = 0.02).

Conclusions: AMI is rare in very young patients, and more than half have NCA. A thrombophilic tendency or spasm should be considered. Young patients with NCA have an excellent prognosis.

[1] OCA = obstructive coronary artery disease

[2] NCA = normal coronary arteries

August 2002
Sivan Ekstein, MD, Amir Elami, MD, Gideon Merin, MD, Mervyn S. Gotsman, MD, FACC and Chaim Lotan, MD, FACC

Background: Patients with multivessel coronary artery disease are candidates for either angioplasty and stenting or coronary artery bypass grafting. A prospective randomized study designed to compare the both methods included only a minority of the eligible patients.

Objective: To compare coronary artery bypass grafting to angioplasty plus stenting in patients with multivessel disease who declined randomization to a multicenter study (the ARTS).

Methods: During 1997-98 we prospectively followed 96 consecutive patients who were eligible according to the ARTS criteria but refused randomization. Of these patients, 50 underwent angioplasty + stenting and 46 underwent coronary bypass surgery. We compared the incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebral events, chest pain recurrence, quality of life and procedural cost during the first 6 months.

Results: All procedures were completed successfully without mortality or cerebral events. The rate of Q-wave myocardial infarction was 2% in the AS[1] group vs. 0% in the CABG[2] group (not significant). Minor complications occurred in 7 patients (14%) in the AS group and in 21 patients (45%) in the CABG group (P < 0.01). At 6 months follow-up the incidence of major cardiac and cerebral events was similar in both groups (11% and 4% in the AS and CABG groups respectively, P=NS). Seventeen patients (36%) in the AS group required repeat revascularization compared to only 3 (7%) in the CABG group (P=0.002). Nevertheless, quality of life was better, hospitalization was shorter and the cost was lower during the first 6 months after angioplasty.

Conclusion: Angioplasty with stenting compared to coronary bypass surgery in patients with multivessel disease resulted in similar short-term major complications. However, 36% of patients undergoing angioplasty may need further revascularization procedures during the first 6 months.


AS = angioplasty + stenting

[2] CABG = coronary artery bypass graft

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