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עמוד בית
Fri, 24.05.24

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August 2023
Noam Savion MD, Noa Guzner MD, Saar Hashavya MD, Shimon Reif MD, Lea Ohana Sarna Cahan MD

Background: Brucellosis is an endemic infection affecting the Mediterranean Basin, Arabian Peninsula, India, Mexico, and South America. Data on brucellosis infections in children are limited.

Objectives: To review and characterize the clinical presentation of pediatric patients diagnosed with brucellosis in a tertiary medical center.

Methods: Retrospective data analysis was conducted on all pediatric patients from January 2010 to December 2020 admitted to the pediatric department with a diagnosis of brucellosis based on a positive serology test or growth of Brucella bacteria in blood culture.

Results: The study comprised 53 children aged 0–18 years. The mean age at presentation was 11.01 ± 4.91 years; 39 male (73.6%). Pre-infection exposure to unpasteurized milk or unvaccinated livestock was reported in 37 (69.8%). Fever was present in 64.6%, followed by arthralgia (49%), loss of appetite (42.3%), and weight loss (24.6%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 52.8% and included abdominal pain (34.6%), nausea (28.3%), vomiting (24.5%), and diarrhea (2.6%). Eight patients experienced pancytopenia (15.1%). The median length of intravenous antibiotic treatment was 7 days (range 3–14 days) and for oral antibiotic treatment 6 weeks (range 2–24 weeks). Most patients were initially treated with intravenous gentamycin (90.5%) and long-term oral antibiotics, most commonly doxycycline. Two (3.7%) required admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. No mortality was documented, and all cases of relapses were successfully treated.

Conclusions: Pediatric brucellosis is an acute febrile disease often associated with rheumatologic complaints. Patients 8–18 years of age also presented with headache, weight loss, and night sweats.

Ori Wand MD, Oded Kimhi MD, Lilach Israeli-Shani MD, David Shitrit MD

Biological therapies with monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the management of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Combining biological treatments is very rarely indicated and may theoretically result in severe adverse effects, specifically, an increased tendency toward infectious diseases. We present the case of a woman in whom combination therapy with canakinumab for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and mepolizumab for chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was successfully employed.

Elchanan Parnasa MD, Fadi Kharouf MD, Limor Rubin MD

Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is defined as the repeated occurrence of elevated body temperature above 38.3°C (101°F) lasting for at least 3 weeks with no clear diagnosis despite a thorough investigation of more than one-week duration. FUO cases could be categorized into three major etiologies: infectious, neoplastic, and systemic inflammatory. Despite novel diagnostic modalities, clinicians still encounter a significant number of unresolved FUO cases, accounting for as many as 50% of cases [1]. Prolonged futile FUO investigations may be a source of frustration for many clinicians [2]. We described a unique cause for FUO that shares the complexity of the diagnostic workup and emphasizes the importance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) modality in the process of investigating FUO.

September 2022
Yotam Kolben MD, Henny Azmanov MD, Yuval Ishay MD, Efrat Orenbuch-Harroch MD, and Yael Milgrom MD.
May 2021
Eran Glikson MD, Adi Abbass, Eldar Carmel MD, Adi Primov-Fever MD, Eran E. Alon MD, and Michael Wolf MD

Background: Management of acquired laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is challenging and often requires recurrent procedures.

Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of balloon dilatation (BD) versus rigid dilatation (RD) in the treatment of LTS.

Methods: A retrospective study of patients undergoing endoscopic intervention for LTS was performed.

Results: The study included 69 balloon (BD) and 48 rigid dilations (RD). Most cases were grade 3 Cotton-Meyer stenosis. Mean time interval to recurrence after BD and RD were 27.9 and 19.6 weeks, respectively. Remission of over 8 weeks was achieved in 71% of BD compared to 31.2% of RD (P < 0.05). In the BD group, dilatation of subglottic stenosis showed higher rates of remission of over 8 weeks compared to upper and mid-tracheal stenosis (92% vs. 62% and 20%, respectively, P < 0.05). Complications were encountered in 4.2% of RD and 2.9% of BD.

Conclusions: BD and RD are effective and safe procedures. Overall, BD achieved slightly better long-term results compared to RD

July 2019
Carlo Perricone MD PhD, Daphna Katz, Cinzia Ciccacci PhD, Fulvia Ceccarelli MD PhD, Guido Valesini MD, Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP MaACR, Paola Borgiani PhD and Fabrizio Conti MD PhD

Recurrent pericarditis is a state of repetitive inflammation of the pericardium with intervals of remission. The etiology of recurrent pericarditis is still largely unknown, yet most causes are presumed to be immune mediated. Genetic factors, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, can be involved in dysregulation of the immune system and as a predisposition to several autoimmune conditions, including recurrent pericarditis. Several diseases are frequently associated with such manifestations. They include systemic lupus erythematosus, familial Mediterranean fever, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome. However, idiopathic recurrent pericarditis remains the most frequently observed clinical condition and the conundrum of this disease still needs to be solved.

June 2019
Eric Scheier MD, Tal Ben-Ami MD, Alex Guri MD and Uri Balla MD
September 2018
Shachar Naor MD DVM, Osnat Sher MD, Galia Grisaru-Soen MD, Dror Levin MD, Ronit Elhasid MD, Yuval Geffen MD, Dov Hershkovitz MD PhD and Asaf Aizic MD
September 2017
Ido-David Dechtman MD, Chagai Grossman MD, Yael Shinar MD, Rinat Cohen MD, Eyal Nachum MD, Ehud Raanani MD, Avi Livneh MD and Ilan Ben-Zvi MD

Background: Postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) is characterized by pleuro-pericardial inflammation, which occurs in patients undergoing surgical procedures involving the pleura, pericardium, or both. The syndrome is considered to be immune mediated. However, its pathogenesis is not fully understood. It has previously been demonstrated that the Mediterranean Fever (MEFV) gene, which is associated with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), has a role in the activation and expression of several inflammatory diseases.

Objectives: To investigate whether carriage of the MEFV mutation may precipitate PPS or affect its phenotype.

Methods: The study population included 45 patients who underwent cardiac surgery and developed PPS. The control group was comprised of 41 patients who did not develop PPS. Clinical and demographic data was collected. The severity of PPS was evaluated. Genetic analysis to determine the carriage of one the three most common MEFV gene mutations (M694V, V726A, E148Q) was performed. The carriage rate of MEFV mutations in patients with and without PPS was compared. Association between MEFV mutation carriage and severity of PPS was evaluated. 

Results: The rate of mutation carriage in the MEFV gene was similar in patients with and without PPS (15.6% in the study groups vs. 29.3% in the control group, P = 0.1937). The rate of mutation carriage in the MEFV gene was significantly lower among patients with severe PPS as compared to patients with mild-moderate PPS (4.8% vs. 25%, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Carriage of mutations in the MEFV gene is not associated with development of PPS; however, it may affect PPS severity.

 

July 2017
Donato Rigante MD, Stefano Gentileschi MD, Antonio Vitale MD, Giusyda Tarantino MD and Luca Cantarini MD PhD

Fevers recurring at a nearly predictable rate every 3–8 weeks are the signature symptom of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, an acquired autoinflammatory disorder which recurs in association with at least one sign among aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and/or cervical lymph node enlargement without clinical signs related to upper respiratory airways or other localized infections. The disease usually has a rather benign course, although it might relapse during adulthood after a spontaneous or treatment-induced resolution in childhood. The number of treatment choices currently available for PFAPA syndrome has grown in recent years, but data from clinical trials dedicated to this disorder are limited to small cohorts of patients or single case reports. The response of PFAPA patients to a single dose of corticosteroids is usually striking, while little data exist for treatment with cimetidine and colchicine. Preliminary interesting results have been published with regard to vitamin D supplementation in PFAPA syndrome, while inhibition of interleukin-1 might represent an intriguing treatment for PFAPA patients who have not responded to standard therapies. Tonsillectomy has been proven curative in many studies related to PFAPA syndrome, although the evidence of its efficacy is not widely shared by different specialists, including pediatricians, rheumatologists and otorhynolaryngologists.

Abid Awisat, Gleb Slobodin, Nizar Jiries, Michael Rozenbaum, Doron Rimar, Nina Boulman, Lisa Kaly, Karina Zilber, Shira Ginsberg and Itzhak Rosner
November 2016
Neta Baram MD, Orli Megged MD and Giora Weiser MD

Background: Once a well-recognized entity, occult bacteremia (OB) is no longer a significant or serious bacterial infection. First following the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine and now with the implementation of the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV), the number of cases has declined significantly. This has led to a change in many published guidelines to avoid taking blood cultures in fully vaccinated children presenting with fever. In Israel, the introduction of the PCV13 is now widespread. 

Objectives: To assess the incidence and outcome of OB, specifically by Streptococcus pneumoniae, in a single large pediatric medical center. 

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all cases of pneumococcal bacteremias in the years 2008–2013 and specifically those considered occult. 

Results: Of 355 cases of bacteremia diagnosed during the study period, 164 were caused by S. pneumoniae and 20 (12.8%) were considered occult. None of the OB cases had any complications. OB was not found in children over the age of 36 months. There was a change in the serotypes involving pneumococcal OB. 

Conclusions: OB is uncommon in the PCV-vaccinated population and the serotypes involved have changed.

 

September 2016
Dimosthenis Chochlakis MD, Elpis Mantadakis MD, Stavros Thomaidis MD, Yannis Tselenti MD, Athanassios Chatzimichael MD and Anna Psaroulaki MD
April 2016
Amir Tanay MD

Chikungunya fever (CHIK-F) has been increasingly documented among Western travelers returning from areas with chikungunya virus transmission, which are also popular tourist sites.  We present three Israeli travelers who developed fever, maculopapular rash and long-standing arthralgias while visiting northern Indian states not known to be involved in the chikungunya fever epidemic. We also present an epidemiological review of the chikungunya epidemic over the past decades. Rare systemic manifestations of this disorder, like catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) and adult onset still’s syndrome, are discussed. The present era of international travel poses a novel diagnostic and epidemiologic challenge and we must increase our awareness to the possibility of an exotic tropical infectious disease.

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