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עמוד בית
Wed, 12.06.24

Search results


May 2024
Jen Barak Levitt MD, Shira Barmatz MD, Shira Fisch-Gilad MD, Yossef H. Taieb MD, Adam Dalal MD, Khashayar Afshari MD, Nazgol Haddadi MD, Dana Tzur Bitan MD, Arnon Dov Cohen MD PhD, Daniel Mimouni MD, Emmilia Hodak MD, Shany Sherman MD

Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease involving apocrine gland-bearing regions. There is an under-representation of non-Caucasians in epidemiologic studies of HS. The characteristics of HS in Israeli Arabs have not yet been studied.

Objectives: To investigate the demographic and clinical profile of HS in the Israeli Arab population.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in two cohorts of patients with HS in Israel. The patients were derived from the database of a large health management organization (n=4191, 639 Arabs; population-based) and a major tertiary medical center (n=372, 49 Arabs). Demographic and clinical data were compared between ethnic groups.

Results: The prevalence of HS in Israeli Arabs was found to be 0.5%, fivefold higher than in Jews. Arab patients were younger (35.3 vs. 40.5 years, P < 0.001) and mostly male (52% vs. 35.7%, p < 0.001), with lower rates of co-morbidities, including smoking (40.8% vs. 55.7%, p < 0.001), hyperlipidemia, and depression as well as a higher rate of dissecting cellulitis (10.2% vs. 1.9%, p = 0.008). HS was more severe in Arabs, but of shorter duration, with mainly axillary involvement (79.6% vs. 57.9%, p = 0.004). Treatment with hormones was more common in Jews, and with biologic agents in Arabs.

Conclusions: The findings suggest a different phenotype of HS in Arabs, warranting further study.

February 2024
Orly Gal-Or MD, Alon Tiosano MD, Inbar Perchik BSc, Yogev Giladi MD, Irit Bahar MD

Artificial intelligence in ophthalmology is used for automatic diagnosis, data analysis, and predicting responses to possible treatments. The potential challenges in the application and assimilation of artificial intelligence include technical challenges of the algorithms, the ability to explain the algorithm, and the ability to diagnose and manage the medical course of patients. Despite these challenges, artificial intelligence is expected to revolutionize the way ophthalmology will be practiced. In this review, we compiled recent reports on the use and application of deep learning in various fields of ophthalmology, potential challenges in clinical deployment, and future directions.

Ela Giladi MD, Roy Israel MD, Wasseem Daud MD, Chen Gurevitz MD, Alaa Atamna MD, David Pereg MD, Abid Assali MD, Avishay Elis MD

Background: The use of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 monoclonal antibodies (PCSK9 mAbs) is emerging for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, real-world data is lacking for their use among elderly patients.

Objective: To define the characteristics of elderly patients treated with PCSK9 mAbs and to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability compared with younger patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of elderly patients (≥ 75 years at enrollment) treated with PCSK9 mAbs for primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. Data were retrieved for demographic and clinical characteristics; indications for treatment; agents and dosages; concomitant lipid lowering treatment; LDL-C levels at baseline, 6, 12 months, and at the end of follow up. Data also included achieving LDL-C target levels and adverse effects.

Results: The cohort included 91 elderly patients and 92 younger patients, mean age 75.2 ± 3.76 and 58.9 ± 7.4 years (P < 0.0001). Most patients (82%, 80%) were in high/very high-risk categories. For almost all (98%, 99%), the indication was statin intolerance, with PCSK9 mAb monotherapy the most prevalent regimen. The average follow-up was 38.1 ± 20.5 and 30.9 ± 15.8 months (P = 0.0258). Within 6 months the LDL-C levels were reduced by 57% in the elderly group and by 59% in the control group (P = 0.2371). Only 53% and 57% reached their LDL-C target levels. No clinically significant side effects were documented.

Conclusion: PCSK9 mAbs have similar effects and are well tolerated among elderly patients as in younger patients.

October 2023
Gilad Rotem MD, Amir Arami MD, Iana Leineman MD, Alon Covo MD

Psoriatic arthritis can present with significant hand and wrist deformity and dysfunction [1]. The development of newer biological therapies has resulted in higher rates of remission [2]. However, surgical intervention is still indicated in pain, disability, and severe deformation cases. The management of patients with rheumatic diseases has a controversial history, characterized by rheumatologists and hand surgeons debating the efficacy of surgical interventions. Some surgeons attribute the controversial results to “too little and too late” referral of patients from rheumatologists [3]. While the availability of new and more effective medication has changed the indications and postponed surgical intervention, it is important to remember that surgery is often more effective when used preventively in the early stages than when forced to salvage. In the following case, we present a patient with psoriatic arthritis who presented with advanced-stage debilitating hand deformity and was treated surgically.

September 2023
Avishay Elis MD, Ella Giladi MD, Ahmad Raiyan MD, Alaa Atamna MD

Background: Congestive heart failure (CHF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a common diagnosis in patients hospitalized in the department of internal medicine. Recently, the therapeutic regimens were updated, as the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors became an integral part of the therapeutic regimen for either HFrEF or HFpEF.

Objectives: To define the demographic and clinical characteristics of CHF patients hospitalized in the department of medicine.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all patients hospitalized in the departments of medicine at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, between 2016 and 2019. Demographic and clinical background, in-hospital procedures, discharge regimens, and outcome parameters were evaluated according to HFrEF/HFpEF.

Results: The cohort included 4458 patients. The majority (97%) presented with a preexisting diagnosis, whereas HF was an active condition in only half of them. The rates of HFrEF/HFpEF were equal. In most cases, the trigger of the exacerbation could not be determined; however, infection was the most common cause. There were basic differences in the demography, clinical aspects, and therapeutic regimens at discharge between HFrEF and HFpEF. Both conditions were associated with high in hospital mortality (8%) and re-admissions rates (30 days [20%], 90 days [35%]) without any difference between them.

Conclusions: HFrEF/HFpEF patients differed by demographics and co-morbidities. They were equally represented among patients admitted to medical wards and had similar prognosis. For both diagnoses, hospitalization should be considered for updating therapeutic regimens, especially with SGLT2 inhibitors.

July 2023
Mikhal E. Cohen MD PhD, Roni Eichel MD, Gustavo Rajz MD, Gilad Yahalom MD

Background: Little is known about phenotypical variations among ethnic groups in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in Israel. Clinical characteristics of non-Ashkenazi Jews (NAJ) are scantly described.

Objectives: To describe clinical aspects of PD in ethnic groups in Israel, focusing on NAJ and Ashkenazi Jews (AJ).

Methods: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, we collected demographic, genetic, and clinical characteristics of patients from different ethnic Jewish backgrounds. Ethnic groups included AJ; North African Jews (NAFJ); oriental Jews (OJ) originating from Iran, Iraq, and Buchara; Balkan Jews; Yemenite Jews (YJ); and Jews of mixed origin. Clinical characteristics included hyposmia, urinary complaints, constipation, and rapid eye movement sleep behavioral disorder. Cognitive complaints, motor features, levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and motor fluctuations were collected. Motor part of the MDS-UPDRS and Hoehn and Yahr scores were collected.

Results: The study comprised 174 PD Jewish patients (63.2% AJ, 56.4% males). The age at onset was 65.3 ± 10.2 years; 106 patients (60.9%) were genotyped (17 glucocerebrosidase [16.0%], 13 leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 [LRRK2] [12.3%]). Rates of hyposmia were significantly higher in AJ than NAJ (56.6% vs. 39.5%, respectively, P = 0.003). No significant differences were found in motor features in all variables. Of 13 AJ patients carrying the LRRK2 mutation, only one had hyposmia. Three patients with LRRK2 were NAJ.

Conclusions: Hyposmia is less prevalent in PD patients of NAJ origin than in AJ. The rate of hyposmia in NAFJ patients is particularly low. The rate of other non-motor features is similar between NAJ and AJ patients.

Gilad Rotem MD, Amir Arami MD

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a collection of symptoms and signs caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the carpal tunnel. Symptoms include paresthesia and/or numbness in the median nerve distribution, aching in the thenar eminence, and weakness at later stages. CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy with a prevalence of 1–5%, and even higher among females, manual workers, and the elderly. Therefore, many patients with signs and symptoms of CTS refer to their primary care physician who should recognize, diagnose, and provide initial treatment.

April 2023
Maali Abu-Omer, Gilad Chayen, Ron Jacob

Background: Children with forearm fractures who present to the emergency department (ED) often need a closed reduction. In our institution, until 2017, pediatric trauma patients presented to the general trauma ED (GTED) where no sedation services for pediatric patients were available. From 2017, patients presented to the pediatric emergency department (PED) where closed reductions were performed under sedation when appropriate.

Objectives: To compare GTED and PED with regard to length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization rates of pediatric patients with forearm fractures who needed a closed reduction.

Methods: Our retrospective observational study was conducted at a regional hospital. The study population consisted of all patients younger than 18 years of age who presented to the ED with a forearm fracture that needed a closed reduction. The primary outcome measure was the hospitalization rate. The secondary outcome measure was LOS in the ED.

Results: The study comprised 165 patients with forearm fractures who needed a closed reduction; 79 presented to the GTED, and 96 presented to the PED. Hospitalization rates were lower for patients undergoing closed reduction under sedation in the PED compared to the GTED (6.3% and 21.5%, respectively; P = 0.003). Median ED LOS was longer among patients undergoing sedation in the PED compared to the GTED (237 vs. 168 minutes respectively, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Sedation for forearm fracture reduction in a hospital’s PED was associated with a decrease of more than three times in hospitalization rate. Despite the need for more resources, PED LOS was only mildly increased.

March 2023
Johnatan Nissan, Anna Blokh MD, Niv Ben-Shabat MD MPH, Harald Heidecke PhD, Gilad Halpert PhD, Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP MaACR, Howard Amital MD MHA

Background: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is estimated to affect 2–4% of the general population. While FMS has some known environmental and genetic risk factors, the disorder has no clear etiology. A common coexisting disorder with FMS is small fiber neuropathy (SFN). High levels of serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) binding to trisulfated-heparin-disaccharide (TS-HDS) were recently found to be associated with SFN.

Objectives: To evaluate potential differences in anti-TS-HDS antibody titers in women with FMS compared to healthy controls.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 51 female participants: 30 with a diagnosis of FMS and 21 healthy controls who had been recruited at the Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Israel. All of the participants were older than 18 years of age. Anti-TS-HDS IgM levels were measured in their sera using the enzyme immunoassay technique.

Results: The mean anti-TS-HDS IgM levels were significantly lower in the FMS group, compared with the control group (7.7 ± 5 vs. 13.2 ± 8.6 U/ml, respectively; P = 0.013).

Conclusions: There is a possible association between FMS and anti-TS-HDS IgM. This association might be the missing link for the coexistence of SFN and FMS, but further study should be performed to assess this association and this auto-antibody characteristic.

February 2023
Gilad Rotem MD, Jordan Lachnish MD, Tomer Gazit MD, Gal Barkay MD, Dan Prat MD, Gil Fichman MD

BackgroundSeveral approaches are used to access the hip joint; most common are the direct lateral and posterior. Little consensus exists on which to use when treating hip fractures.

Objectives: To compare short-term complications, postoperative ambulation, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) of direct lateral vs. posterior approaches in hemiarthroplasty for acute hip fractures.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective clinical trial with 260 patients who underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty in the direct lateral or posterior approach (166 and 94, respectively) between January 2017 and December 2018. The clinical data included short-term complications: prosthetic dislocation, periprosthetic fractures, and infection. Postoperative ambulation was collected 6 weeks postoperatively; PROMS were collected for 173 patients at 2 years follow-up.

Results: There were six dislocations overall, average time to dislocation was 22 days postoperative (range 4–34). Five dislocations were after the posterior approach (5.3%) and one after direct lateral (0.6%) (P = 0.01). At 6 weeks follow-up, inability to walk was found in 16.9% of the direct lateral group and 6.4% of the posterior approach group (P = 0.02). In the posterior approach group, 76% could walk more than 20 meters; only half of the direct lateral group could (P = 0.0002). At 2 years follow-up, PROMS did not show a statistically significant difference between the groups.

Conclusions: Posterior approach for hemiarthroplasty following femoral neck fractures allows superior ambulation to the direct lateral approach only for the short-term. However, no long-term clinical advantage was found. This short-term benefit does not justify the increased dislocation rate in the posterior approach.

November 2022
Avishay Elis MD, Wassim Daud MD, Gal Cohen MD, Ela Giladi MD, Alaa Atamna MD

Background: There is an increasing use of anti-protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs); however, real-world data is lacking.

Objectives: To define the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients treated with anti-PCSK9 mAbs. To evaluate efficacy, tolerability, and differences between the approved agents.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients treated at the lipid clinic at Rabin Medical Center (Beilinson Campus), Israel, from January 2016 to December 2019. Data from electronic records were evaluated for demographic and clinical characteristics, indication for use, response of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels and reaching target levels, side effects, tolerability, differences between the agents, and doses.

Results: The study cohort included 115 patients. Two-thirds (n=75) were at high cardiovascular risk, the rest at very high risk (n=40). The major indication for treatment was statin intolerance (n=97, 84%). Most patients (n=102, 88%) were treated by anti-PCSK9 mAbs agents only. LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels were decreased by 47% and 39%, respectively (156 + 49 to 81 + 39 and 192 + 53 to 116 + 42 mg/dl), within 6 months and remained stable. Two-thirds (n=76) of the patients reached their lipid target levels. No clinically significant differences were observed between the agents in efficacy or tolerability.

Conclusions: In a real-world setting, anti-PCSK9 mAbs are used primarily as a single agent in high-risk and very high-risk cardiovascular populations with statin intolerance. They are well tolerated and effective in reduction of LDL-C levels. Further studies are needed to clarify comparisons between agents and doses.

Ela Giladi MD, Adi Rotkopf MD, Avishay Elis MD

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is frequently associated with clinical manifestations of autoimmune disorders (AD) and inflammatory responses of the immune system. The biological linkage between MDS clones and the occurrence of autoimmune manifestations is mirrored by the response of the latter to MDS modifying therapeutic approaches [1]. We encountered a rare case of MDS coexisting with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which was effectively treated with a hypomethylating agent followed by allogenic bone marrow transplantation.

June 2022
Shir Rubinstein Levy B Med Sc, Gilad Halpert PhD, and Howard Amital MD MHA

Cannabis and cannabinoids have been known for thousands of years for their promising potential as analgesics. Chronic pain is a common complaint among many patients with rheumatic conditions. These disorders have revisited the medical approach toward cannabis and its potential role in pain relief. In addition, in recent years, information has mounted about the immunomodulatory effects of cannabis. In this review we discuss findings on the benefits cannabis may have in rheumatic and autoimmune disorders.

February 2022
Anton Warshavsky MD, Roni Rosen MD, Uri Neuman MD, Narin Nard-Carmel MD, Udi Shapira MD, Leonor Trejo MD, Dan M. Fliss MD, and Gilad Horowitz MD

Background: Accuracy of the number and location of pathological lymph nodes (LNs) in the pathology report of a neck dissection (ND) is of vital importance.

Objectives: To quantify the error rate in reporting the location and number of pathologic LNs in ND specimens.

Methods: All patients who had undergone a formal ND that included at least neck level 1 for a clinical N1 disease between January 2010 and December 2017 were included in the study. The error rate of the pathology reports was determined by various means: comparing preoperative imaging and pathological report, reporting a disproportionate LN distribution between the different neck levels, and determining an erroneous location of the submandibular gland (SMG) in the pathology report. Since the SMG must be anatomically located in neck level 1, any mistake in reporting it was considered a categorical error.

Results: A total of 227 NDs met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The study included 128 patients who had undergone a dissection at levels 1–3, 68 at levels 1–4, and 31 at levels 1–5. The best Kappa score for correlation between preoperative imaging and final pathology was 0.50. There were nine cases (3.9%) of a disproportionate LN distribution in the various levels. The SMG was inaccurately reported outside neck level 1 in 17 cases (7.5%).

Conclusions: At least 7.5% of ND reports were inaccurate in this investigation. The treating physician should be alert to red flags in the pathological report

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