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עמוד בית
Wed, 12.06.24

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November 2023
Gassan Moady MD, Moanis Serhan MD, Shaul Atar MD, Alexander Shturman MD

Background: The continuity equation (CE) used for evaluating aortic stenosis (AS) is based on values obtained from transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with the assumption that the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) has a circular shape. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) may be used for accurate measurement of the LVOT cross-sectional area (CSA). Previous studies have focused on fusion from TEE for LVOT-CSA measurement and TTE for velocity time integrals (VTI) calculations.

Objectives: To assess aortic valve area (AVA) using parameters obtained exclusively from TEE as an alternative approach.

Methods: Thirty patients with equivocal AS based on TTE were evaluated using TEE for further assessment.

Results: The mean pressure gradient across the aortic valve (AV) was 38 ± 5.9 and 37.9 ± 7.6 mmHg in TTE and TEE, respectively, P = 0.42. LVOT-CSA was larger in TEE (3.6 ± 0.3 vs. 3.4 ± 0.3 cm2, P = 0.049). VTI over the AVA was similar (98.54 ± 22.8 and 99.52 ± 24.52 cm in TTE and TEE, respectively, P = 0.608), while VTI across the LVOT was higher when measured by TTE (24.06 ± 5.8 vs. 22.03 ± 4.3 cm, P < 0.009). Using the CE, AVA was 0.82 ± 0.3 vs. 0.83 ± 0.17 cm2 in TEE vs. TTE, respectively, P = 0.608. Definitive grading was achieved in all patients (26 patients defined with severe AS and 4 with moderate).

Conclusions: In equivocal cases of AS, full assessment using TEE may be a reliable modality for decision making.

February 2023
Gassan Moady MD MPH, Alexander Shturman MD, Elias Daud MD, Gal Rubinstein MD, Dror Leviner MD, Shaul Atar MD

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) often develops following stressors such as cardiac surgery. It may be fatal in rare cases. Our 70-year-old female patient presented with a rare case of tricuspid valve papillary fibroelastoma, which was complicated by fatal TTS after successful resection. The patient had a right atrial mass that was investigated with computed tomography and transesophageal echocardiography (TTE). She was scheduled for surgery. Pathology findings were consistent with papillary fibroelastoma of the tricuspid valve. Three weeks after successful surgery, the patient was admitted due to cardiogenic shock with echocardiographic findings of apical ballooning and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction consistent with TTS. The patient died one hour after her admission despite optimal medical therapy.

March 2021
Gassan Moady MD MPH and Shaul Atar MD

Background: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a non-ischemic cardiomyopathy characterized by an acute reversible left ventricular dysfunction with typical apical ballooning, usually with subsequent complete spontaneous recovery. TTS may be triggered by several physical and emotional stressors. The name Covidsubo was recently adopted to describe this emerging entity. TTS during quarantine may be a reasonable outcome of the overwhelming stress and fear of this pandemic. However, according to the current literature, conflicting results have been reported regarding the incidence of this syndrome during the first wave of the pandemic, and further studies are needed. High index of suspicion is needed to identify patients during the next waves of the pandemic, particularly given the need for minimizing imaging modalities and contact with the patients.

Objectives: To describe two cases of TTS triggered by quarantine during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Methods: Two patients (age 81 years and 70 years) were admitted to our medical center with severe chest pain with normal blood pressure and heart rate.

Results: TTS should always be in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with chest pain suspected to be from coronary origin. Based on the typical clinical, echocardiographic, and angiographic findings, we assumed TTS.

Conclusions: The only prominent stressor in the two cases in this article was the stress accompanying quarantine.

February 2021
Gassan Moady MD MPH, Shelly Vons MD, and Shaul Atar MD

Background: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a non-ischemic cardiomyopathy characterized by an acute reversible left ventricular dysfunction with typical apical ballooning, usually with subsequent complete spontaneous recovery. TTS shares several features with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), including clinical presentation, ECG changes, and elevated troponin.

Objectives: To identify different features that may help differentiate between TTS and ACS with presentation based on presenting symptoms and physical examination.

Methods: We compared 35 patients who TTS had been diagnosed with 60 age- and sex- matched patients with ACS (both ST and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction) who were hospitalized in Galilee Medical Center through 2011-2015.Basic characteristics and clinical features of the two groups were compared using appropriate statistical tests.

Results: Of the patients with TTS, 21 (60%) reported an emotional trigger (60%) before admission, although they did not have increased prevalence of psychiatric disease compared to ACS patients (5.7% vs. 5%, P = 0.611). There was no difference in the type of chest pain or accompanied symptoms between the groups. Of notice, ECG changes in the TTS group were prominent in the anterior leads, and the patients presented with higher heart rate (86 ± 17 vs. 79 ± 15, P = 0.029) and lower systolic blood pressure (129 ± 26 vs. 142 ± 30, P = 0.034) on admission compared to the ACS group.

Conclusions: There was no reliable feature that could distinguish TTS from ACS based on clinical presentation. TTS should always be in the differential diagnosis in patients with acute chest pain, especially in elderly women

May 2020
Gassan Moady MD MPH, Elias Daud MD, Ronen Galilee MD, Edmond Sabo MD, Salam Mazareb PhD and Shaul Atar MD
October 2019
Gassan Moady MD, Amitai Bickel MD, Alexander Shturman MD, Muhammad Khader MD and Shaul Atar MD

Background: Pneumatic sleeves (PS) are often used during laparoscopic surgery and for prevention of deep vein thrombosis in patients who cannot receive anticoagulation treatment. There is very little information on the hemodynamic changes induced by PS and their effect on brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with severely reduced left ventricular ejection function (LVEF).

Objectives: To determine the safety and hemodynamic changes induced by PS and their effects on brain natriuretic peptide (BNP).

Methods: This study comprised 14 patients classified as New York Heart Association (NYHA) II–III with severely reduced LVEF (< 40%). We activated the PS using two inflation pressures (50 or 80 mmHg, 7 patients in each group) at two cycles per minute for one hour. We measured echocardiography, hemodynamic parameters, and BNP levels in each patient prior to, during, and after the PS operation.

Results: The baseline LVEF did not change throughout the activation of PS (31 ± 10% vs. 33 ± 9%, P = 0.673). Following PS activation there was no significant difference in systolic or diastolic blood pressure, the pulse measurements, or central venous pressure. BNP levels did not change after PS activation (P = 0.074).

Conclusions: The use of PS, with either low or high inflation pressures, is safe and has no detrimental effects on hemodynamic parameters or BNP levels in patients with severely reduced LVEF following clinical stabilization and optimal medical therapy.

May 2008
M. Mittelman, G. Lugassy, D. Merkel, H. Tamary, N. Sarid, E. Rachmilewitz and C. Hershko
October 2007
M. Klein, R. Agassi, A-R. Shapira, D.M. Kaplan, L. Koiffman and N. Weksler

Background: Percutaneous tracheostomy has largely replaced surgical tracheostomy in the intensive care unit setting. Although it seems logical that surgeons continue to do tracheostomies, anesthesiologists and intensive care specialists are familiar with airway control and guide wire techniques and could replace surgeons in the performance of PDT.

Objectives: To assess the safety and effectiveness of bedside PDT[1] in the ICU[2].

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 207 patients in the ICU who underwent PDT by an intensive care physician.

Results: Subcutaneous emphysema without pneumothorax occurred in one patient. Four patients underwent surgical revision following PDT. Early bleeding (during the first 48 hours following the procedure) was the indication in two patients and late bleeding, on the 10th post-PDT day, in one. In one case PDT was converted to surgical tracheostomy due to inadvertent early decannulation. There was one death directly related to the procedure, due to an unrecognized paratracheal insertion of the tracheostomy tube followed by mechanical ventilation, which led to bilateral pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and cardio-circulatory collapse. No infectious complications were seen at the stoma site or surrounding tissues.

Conclusions: PDT by intensive care physicians appears to be safe and should be included in the curriculum of intensive care residency.






[1] PDT = percutaneous dilational tracheostomy



[2] ICU = intensive care unit


December 2006
A. Nemets, I. Isakov, M. Huerta, Y. Barshai, S. Oren and G. Lugassy
 Background: Thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in polycythemia vera. Hypercoagulability is principally due to hyperviscosity of the whole blood, an exponential function of the hematocrit. PV[1] is also associated with endothelial dysfunction that can predispose to arterial disease. Reduction of the red cell mass to a safe level by phlebotomy is the first principle of therapy in PV. This therapy may have some effect on the arterial compliance in PV patients.

Objectives: To estimate the influence of phlebotomies on large artery (C1) and small artery compliance (C2) in PV patients by using non-invasive methods.

Methods: Short-term hemodynamic effects of phlebotomy were studied by pulse wave analysis using the HDI-Pulse Wave CR2000 (Minneapolis, MN, USA) before and immediately after venesection (300–500 ml of blood). We repeated the evaluation after 1 month to measure the long-term effects.

Results: Seventeen PV patients were included in the study and 47 measurements of arterial compliance were performed: 37 for short-term effects and 10 for long-term effects. The mean large artery compliance (C1) before phlebotomy was 12.0 ml/mmHg x 10 (range 4.5–28.6), and 12.6 ml/mmHg x 10 (range 5.2–20.1) immediately after phlebotomy (NS). The mean small artery compliance (C2) before and immediately after phlebotomy were 4.4 mg/mmHg x 10 (range 1.2–14.3) and 5.5 mg/mmHg x 10 (range 1.2–15.6) respectively (delta C2–1.1, P < 0.001). No difference in these parameters could be demonstrated in the long-term arm.

Conclusions: Phlebotomy immediately improves arterial compliance in small vessels of PV patients, but this effect is short lived.


 





[1] PV = polycythemia vera


February 2004
D. Zamir, I. Leibovitz, I. Polyschuch, T. Reitblat and G. Lugassy
March 2002
Dov Gefel, MD, Maria Doncheva, MD, Eli Ben-Valid, MD, Abed El Wahab-Daraushe, MD, Gil Lugassy, MD and Ben-Ami Sela, PhD
February 2000
Arie Levine MD, Yoram Bujanover MD, Shimon Reif MD, Svetlana Gass, Nurit Vardinon, Ram Reifen MD and Dan Lehmann PhD

Background: Anti-endomysial antibodies are sensitive and specific markers for celiac disease. This antibody has recently been identified as an antibody to tissue transglutaminase, an enzyme that cross-links and stabilizes extracellular matrix proteins.

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of an enzyme-linked immunoassay for anti-transglutaminase antibodies, and to compare the results with those of AEA, the current gold standard serological test for celiac disease.

Methods: Serum samples were collected from 33 patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease and AEA tests were performed. Control samples for anti-transglutaminase were obtained from 155 patients. An ELISA test for immunoglobulin A anti-transglutaminase utilizing guinea pig liver transglutaminase was developed and performed on all sera.  Cutoff values for the test were performed using logistic regression and receiver operating curves analysis.

Results: An optical density cutoff value of 0.34 was established for the assay. The mean value was 0.18±0.19 optical density for controls, and 1.65±1.14 for patients with celiac disease (P<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the assay were both 90%, while AEA had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94%, respectively.

Conclusions: A tissue transglutaminase-based ELISA test is both sensitive and specific for  detection of celiac disease.

__________________________________

 

AEA = anti-endomysial antibody

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