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עמוד בית
Sun, 14.04.24

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April 2024
Dor Golomb MD, Hanan Goldberg MD, Paz Lotan MD, Ilan Kafka MD, Stanislav Kotcherov MD, Guy Verhovsky MD, Asaf Shvero MD, Ron Barrent MD, Ilona Pilosov Solomon MD, David Ben Meir MD, Ezekiel H. Landau MD, Amir Cooper MD, Orit Raz MD

Background: Pediatric urolithiasis is relatively uncommon and is generally associated with predisposing anatomic or metabolic abnormalities. In the adult population, emergency department (ED) admissions have been associated with an increase in ambient temperature. The same association has not been evaluated in the pediatric population.

Objectives: To analyze trends in ED admissions due to renal colic in a pediatric population (≤ 18 years old) and to assess the possible effect of climate on ED admissions.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter cohort study, based on a computerized database of all ED visits due to renal colic in pediatric patients. The study cohort presented with urolithiasis on imaging during their ED admission. Exact climate data was acquired through the Israeli Meteorological Service (IMS).

Results: Between January 2010 and December 2020, 609 patients, ≤ 18 years, were admitted to EDs in five medical centers with renal colic: 318 males (52%), 291 females (48%). The median age was 17 years (IQR 9–16). ED visits oscillated through the years, peaking in 2012 and 2018. A 6% downward trend in ED admissions was noted between 2010 and 2020. The number of ED admissions in the different seasons was 179 in autumn (30%), 134 in winter (22%), 152 in spring (25%), and 144 in summer (23%) (P = 0.8). Logistic regression multivariable analysis associated with ED visits did not find any correlation between climate parameters and ED admissions due to renal colic in the pediatric population.

Conclusions: ED admissions oscillated during the period investigated and had a downward trend. Unlike in the adult population, rates of renal colic ED admissions in the pediatric population were not affected by seasonal changes or rise in maximum ambient temperature.

March 2023
Nimrod Sachs MD, Lotem Goldberg MD, Yoel Levinsky MD, Yotam Dizitzer MD, Yoav Vardi MD, Irit Krause MD, Oded Scheuerman MD, Gilat Livni MD, Efraim Bilavsky MD, Havatzelet Bilavsky-Yarden MD

Background: During coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, less isolation of common winter viruses was reported in the southern hemisphere.

Objectives: To evaluate annual trends in respiratory disease-related admissions in a large Israeli hospital during and before the pandemic.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical records from November 2020 to January 2021 (winter season) was conducted and compared to the same period in two previous years. Data included number of admissions, epidemiological and clinical presentation, and isolation of respiratory pathogens.

Results: There were 1488 respiratory hospitalizations (58% males): 632 in 2018–2019, 701 in 2019–2020, and 155 in 2020–2021. Daily admissions decreased significantly from a median value of 6 (interquartile range [IQR] 4–9) and 7 per day (IQR 6–10) for 2018–2019 and 2019–2020, respectively, to only 1 per day (IQR 1–3) in 2020–2021 (P-value < 0.001). The incidence of all respiratory viruses decreased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic, with no hospitalizations due to influenza and only one with respiratory syncytial virus. There was also a significant decline in respiratory viral and bacterial co-infections during the pandemic (P-value < 0.001).

Conclusions: There was a significant decline in pediatric respiratory admission rates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Possible etiologies include epidemiological factors such as mask wearing and social distancing, in addition to biological factors such as viral interference. A herd protection effect of adults and older children wearing masks may also have had an impact.

March 2021
Monica Goldberg-Murow MD, Zvi Steiner MD, Yaniv Lakovsky MD, Elena Dlugy MD, Arthur Baazov MD, Enrique Freud MD, and Inbal Samuk MD

Background: Pancreatic trauma is uncommon in pediatric patients and presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. While non-operative management (NOM) of minor pancreatic injuries is well accepted, the management of major pancreatic injuries remains controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate management strategies for major blunt pancreatic injury in children.

Methods: Data were retrospectively collected for all children treated for grade III or higher pancreatic injury due to blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2015 at two medical centers. Data included demographics, mechanism of injury, laboratory and imaging studies, management strategy, clinical course, operative findings, and outcome.

Results: The cohort included seven boys and four girls aged 4–15 years old (median 9). Six patients had associated abdominal (mainly liver, n=3) injuries. The main mechanism of injury was bicycle (handlebar) trauma (n=6). Five patients had grade III injury and six had grade IV. The highest mean amylase level was recorded at 48 hours after injury (1418 U/L). Management strategies included conservative (n=5) and operative treatment (n=6): distal (n=3) and central (n=1) pancreatectomy, drainage only (n=2) based on the computed tomography findings and patient hemodynamic stability. Pseudocyst developed in all NOM patients (n=5) and two OM cases, and one patient developed a pancreatic fistula. There were no differences in average length of hospital stay.

Conclusions: NOM of high-grade blunt pancreatic injury in children may pose a higher risk of pseudocyst formation than OM, with a similar hospitalization time. However, pseudocyst is a relatively benign complication with a high rate of spontaneous resolution with no need for surgical intervention.

January 2021
Eytan Cohen MD, Ili Margalit MD, Tzippy Shochat MSC, Elad Goldberg MD, and Ilan Krause MD

Background: Low folate levels are associated with megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects, and an increased risk of cancer. Data are scarce regarding the sex aspect of this deficiency.

Objectives: To assess sex differences in folate levels in a large cohort of patients and to investigate the effect of low folate levels on homocysteine concentrations.

Methods: Data were collected from medical records of patients examined at a screening center in Israel between 2000 and 2014. Cross sectional analysis was conducted on 9214 males and 4336 females.

Results: The average age was 48.4 ± 9.5 years for males and 47.6 ± 9.4 years for females. Average folate levels were 19.2 ± 8.6 and 22.4 ±10.3 nmol/L in males and females, respectively (P < 0.001). The prevalence of folate levels below 12.2 nmol/L was 19.5% in males compared to 11.6% in females (P < 0.001). In patients with low folate levels and normal B12 levels, homocysteine levels above 15 μmol/L were found in 32.4% of males and 11.4% of females (P < 0.001). Males had a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) of having folate levels below 12.2 nmol/L: OR 1.84 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.66–2.05) in a non-adjusted model, and OR 2.02 (95%CI 1.82–2.27) adjusted for age, smoking status, body mass index, kidney function, albumin, and triglycerides levels.

Conclusions: Folate levels are lower in males compared to females, which may contribute to the higher homocysteine levels found in males and thus to their increased risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

February 2019
Eran Ellenbogen MD, Shmuel Epshteyn MD, Shir Azrielant MD, Mor Pavlovsky MD, Andrea Gat MD, Eli Sprecher MD PhD and Ilan Goldberg MD

Background: Frozen section (FS) is often performed when histopathological evaluations are urgently required for implementation of therapeutic measures. In dermatology, this method is most commonly used to evaluate excision margins of tumors. FS are also routinely employed to differentiate toxic epidermal necrolysis from staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. However, little is currently known about the performance of FS in the diagnosis of inflammatory dermatoses.

Objectives: To compare histopathological diagnoses in a series of patients with a clinical diagnosis of an inflammatory dermatosis for which FS and paraffin-section (PS) specimens were obtained on the same day.

Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of 43 cases. All histological slides were reviewed by a single dermato-pathologist. Concordance was calculated between FS and PS.

Results: Patients were divided into three groups according to diagnosis: papulosquamous diseases (group I), drug eruptions (group II), and a heterogeneous group (group III) that included cases of bullous vasculitis and Sweet syndrome. Among the three groups, the results of FS and of PS were discordant only in five cases (5/43, 11.6%). Compared to PS, FS had a sensitivity of 92.9% [95% confidence interval (95%CI) 64.17–99.63%] and a specificity of 100% in group I, sensitivity of 90.9% (95%CI 57.12–99.52%) and specificity of 100% in group II, and sensitivity of 83.33% (95%CI 60.78–94.16%) and specificity of 100% in group III. The degree of agreement between the results of the FS and of the PS was almost perfect (kappa = 0.95, 0.93 and 0.85 respectively).

Conclusions: This study suggests that FS is a valid approach for the rapid diagnosis of inflammatory dermatoses. This method is as specific as PS, although it is less sensitive.

August 2018
Salim Halabi MD, Awny Elias MD, Michael Goldberg MD, Hilal Hurani MD, Husein Darawsha MD, Sharon Shachar MA and Miti Ashkenazi RN MPH

Background: Door-to-balloon time (DTBT) ≤ 90 minutes has become an important quality indicator in the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We identified three specific problems in the course from arrival of STEMI patients at our emergency department to initiation of balloon inflation and determined an intervention comprised of specific administrative and professional steps. The focus of the intervention was on triage within the emergency department (ED) and on increasing the efficiency and accuracy of electrocardiography interpretation.

Objectives: To examine whether our intervention reduced the proportion of patients with DTBT > 90 minutes.

Methods: We compared DTBT of patients admitted to the ED with STEMI during the year preceding and the year following implementation of the intervention.

Results: Demographic and clinical characteristics at presentation to the ED were similar for patients admitted to the ED in the year preceding and the year following intervention. The year preceding intervention, DTBT was > 90 minutes for 19/78 patients (24%). The year after intervention, DTBT was > 90 minutes for 17/102 patients (17%). For both years, the median DTBT was 1 hour. Patients with DTBT > 90 minutes tended to be older and more often female. Diagnoses in the ED were similar between those with DTBT ≤ 90 minutes and > 90 minutes. In-hospital mortality was 17% (13/78) and 14% (14/102) for the respective time periods.

Conclusions: An intervention specifically designed to address problems identified at one medical center was shown to decrease the proportion of patients with DTBT > 90 minutes.

March 2018
Hanan Goldberg MD, Gil N. Bachar MD, Riad Majadla MD, Ofer Yossepowitch MD, Jack Baniel MD and Edward Ram MD

Background: Right hydronephrosis secondary to acute appendicitis is an under-reported phenomenon with only several case reports published.

Objectives: To assess the incidence of this phenomenon in our database of patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis.

Methods: Data were collected on 1092 patients who underwent surgery due to acute appendicitis between 2003 and 2007 in our tertiary medical center. The data entailed demographic, surgical, and hospitalization parameters including ultrasound or computed tomography examinations and presence of right hydronephrosis prior to surgery.

Results: Out of 1092 patients, appendicitis was eventually diagnosed in 87.4% of the patients. Only 594 (54%) had preoperative imaging performed prior to surgery (ultrasound or computed tomography). Out of these 594 patients, 21 (3.5%) had a new right hydronephrosis diagnosed and all had appendicitis with 15/21 (71%) having a retrocecal appendix. Of those with retrocecal appendix, 10 were pregnant women (48%). Erythrocyturia was present in 15/21 patients (71%) and in 10/11 of patients (91%) after excluding those who were pregnant. No significant differences were seen in patients with hydronephrosis regarding age, hospitalization, and surgery time. In all patients, an ultrasound was performed 2 weeks after surgery demonstrating the disappearance of hydronephrosis. Median follow-up time was 41.7 months (range 14.8–118.4 months).

Conclusions: Our study shows that 3.5% of our cohort had right hydronephrosis secondary to acute appendicitis. Although this presentation is very rare, physicians should be aware of this phenomenon and the risk for delayed diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis.

 

March 2017
Yakir Segev MSc MD, Ella Arnon MD, Efraim Siegler MD, Ofer Gemer MD, Yael Goldberg MD, Ron Auslender MD, Anis Kaldawy MD and Ofer Lavie MD
August 2016
Shimon A. Goldberg MD, Diana Neykin MD, Ruth Henshke-Bar-Meir MD, Amos M. Yinnon MD and Gabriel Munter MD

Background: Medical history-taking is an essential component of medical care. 

Objectives: To assess and improve history taking, physical examination and management plan for hospitalized patients. 

Methods: The study consisted of two phases, pre- and post- intervention. During phase I, 10 histories were evaluated for each of 10 residents, a total of 100 histories. The assessment was done with a validated tool, evaluating history-taking (maximum 23 points), physical examination (23 points), assessment and plan (14 points) (total 60 points). Subsequently, half of these residents were informed that they were assessed; they received their scores and were advised regarding areas needing improvement. Phase II was identical to phase I. The primary endpoint was a statistically significant increase in score. 

Results: In the study group (receiving feedback after phase I) the physical examination improved from 9.3 ± 2.4 in phase I to 10.8 ± 2.2 in phase II (P < 0.001), while in the control group there was no change (11.3 ± 1.9 to 11.5 ± 1.8 respectively, P = 0.59). The assessment and plan component improved in the study group from 6.4 ± 2.7 in phase I to 7.4 ± 2.6 in phase II (P = 0.05), while no change was observed in the control group (8.2 ± 2.7 and 7.8 ± 2.3, P = 0.43). Overall performance improved in the study group from 30.4 ± 5.1 in phase I to 32.9 ± 4.5 in phase II (P = 0.01), a 10% improvement, while no change was observed in the control group (35.5 ± 6.0 to 34.6 ± 4.1, P = 0.4). 

Conclusions: A review of medical histories obtained by residents, assessed against a validated score and accompanied by structured feedback may lead to significant improvement. 

 

June 2016
Doron Goldberg MD MHA, Avi Tsafrir MD, Naama Srebnik MD, Michael Gal MD PhD, Ehud J. Margalioth MD, Pnina Mor CNM PHD, Rivka Farkash MPH, Arnon Samueloff MD and Talia Eldar-Geva MD PhD

Background: Fertility treatments are responsible for the rise in high order pregnancies in recent decades and their associated complications. Reducing the number of embryos returned to the uterus will reduce the rate of high order pregnancies.     

Objectives: To explore whether obstetric history and parity have a role in the clinician’s decision making regarding the number of embryos transferred to the uterus during in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Methods: In a retrospective study for the period August 2005 to March 2012, data were collected from twin deliveries > 24 weeks, including parity, mode of conception (IVF vs. spontaneous), gestational age at delivery, preeclampsia, birth weight, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and Apgar scores. 

Results: A total of 1651 twin deliveries > 24 weeks were recorded, of which 959 (58%) were at term (> 37 weeks). The early preterm delivery (PTD) rate (< 32 weeks) was significantly lower with increased parity (12.6%, 8.5%, and 5.6%, in women with 0, 1, and ≥ 2 previous term deliveries, respectively). Risks for PTD (< 37 weeks), preeclampsia and NICU admission were significantly higher in primiparous women compared to those who had one or more previous term deliveries. Primiparity and preeclampsia, but not IVF, were significant risk factors for PTD. 

Conclusions: The risk for PTD in twin pregnancies is significantly lower in women who had a previous term delivery and decreases further after two or more previous term deliveries. This finding should be considered when deciding on the number of embryos to be transferred in IVF.  

 

October 2015
Idit Yedidya MD, Elad Goldberg MD, Ram Sharoni MD, Alex Sagie MD and Mordehay Vaturi MD
March 2014
Ilan Goldberg, Oksana Finkel, Andrea GatD, Eli Sprecher and Helena Martinez de Morentin
Erythema nodosum and pyoderma gangrenosum are common skin manifestations in inflammatory bowel diseases. Curiously, these two cutaneous features have seldom been reported to occur simultaneously.  We present three patients affected with inflammatory bowel disease, with concomitant erythema nodosum and pyoderma gangrenosum.

November 2013
S. Menascu, U. Kremer, Y. Schiller, I. Blatt, N. Watemberg, M. Boxer, H. Goldberg, I. Korn-Lubetzki, M. Steinberg, and B. Ben-Zeev
 Background: The management of intractable epilepsy in children and adults is challenging. For patients who do not respond to antiepileptic drugs and are not suitable candidates for epilepsy surgery, vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is a viable alternative for reducing seizure frequency.

Methods: In this retrospective multicenter open-label study we examined the efficacy and tolerability of VNS in patients in five adult and pediatric epilepsy centers in Israel. All patients had drug-resistant epilepsy and after VNS implantation in 2006–2007 were followed for a minimum of 18 months. Patients were divided into two age groups: < 21 and > 21 years old.

Results: Fifty-six adults and children had a stimulator implanted in 2006–2007. At 18 months post-VNS implantation, none of the patients was seizure-free, 24.3% reported a reduction in seizures of ≥ 75%, 19% reported a 50–75% reduction, and 10.8% a 25–50% reduction. The best response rate occurred in patients with complex partial seizures. Among these patients, 7 reported a ≥ 75% reduction, 5 patients a 50–75% reduction, 3 patients a 25–50% reduction, and 8 patients a < 25% reduction. A comparison of the two age groups showed a higher reduction in seizure rate in the older group (< 21 years old) than the younger group.

Conclusions: VNS is a relatively effective and safe palliative method for treating refractory epilepsy in both adults and children. It is an alternative treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, even after a relatively longed disease duration, who are not candidates for localized epilepsy surgery.

August 2013
L. Goldberg, J. Dreiher, M. Friger, A. Levin and P. Shvartzman
 Background: The Qassam rocket attacks on southern Israel during the years 2000–2007 created a unique situation of life under a continuous threat. The effect of this unique situation on health services utilization has not been previously evaluated.

Objectives: To evaluate health utilization patterns in two primary care clinics in southern Israel: one under continuous attacks of Qassam rockets as compared with a similar clinic not under a rocket threat.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in two primary care clinics in southern Israel, with 11,630 persons listed in the two clinics during the entire study period. The primary outcome measures were total annual number of visits per person to the clinic and for specific diagnoses, and the number of drug prescriptions issued, emergency room (ER) visits, hospitalization days, cardiac catheterizations and coronary bypass surgeries.

Results: In both clinics there was an increase over time in the mean annual number of visits per person. During the years of severe attacks there was an increase in visits with a chief complaint of depression and anxiety and an increase in the number of anxiolytic prescriptions in the study clinic compared with the control. During the same period there was a decrease in the number of ER visits in the study clinic compared with the control.

Conclusions: The population under continuous life-threatening events showed more depression and anxiety problems. Under severe bombardment, the residents prefer not to leave home, unless necessary.

 

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