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עמוד בית
Wed, 24.07.24

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December 2022
Ze'ev Itsekson Hayosh MD, Eiman Abu Bandora MD, Natalia Shelestovich MD, Maya Nulman MD, Mati Bakon MD, Gal Yaniv MD, Boris Khaitovitch MD, Shmuel Balan MD, Alexandra Gerasimova MD, Tali Drori MD, Stefan Mausbach MD, Yvonne Schwammenthal MD, Arnon Afek MD, Joab Chapman MD, Efrat Shavit Stein MD, David Orion MD

Endovascularly retrieved clots may be a potential resource for diagnosing stroke etiology. This method may influence secondary prevention treatment. We measure thrombin activity eluted by serially washing clots. We concluded that an assay measuring the change in thrombin in clots retrieved during acute stroke endovascular thrombectomy procedures may serve as a diagnostic marker of the origin of the clot. The suggested mechanism for these differences may be the clot location before its retrieval, with high blood flow causing thrombin washout in atherosclerotic clots, in contrast to atrium appendage low blood flow retaining high thrombin levels.

February 2020
Tawfik Khoury MD, Anas Kadah MD, Amir Mari MD, Wisam Sbeit MD, Ariel Drori MD and Mahmud Mahamid MD

Background: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) may be associated with other autoimmune diseases. Autoantibodies are common in AIH suggesting their potential role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Among these autoantibodies, thyroid autoantibodies have been reported in patients with chronic hepatitis, with greater prevalence in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among patients with AIH.

Methods: In this case-control, retrospective study, we examined patients diagnosed with AIH according to both the original and revised international AIH group scoring systems. Patients with other hepatic pathologies were excluded AIH was evaluated as an independent risk factor for thyroid disease by a logistic regression model. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted using hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism as the dependent variables.

Results: Our cohort comprised 163 patients diagnosed with AIH and 1104 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Hypothyroidism was more prevalent among those with AIH compared to controls (17.7% vs. 5%, respectively, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.68–2.48, P <  0.001). Hyperthyroidism was more prevalent in AIH patients compared to controls (odds ratio 3.2% and 1.2%, respectively, 95%CI 1.68–2.47, P <  0.001). Using a multivariate logistic analysis, we found an independent association between AIH and hypothyroidism but not with hyperthyroidism.

Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction is more prevalent in patients with AIH. Whether thyroid dysfunction is the cause or a risk factor for AIH, or vice versa, is still unclear. Screening for thyroid dysfunction is warranted after AIH is diagnosed.

April 2008
A. Vivante, N. Hirshoren, T. Shochat and D. Merkel

Background: Iron deficiency and lead poisoning are common and are often associated. This association has been suggested previously, mainly by retrospective cross-sectional studies.

Objective: To assess the impact of short-term lead exposure at indoor firing ranges, and its relationship to iron, ferritin, lead, zinc protoporphyrin, and hemoglobin concentrations in young adults.

Methods: We conducted a clinical study in 30 young healthy soldiers serving in the Israel Defense Forces. Blood samples were drawn for lead, zinc protoporphyrin, iron, hemoglobin and ferritin prior to and after a 6 week period of intensive target practice in indoor firing ranges.

Results: After a 6 week period of exposure to lead dust, a mean blood lead level increase (P < 0.0001) and a mean iron (P < 0.0005) and mean ferritin (P < 0.0625) decrease occurred simultaneously. We found a trend for inverse correlation between pre-exposure low ferritin levels and post-exposure high blood lead levels.

Conclusions: The decrease in iron and ferritin levels after short-term lead exposure can be attributed to competition between iron and lead absorption via divalent metal transport 1, suggesting that lead poisoning can cause iron depletion and that iron depletion can aggravate lead poisoning. This synergistic effect should come readily to every physician's mind when treating patients with a potential risk for each problem separately.
 

October 2006
H.S. Oster, M. Hoffman, S. Prutchi-Sagiv, O. Katz, D. Neumann and M. Mittelman
 Recombinant human erythropoietin has become an essential part of the management of anemic patients with end-stage renal disease. It is also used to treat the anemia associated with cancer and other diseases, and it improves quality of life. In recent years, studies in animals and humans have focused on the use of rHuEPO[1] for other indications. It has been found to play a role in both cardioprotection and neuroprotection. It has effects on the immune system, and can cause regression in hematologic diseases such as multiple myeloma. It may also improve the response of solid tumors to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. On the other hand, concerns have been raised following two studies of patients with solid tumors in whom those treated with rHuEPO had diminished survival. Criticism of the design of these studies makes it clear that large, well-designed, randomized trials must be performed to determine the role of rHuEPO in the treatment of cancer, and more generally to clarify the full clinical benefits of the drug, while minimizing the harm.







[1] rHuEPO = recombinant human erythropoietin


May 2005
A. Ben-Chetrit, D. Hochner-Celnikier, T. Lindenberg, D. Zacut, S. Shimonovitz, H. Gelber and I.M. Spitz
 Background: Relief of climacteric symptoms is currently the main role of hormone therapy. However, vaginal bleeding complicating this therapy is among the leading causes for its early discontinuation.

Objectives: To assess the effect of a vaginal ring delivering estradiol and progesterone in postmenopausal women and to determine whether continuous administration can relieve climacteric symptoms, produce an acceptable pattern of vaginal bleeding and control endometrial proliferation.

Methods: Twenty-nine postmenopausal women with an intact uterus were studied. All had climacteric symptoms. The vaginal rings contained 0.36 g estradiol and either 3.6 g progesterone (high dose progesterone) or 1.8 g (low dose progesterone), and were kept in place for 4–6 months. Serum progesterone, estradiol and estrone were measured and endometrial thickness determined. All women kept a daily diary of bleeding/spotting and completed a questionnaire on climacteric symptoms at monthly intervals. The low dose progesterone group comprised 14 women and the high dose progesterone group 15 women.

Results: A total of 18 patients (9 in each group) completed the study. Mean levels of estradiol, estrone and progesterone were at their peak after 2 to 4 weeks. All rings were effective in alleviating vasomotor symptoms, although there was evidence of the "escape from effect" in month 6. Endometrial thickness increased in 6 of the 29 women but biopsy in each case showed no evidence of hyperplasia. Of the 18 women who completed the study, 5 had amenorrhea throughout, 7 had amenorrhea after 3 months, and the remainder had one or two bleeding episodes after 3 months. Therapy was discontinued in 11 women.

Conclusions: A vaginal ring delivering estradiol and progesterone controlled climacteric symptoms, prevented endometrial proliferation, and provided an acceptable bleeding pattern. It should be viewed as a promising alternative for short-term estrogen-progesterone therapy.

March 2004
R. Haimov-Kochman, T. Kochman, A. Stabholz and D. Hochner-Celinkier
November 2002
Jacob Cohen, MSc, Lia Supino-Rosin, MSc, Eran Barzilay, BSc, Ronit Eisen-Lev, DMD, Moshe Mittelman, MD and Drorit Neumann, PhD
April 2001
Arie Regev, MD, Rafit Drori, MD, Gerald M. Fraser, MD and Yaron Niv, MD

Background: Alkaline tide is the transient increase in blood and urine pH following stimulation of gastric acid secretion. It is attributed to HC03 release from parietal cells in parallel with H+ secretion. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase is thought to be responsible for HC03 production from CO2 and 0H in the parietal cell.

Objective: To examine the effect of pretreatment with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide, on the alkaline tide phenomenon.

Methods: Ten patients with dyspepsia and demonstrable alkaline tide were tested on three separate days. The pH and base excess were determined in arterialized venous blood before and 45 minutes after an intramuscular injection of pentagastrin. The pH of the urine was measured before and 120 mm after pentagastrin injection. Measurements were performed after pentagastrin alone on day 1 following pretreatment with acetazolamide 60 mm before pentagastrin on day 2, and after the administration of acetazolamide alone on day 3.

Results: Following the administration of pentagastrin alone, the blood base excess increased by 1.61 +0.2 mEq/L (mean + standard deviation) and the calculated alkaline tide at 45 mm was 33.99 ±4.49 mEq. On day 2 with prior adminis­tration of acetazolamide, base excess decreased by 0.21 + 0.39 mEq/L, and the calculated alkaline tide was -3.28±7.57 mEq, which was significantly lower than on day 1 (P=0 0001). On day 3, following acetazolamide alone, the base excess values decreased by 0.53~0.2 mEq/L and the alkaline tide was -10.05 +3.33 mEq there was no significant difference compared with day 2 (P= 0.44).

Conclusion: Pretreatment with acetazolamide abolished the alkaline tide induced by pentagastrin. This finding supports the view that carbonic anhydrase has a major role in the alkaline tide phenomenon.

September 2000
Channa Maayan, MD, Onit Sela, MD, Felicia Axelrod, MD, D'vorah Kidron, MD and Drorith Hochner-Celnikier, MD

Background: Familial dysautonomia is a genetic disease in which there is a defect in the autonomic and sensory nervous systems. These systems have a major role in the reproductive system.

Objective: To study the inter-relationship of autonomic and sensory dysfunction and gynecological function.

Methods: The gynecological histories of 48 women with familial dysautonomia were analyzed retrospectively. Their mean age was 22.25 years (range 12-47). Thirty-three women (65%) were available for further questioning and investigation of hormonal status.

Results: Menarche had occurred in 32 of the 48 (66.7%). Their average age of menarche was significantly delayed as compared to their unaffected mothers (15.5 vs. 13.6 years respectively, P=0.002). The most prominent finding was the very high prevalence, 81.2%, of premenstrual symptoms. Seven of 26 had premenstrual syndrome symptoms of dysautonomic crisis. Blood sex hormone levels were normal in 27 of the 33 patients studied. None reached natural menopause. One patient had adenomyosis, and another, dysgerminoma. Three patients became pregnant and delivered healthy infants.

Conclusion: Menarche is delayed in women with FD, and the physiological monthly hormonal fluctuations may disturb autonomic homeostasis sufficiently to precipitate dysautonomic crisis.

July 2000
Shlomo Shimonovitz MD, Anda Botosneano MD and Drorith Hochner-Celnikier MD

Background: Uterine rupture is a catastrophic obstetric complication, most often associated with a preexisting cesarean section scar. Although a vaginal birth after a cesarean is considered safe in modern obstetrics, it is not known whether repeated VBACs increase the risk of rupture, or whether the first VBAC proves the strength and durability of the scar, predicting further successful and less risky vaginal deliveries.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of repeated vaginal deliveries on the risk of uterine rupture in women who have previously delivered by cesarean section.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 26 VBAC deliveries complicated by uterine rupture were matched for age, parity, and gravidity with 66 controls who achieved VBAC without rupture. The histories, demography, pregnancy, labor and delivery records, as well as neonatal outcome were compared.

Results: We found that the risk of rupture decreases dramatically in subsequent VBACs. Of the 40 cases of uterine rupture recorded during the 18 year study period, 26 occurred during VBAC deliveries. Of these, 21 were complicated first VBACs. We also found that the use of prostaglandin-estradiol, instrumental deliveries, and oxytocin had been used significantly more often during deliveries complicated with rupture than in VBAC controls.

Conclusions: Once a woman has achieved VBAC the risk of rupture falls dramatically. The use of oxytocin, PGE2 and instrumental deliveries are additional risk factors for rupture, therefore caution should be exerted regarding their application in the presence of a uterine scar, particularly in the first vaginal birth after cesarean.

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VBAC= vaginal birth after cesarean section

PGE2= prostaglandin-estradiol

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