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עמוד בית
Thu, 18.07.24

Search results

September 2022
Shaul Gelikas MD MBA, Dotan Yaari MD MHA, Guy Avital MD, Or Bainhoren MD, and Avi Benov MD MHA

Background: Pain management is fundamental in the treatment of a trauma casualty. Adequate pain management is associated with decreased long-term morbidity and chronic pain. Nonetheless, pain is frequently not documented nor adequately treated in the prehospital setting, a phenomenon described as oligoanalgesia. Gender bias has been suggested as a risk factor for oligoanalgesia.

Objectives: To examine the association between casualty gender and pain management in the prehospital trauma setting.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of the Israel Defense Forces Trauma Registry between 2015 and 2020. Univariable analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between casualty gender and pain management. For adult patients for whom gender was known, pain scores were documented.

Results: A total of 1044 casualties were included in the study; 894 (85.6%) were male. Females and males differed in several demographic and injury characteristics, including age in years (mean 36 vs. 27.6, P value < 0.001) and injury mechanism (16%% vs. 34.5% penetrating injury, P value < 0.001). Female casualties were less likely to be treated for pain (odds ratio [OR] 0.708, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.5–1, P = 0.05). However, after adjustment for various factors, including pain severity, this association was insignificant (OR 0.748, 95%CI 0.46–1.23, P = 0.25).

Conclusions: In this prehospital study, gender bias in pain management was not apparent. As women’s role on the battlefield continues to increase, further studies regarding the role of

David Segal MD MPH, Nitzan Shakarchy-Kaminsky MD MSc, Yair Zloof MD, Tomer Talmy MD, Galina Shapiro MD PHD, Irina Radomislensky BSc, Avishai M. Tsur MD MHA, Shaul Gelikas MD MBA, Erez Karp MD MHA, and Avi Benov MD MHA; Israel Trauma Group

Background: Medical organizations worldwide aim for equity and diversity in the medical profession to improve care quality. Data on whether the caregiver gender affects outcomes in the prehospital setting are essential but scarce compared to available in-hospital studies.

Objective: To analyze the rates of missed injuries in the prehospital setting and determine whether these rates were associated with the gender of the on-field physician or paramedic.

Methods: A retrospective record review was conducted, which included trauma records documented in two trauma registries, the prehospital Israel Defense Forces-Trauma Registry (IDF-TR), and the in-hospital Israeli National Trauma Registry (INTR). Missed injuries were defined as injuries documented in the INTR but not in the IDF-TR. A multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association between provider’s gender and missed injuries.

Results: Of 490 casualties, 369 (75.3%) were treated by teams that included only male paramedics or physicians. In 386 (78.8%) cases, a physician was a part of the prehospital team. In all, 94 (19.2%) casualties sustained injuries that were missed by the prehospital medical team. Missed injuries were not associated with the gender of the paramedic or physician (odds ratio 1.242, 95% confidence interval 0.69–2.193).

Conclusions: No association was found between the gender of the medical provider in the prehospital setting and the rate of missed injuries. These results should encourage prehospital emergency medical systems to aim for a balanced and diverse caregiver population.

July 2022
Firas Kassem MD, Muhamed Masalha MD, Ameen Biadsee MD, Ben Nageris MD, Ronit Kagan DMD, and Ariela Nachmani PhD

Background: Dysphagia is a common symptom with diverse etiologies and refers to disorders of the process of swallowing food or fluids. Many studies have reported the anatomical and functional differences between men and women in swallowing in healthy patients; however, sex discrepancies in symptomatic patients have not often been studied.

Objectives: To compare the performance of men and women with dysphagia using videofluoroscopy.

Methods: To compare the performance of men and women with dysphagia using videofluoroscopy.

Results: A total of 203 patients met the inclusion criteria, 106 men (52%) and 97 women (48%). Men complained significantly more about choking on liquids (P = 0.002) and in swallowing pills (P = 0.004) compared to women. Men had more abnormalities in the pharyngeal phase (P = 0.015) and at the upper esophageal sphincter (P = 0.056). The prevalence of aspiration, penetration, and barium residue in the hypopharynx and in the vallecula were significantly greater in men as well.

Conclusions: In patients with dysphagia, women had fewer subjective symptoms and performed better than men in videofluoroscopy especially in the pharyngeal phase. These differences are probably due to different anatomical and functional swallowing characteristics. A better understanding of these discrepancies can be useful in offering tailored treatment in clinical practice.

January 2022
Nardin Elias MD, Roman Rysin MD, Samuel Kwartin MD, and Yoram Wolf MD

Background: The purpose of mastectomy for the transgender patient is to produce a masculine appearance of the chest. A number of algorithms have been proposed for selecting the surgical technique. A holistic and surgical approach to transgender men includes our experience-based classification system for selecting the correct surgical technique.

Objectives: To present and discuss the Transgender Standard of Care and our personal experience.

Methods: Data were collected from the files of female-to-male transgender persons who underwent surgery during 2003–2019. Pictures of the patients were also analyzed.

Results: Until May 2021, 342 mastectomies were performed by the senior author on 171 patients. The 220 mastectomies performed on 110 patients until November 2019 were included in our cohort. Patient age was 13.5 to 50 years (mean 22.5 ± 6.1). The excision averaged 443 grams per breast (range 85–2550). A periareolar approach was performed in 14 (12.7%), omega-shaped resection (nipple-areola complex on scar) in 2 (1.8%), spindle-shaped mastectomy with a dermal nipple-areola complex flap approach in 38 (34.5%), and a complete mastectomy with a free nipple-areola complex graft in 56 (50.9%). Complications included two hypertrophic scars, six hematomas requiring revision surgery, three wound dehiscences, and three cases of partial nipple necrosis.

Conclusions: A holistic approach to transgender healthcare is presented based on the World Professional Association for Transgender Health standard of care. Analysis of the data led to Wolf's classification for female-to-male transgender mastectomy based on skin excess and the distance between the original and the planned position of the nipple-areola complex

Abdulla Watad MD, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi MD PhD, and Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP MaACR
November 2021
Ilaria Duca MD, Bruno Lucchino MD, Francesca Romana Spinelli MD PhD, Alessio Altobelli MD, Carmelo Pirone MD, Chiara Gioia MD, Guido Valesini MD, Fabrizio Conti MD PhD, and Manuela Di Franco MD

Background: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), females usually have a worse prognosis. To date, the influence of physician gender in the evaluation of RA activity is still largely unknown.

Objectives: To investigate the discrepancy in RA disease activity assessment between male and female physicians and to compare patient and evaluator perception of disease activity and global health (GH) status.

Methods: One female and one male rheumatologist evaluated 154 RA patients recording tender and swollen joint count, GH, evaluator global assessment (EGA), and patient global assessment (PGA) disease activity. A third rheumatologist calculated DAS28, CDAI, and SDAI. Difference was evaluated by Wilcoxon test. Physician–patient agreement was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient.

Results: GH, PGA, and DAS28 were higher when recorded by the female examiner. Male EGA was higher than female. Among male patients, PGA was higher when collected by the female examiner. The probability of being judged as having an active disease did not rely on physician gender. The agreement with the physician’s evaluation of disease activity was high. PGA values were higher than EGA in both examiners. The physician–patient agreement was moderate for the male examiner and good for the female. The female physician had a higher agreement with both genders.

Conclusions: Subjective measure of disease activity differs between female and male rheumatologists, contributing to a different evaluation of disease activity. Patients have a higher perception of disease activity compared to physicians. The stronger agreement between female physicians and patients may be related to a more emphatic setting established by the female physician

March 2020
Aviad Hoffman MD, Ofir Ben Ishay MD, Nir Horesh MD, Moshe Shabtai MD, Eyal Forschmidt MD, Danny Rosin MD, Mordechai Gutman MD FACS and Edward Ram MD

Background: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease that is poorly understood. Treatment protocols are widely extrapolated from breast cancer in women.

Objectives: To review the experience with MBC of a single center in Israel over a period of 22 years.

Methods: This single center retrospective study evaluated all patients diagnosed with MBC over a period of 22 years (1993–2015). Data were extracted from patient medical charts and included demographics, clinical, surgical, and oncological outcomes.

Results: The study comprised 49 patients. Mean age at diagnosis was 64.1 ± 13.5 years. The majority were diagnosed at early stages (1A–2A) (54.4%), 30.6% were stage 3B mostly due to direct skin and nipple involvement, and 59.2% of the patients had node negative disease. All of the patients were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma and 30.6% had concomitant ductal carcinoma in situ. Estrogen receptor (ER) status was predominantly positive and luminal B (HER2-) was the most common subtype. Of the patients, 18.4% were BRCA carriers. The majority of patients underwent mastectomy. Radiotherapy was delivered to 46.9% and hormonal therapy to 89.8%. Chemotherapy was administered to 42.9%. Overall survival was 79.6% with a median survival of 60.1 (2–178) months; 5- and 10-year survival was 93.9% and 79.6%, respectively. Progesterone receptor (PR)-negative patients had a significantly improved overall survival.

Conclusions: MBC has increasing incidence. PR-negative status was associated with better overall survival and disease-free interval. Indications to radiotherapy and hormonal therapy need standardization and will benefit from prospective randomized control trials.

March 2019
Michael Rozenfeld MA, Kobi Peleg PhD MPH, Adi Givon BSc, Israeli Trauma Group and Boris Kessel MD

Background: Although women comprise only a minority of patients hospitalized due to violence-related injury, the circumstances of attacks against women may make their injuries more severe.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using data of 9173 patients with stabbing-related injuries from 19 trauma centers participating in the Israeli National Trauma Registry between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2014. Male and female patients were compared in terms of demographic and circumstantial factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes.

Results: Women were found to have greater injury severity according to the Injury Severity Scale (ISS) – 18% vs. 11% of severe (ISS 16+) injuries – requiring more hospital resources. Injuries that contributed most to injury severity in the female population were head and severe abdominal trauma. Women also sustained injuries to more body sites than men; however, regression analysis showed that the contribution of this factor to the overall difference in injury severity was less important than the injured sites. Regression analysis among severely injured patients pointed at injury to lower extremities as an independent factor related to female mortality. Different from men, among women the stabbing injuries to the upper extremities were not a protective factor in terms of mortality.

Conclusions: There are significant differences in the injury profiles of male and female stabbing victims, which can be explained by the different circumstances of the injury event.

Yossi Smorgick MD, Mitri Nassar MD, Eran Tamir MD, Sigal Tal MD, Yigal Mirovsky MD and Yoram Anekstein MD

Background: Gender differences in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) have been documented in curve progression, response to bracing, and outcomes of surgical treatment. However, limited information is available about the relation between gender and scoliosis curve patterns and radiographical characteristics.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of gender on curve pattern and compare clinical and radiographical characteristics between male and female patients with AIS.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data that compared clinical and radiographical characteristics between male and female surgical candidates. Demographic and clinical data including age at presentation, gender, family history of scoliosis, brace treatment history, clinical coronal balance, shoulder asymmetry, and hump size were recorded. All patients graded their pain with the use of a visual analogue scale (VAS) on a scale from 0 to 10. Radiographs of the spine were reviewed to determine the type of curve according to the Lenke classification, Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis angle, and the Risser sign. Radiologic coronal balance was recorded. Curve flexibility was determined by measuring the thoracic and lumbar curves magnitude on side bending radiographs

Results: The study included 163 patients with AIS including 35 males and 128 females patients. Although a trend toward more flexible major thoracic curves in females was noticed, there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups.

Conclusions: In this study we were not able to demonstrate any clinical nor radiological statistical differences between male and female patients who are candidate for surgical treatment.

January 2019
Avi Sabbag MD, Yasmin Farhadian MD, Arwa Younis MD, David Luria MD, Osnat Gurevitz MD, Eyal Nof MD, Michael Glikson MD and Roy Beinart MD

Background: Catheter ablation (CA) is a well-established therapeutic option for patients with recurrent symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). Data on gender-related differences are limited with regard to baseline characteristics and long-term success rates of catheter ablation for AF.

Methods: We analyzed a cohort of 251 consecutive patients who underwent a first catheter ablation for AF in our institute during the period 2008 through 2015. All patients were followed by regular annual clinic visits, electrocardiograms, periodic 24–48 hour Holter monitoring, and loop recorders. The primary endpoint was first recurrence of AF during 1 year of follow-up.

Results: The cohort comprised 26% women (n=65), who were older (62.1 ± 9.6 vs. 54.4 ± 11.3 years, P < 0.01) and had a higher proportion of diabetes mellitus (23.1 vs. 5.4%, P < 0.001) than male patients. No other significant differences were evident. At 1 year follow-up, the cumulative survival free of AF was significantly higher in women compared with men (83% vs. 66%, respectively, log rank P value = 0.021). Subgroup analysis showed an interaction between female and small indexed left atrial diameter (LADi < 23 mm/m2).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that women experience a significantly lower rate of AF recurrence post-CA compared with men. This gender-related advantage appears to be restricted to women without significant left atrial enlargement. It further implies that left atrial enlargement has a stronger negative impact on post-CA AF recurrence in females than in males. Due to the relatively small sample number of females further research is warranted to validate our conclusions.

May 2018
Roman Nevzorov MD, Avital Porter MD, Shanie Mostov DVM, Shirit Kazum MD, Alon Eisen MD, Gustavo Goldenberg MD, Zaza Iakobishvili MD, Jairo Kusniec MD, Gregory Golovchiner MD, Boris Strasberg MD and Moti Haim MD

Background: Gender-related differences (GRD) exist in the outcome of patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).

Objectives: To assess GRD in patients who underwent CRT.

Methods: A retrospective cohort of 178 patients who were implanted with a CRT in a tertiary center 2005–2009 was analyzed. Primary outcome was 1 year mortality. Secondary endpoints were readmission and complication rates.

Results: No statistically significant difference was found in 1 year mortality rates (14.6% males vs. 11.8% females, P = 0.7) or in readmission rate (50.7% vs. 41.2%, P = 0.3). The complication rate was only numerically higher in women (14.7% vs. 5.6%, P = 0.09). Men more often had CRT-defibrillator (CRT-D) implants (63.2% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.003) and had a higher rate of ischemic cardiomyopathy (79.2% vs. 38.2%, P < 0.001). There was a trend to higher incidence of ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia in men before CRT implantation (29.9% vs. 14.7%, P = 0.07%). A higher proportion of men upgraded from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) to CRT-D, 20.8% vs. 8.8%, P = 0.047. On multivariate model, chronic renal failure was an independent predictor of 1 year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 3.6; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.4–9.5), CRT-D had a protective effect compared to CRT-pacemaker (HR 0.3, 95%CI 0.12–0.81).

Conclusions: No GRD was found in 1 year mortality or readmission rates in patients treated with CRT. There was a trend toward a higher complication rate in females. Men were implanted more often with CRT-D and more frequently underwent upgrading of ICD to CRT-D.


August 2016
Shimon Izhakian MD, Walter G. Wasser MD, Baruch Vainshelboim PhD, Benjamin D. Fox BM BS and Mordechai R. Kramer MD FCCP

Background: Studies in lung transplantation demonstrate that the ancestry and gender dissimilarities of donor–recipients lead to a decrease in survival of the recipient. 

Objectives: To evaluate the survival of lung transplant recipients in Israel based on whether the donors and recipients are of Jewish or Arab ancestry as well as survival based on gender match or mismatch.

Methods: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of 345 lung transplant recipients at the Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel between January 1997 and January 2013. We compared the survival of lung transplant recipients in two ancestry categories: ancestry matched (Jewish donors to Jewish recipients or Arab donors to Arab recipients) and ancestry mismatched (Jewish donors to Arab recipients and vice versa). We also compared the survival among the four gender donor and recipient combinations (male to male, female to female, male to female, and female to male). 

Results: Survival analysis revealed no significant differences between the two ancestry groups (P = 0.51) and among the four gender combinations (P = 0.58). On Cox multivariate analysis, younger donor age was the only significant parameter for longer survival (hazards ratio 1.025, 95% confidence interval 1.012–1.037).

Conclusions: Gender and ancestry mismatches in these two Israeli populations do not appear to alter the clinical outcomes following lung transplantation.


May 2016
Itay Wiser MD PHD, Alon Scope MD, David Azriel BSc, Elhanan Zloczower BScMed, Narin N. Carmel MD and Avshalom Shalom MD

Background: Clinicopathological risk factors for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (CSCCHN) are associated with local recurrence and metastasis. 

Objectives: To compare the incidence and risk factors of CSCCHN by age and gender in order to help refine the clinical evaluation and treatment process.

Methods: Clinical and pathological data of all patients diagnosed with CSCCHN during 2009–2011 were obtained from a central pathology laboratory in Israel. Estimated incidence rate calculation was standardized to the 2010 Israeli population. Independent risk factors for poorly differentiated CSCCHN were analyzed using logistic regression.

Results: CSCCHN was diagnosed in 621 patients. Mean age was 75.2 years; mean tumor horizontal diameter was 11.1 ± 6.8 mm. The overall estimated incidence rate in males was higher than in females (106.2 vs. 54.3 per 1,000,000, P < 0.001). Twenty cases (3.2%) had poorly differentiated CSCCHN. Scalp and ear anatomic locations were observed more often in males than in females (22.1% vs. 6.1% and 20.3% vs. 3.3%, respectively, P < 0.001). Per 1 mm increment, tumor horizontal diameter increased the risk for poorly differentiated CSCCHN by 6.7% (95%CI 1.3–12.4%, P = 0.014). 

Conclusions: CSCCHN clinicopathological risk factors are not distributed evenly among different age and gender groups. 


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