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עמוד בית
Tue, 23.07.24

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March 2019
Ibrahim Zvidi MD, Doron Boltin MBBS, Yaron Niv MD, Ram Dickman MD, Gerald Fraser MD and Shlomo Birkenfeld MD

Background: Temporal trends in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the Arab and Jewish populations in Israel have been poorly described.

Objectives: To compare the annual incidence and prevalence rates of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Arab and Jewish populations in Israel between the years 2003 and 2008.

Methods: We applied a common case identification algorithm to the Clalit Health Services database to both determine trends in age-adjusted incidence and prevalence rates for IBD in both populations during this period and estimate the burden of IBD in Israel.

Results: The incidence of CD in the Arab population increased from 3.1/100,000 in 2003 to 10.6/100,000 person-years in 2008, compared with a decrease in the Jewish population from 14.3/100,000 to 11.7/100,000 person-years for the same period. The incidence of UC in the Arab population increased from 4.1/100,000 in 2003 to 5.0/100,000 person-years in 2008, a low but stable rate, compared with a decrease from 16.4/100,000 to 9.5/100,000 person-years for the same time period in the Jewish population. The prevalence of both diseases increased due to the accumulation of incident cases but remained much lower among Arabs.

Conclusions: Understanding the factors underlying the differences in incidence and prevalence of IBD in the Jewish and Arab populations may shed light on the genetic and environmental factors associated with these diseases.

July 2014
Natalya Bilenko MD PhD MPH, Drora Fraser PhD, Hillel Vardy BA and Ilana Belmaker MD MPH
Background: A high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia persists in Bedouin Arab and Jewish pediatric populations in southern Israel.

Objectives: To compare the effect of daily use of multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS), "Sprinkles," a powdered formulation of iron, vitamins A and C, folic acid and zinc, with liquid iron and vitamins A and D on iron deficiency at 12 months of age.

Methods: The 621 eligible Bedouin and Jewish infants in the study were assigned to the MMS and control arms and received their supplementations from age 6 to 12 months. We examined the change in hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell volume, red blood cell distribution, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. In addition, we used the high Iron Deficiency Index (IDI) if two or more of the above six parameters showed abnormal levels. 

Results: Rates of anemia decreased significantly over the 6 month period, from 58.8% to 40.6% among Bedouin infants (P = 0.037) and from 40.6 to 15.8% among Jewish infants (P = 0.017). In Bedouin infants the prevalence of high IDI decreased significantly from 79.2% to 67.4% (P = 0.010) in the MMS group, but there was no change in the controls. Among Jewish infants, the high IDI prevalence decreased from 67% to 55.6% with no statistically significant difference in the two study arms. In the multivariate analysis in Bedouin infants MMS use was associated with a reduced risk of 67% in high IDI at age 12 months as compared to controls (P = 0.001). Fewer side effects in the intervention groups in both ethnic populations were reported.

Conclusions: MMS fortification of home food can be recommended as an effective and safe method for preventing iron deficiency anemia at 12 months of age. 
November 2012
E. Cohen, I. Krause, A. Fraser, E. Goldberg and M. Garty

Background: There is a striking increase in the number of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a result of the global epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Increasing evidence suggests that uric acid may play a role in MetS.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of MetS in a large cohort from Israel and its association with hyperuricemia using the latest three definitions of MetS.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the database from a screening center in Israel, using the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Harmonizing definitions of MetS, to assess 12,036 subjects with an age range of 20–80 years.

Results: The mean age of the study sample was 46.1 ± 10.2 years and 69.8% were male. The prevalence of MetS was 10.6%, 18.2% and 20.2% in the revised NCEP ATP III, the IDF and the Harmonizing definitions respectively. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in subjects with MetS, for all three MetS definitions, was similar: 20.0%, 19.9% and 19.1% respectively. There was a graded increase in the prevalence of MetS among subjects with increasing levels of uric acid. The increasing trend persisted after stratifying for age and gender and after multivariate analysis (P for trend < 0.001).

Conclusions: This large cohort shows a high prevalence of MetS in Israel, but is still lower than the prevalence in western countries. Hyperuricemia is common in those subjects and might be considered a potential clinical parameter in the definition of MetS.
 

March 2011
I. Krause, N. Herman, R. Cleper, A. Fraser and M. Davidovits

Background: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common complication in critically ill children. It is known as an important predictor of morbidity and mortality in this population. Data on the factors affecting the choice of renal replacement therapy (RRT) modality and its impact on mortality of children with ARF[1] are limited.

Objectives: We retrospectively studied 115 children with ARF necessitating RRT[2] during the period 1995–2005 to evaluate the effect of several prognostic factors as well as RRT type on their immediate outcome.

Methods: The data collected from charts included demographics, primary disease, accompanying medical conditions, use of vasopressor support, indications for dialysis, RRT modality, and complications of dialysis. Categorical variables were analyzed using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Variables associated with mortality (P < 0.1) at the univariable level were studied by a multivariable logistic regression model.

Results: The most common cause of ARF was congenital heart disease (n=75). RRT modalities included peritoneal dialysis (PD) (n=81), hemodialfiltration (HDF) (n=31) and intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) (n=18). Median RRT duration was 4 days (range 1–63 days). Overall mortality was 52.2%. IHD[3] was associated with the best survival rate (P < 0.01 vs. PD[4] and HDF[5]), while children treated with HDF had the worse outcome. Hemodynamic instability and systemic infections were associated with greater mortality, but the rate of these complications did not differ between the study groups.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that IHD[6] when applied to the right patient in an appropriate setting may be a safe and efficient RRT modality in children with ARF. Randomized prospective trials are needed to further evaluate the impact of different RRT modalities on outcome in children with ARF.






[1]               ARF = acute renal failure



[2]               RRT = renal replacement therapy



[3]               IHD = intermittent hemodialysis



[4]               PD = peritoneal dialysis



[5]               HDF = hemodialfiltration



[6]               IHD = renal replacement therapy



 
June 2010
N. Bilenko, I. Belmaker, H. Vardi and D. Fraser
Background: The rates of anemia in children in southern Israel are high despite the current prevention strategy. A daily dose of Sprinkles (SuppleForteTM, Heinz, Canada), a micronutrient home supplementation, was proven effective for the treatment of anemia worldwide.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of Sprinkles, a novel supplementation formulation, in the primary prevention of anemia in infants who have free access to health care services. Methods: A two-arm open-labeled cluster randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in 6 month old Bedouin and Jewish infants. The Sprinkles arm received sachets with iron, vitamins A and C, folic acid and zinc, and the control arm received standard treatment (liquid iron and vitamins A and D). The infants were from families attending Maternal and Child Health clinics during 2005–2008. Intervention and follow-up were conducted for babies aged 6–12 months. Health outcomes (hematologic and nutritional indicators, growth parameters, morbidity rates) were evaluated at 12 and 18 months.

Results: The final study population numbered 621 infants (328 Bedouin and 293 Jewish) of the parents approached 88.5% agreed to participate. Hemoglobin above 11 g/dl was found in 55% of Bedouin and 40% of Jewish infants (P < 0.01). Bedouin infants had significantly lower serum concentration of iron, folic acid and zinc. All background, hematologic and micronutrient indicators were similar in the two study arms except for a slightly but not clinically significant difference in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in Bedouins.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate the need to improve the micronutrient status of infants living in the Negev. A cluster randomized trial in MCH[1] clinics is a feasible option. 

[1] MHC = mother and child health

June 2007
A. Gafter-Gvili, M. Paul, A. Fraser, L. Leibovici.
February 2003
E. Gal, G. Abuksis, G. Fraser, R. Koren, C. Shmueli, Y. Yahav and Y. Niv

Background: The 13C-urea breath test is the best non-invasive test to validate Helicobacter pylori eradication. Serology is unreliable for this purpose due to the slow and unpredictable decline in the antibodies titer.

Objectives: To characterize a specific group of patients who were treated for H. pylori and tested for successful eradication by 13C-UBT[1] in our central laboratory and to correlate the eradication success rate with specific drug combinations, and to evaluate other factors that may influence eradication success.

Methods: 13C-UBT for H. pylori was performed in the central laboratory of Clalit Health Services. The breath test was performed by dedicated nurses in 25 regional laboratories and the samples were analyzed by a mass spectrometer (Analytical Precision 2003, UK). The physician who ordered the test completed a questionnaire computing demographic data (age, gender, origin), indication, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or proton pump inhibitor, and combination of eradication therapy.

Results: Of the 1,986 patients tested to validate successful H. pylori eradication, 539 (27%) had a positive test (treatment failure group) and 1,447 (73%) had a negative test (successful treatment group). Male gender, older age and European-American origin predicted better eradication rates. Dyspeptic symptoms and chronic PPI[2] therapy predicted treatment failure. Combination therapy that included clarithromycin had a higher eradication rate than a combination containing metronidazole. The combination of omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin achieved an eradication rate of 81.3%, which was better than the combination of omeprazole, metronidazole and clarithromycin (77.2%) (not significant), or of omeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole (66.1%) (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: Gender, age, origin, dyspepsia and PPI therapy may predict H. pylori eradication results. Our findings also support an increase in metronidazole resistance of H. pylori strains in Israel, as described in other countries. We recommend combination therapy with omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin and avoidance of metronidazole as one of the first-line eradication drugs.






[1]13C-UBT[1]  = 13C-urea breath test



[2] PPI = proton pump inhibitor


June 2002
Yosefa Bar-Dayan, MD, MHA, Simon Ben-Zikrie, MD2, Gerald Fraser, MD, FRCP, Ziv Ben-Ari, MD, Marius Braun, MD, Mordechai Kremer, MD and Yaron Niv, MD
April 2001
Arie Regev, MD, Rafit Drori, MD, Gerald M. Fraser, MD and Yaron Niv, MD

Background: Alkaline tide is the transient increase in blood and urine pH following stimulation of gastric acid secretion. It is attributed to HC03 release from parietal cells in parallel with H+ secretion. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase is thought to be responsible for HC03 production from CO2 and 0H in the parietal cell.

Objective: To examine the effect of pretreatment with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide, on the alkaline tide phenomenon.

Methods: Ten patients with dyspepsia and demonstrable alkaline tide were tested on three separate days. The pH and base excess were determined in arterialized venous blood before and 45 minutes after an intramuscular injection of pentagastrin. The pH of the urine was measured before and 120 mm after pentagastrin injection. Measurements were performed after pentagastrin alone on day 1 following pretreatment with acetazolamide 60 mm before pentagastrin on day 2, and after the administration of acetazolamide alone on day 3.

Results: Following the administration of pentagastrin alone, the blood base excess increased by 1.61 +0.2 mEq/L (mean + standard deviation) and the calculated alkaline tide at 45 mm was 33.99 ±4.49 mEq. On day 2 with prior adminis­tration of acetazolamide, base excess decreased by 0.21 + 0.39 mEq/L, and the calculated alkaline tide was -3.28±7.57 mEq, which was significantly lower than on day 1 (P=0 0001). On day 3, following acetazolamide alone, the base excess values decreased by 0.53~0.2 mEq/L and the alkaline tide was -10.05 +3.33 mEq there was no significant difference compared with day 2 (P= 0.44).

Conclusion: Pretreatment with acetazolamide abolished the alkaline tide induced by pentagastrin. This finding supports the view that carbonic anhydrase has a major role in the alkaline tide phenomenon.

December 1999
Ram Dickman, MD, Chana Turani, MD, Elimelech Okon, MD, Gerald M. Fraser MD, and Yaron Niv, MD.
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