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עמוד בית
Tue, 23.04.24

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December 2023
Chen Kugel MD, Dana Arnheim MD, Arad Dotan BSc, Maya Furman MD, Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP MaACR

On 7 October 2023, a large-scale invasion by armed Hamas terrorists occurred in southern Israel. Approximately 1500 militants breached the Gaza security barrier using tractors, RPGs, and explosives. Concurrently, the terrorists utilized various means including armed vehicles, motorized paragliders, sea incursions, and a massive rocket attack launched toward Israel. On entering Israeli territory, the militants dispersed and targeted several towns, kibbutzim (collective communities), and Israel Defense Forces (IDF) military bases near Gaza. This strategy resulted in a death toll exceeded 1300 civilians and soldiers. In addition, more than 240 individuals were abducted. This attack occurred in one day. In this article, we introduce the Israeli National Institute of Forensic Medicine, which specialized in forensic analysis during mass casualty incidents, and pivotal role it played on 7 October. We present a detailed discussion on methods, challenges, and adaptations the institute took in response to the event of 7 October.

March 2023
Dana Arnheim MBBS BA, Arad Dotan BSc, Netta Shoenfeld MSW, Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP MaACR

The interplay between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and autoimmunity is well known. One of the contributors leading to immune disorders is autonomic dysregulation, which is characterized by attenuated parasympathetic and elevated sympathetic systems. In this review, we described evidence regarding the relationship between stress, PTSD, autonomic dysfunction, and autoimmunity. Stress is a physiological response, which is functional for our being. The implication of dysfunction in stress response may be a cause of disease development. We described the fundamental role of the pathological high levels of stress in PTSD as a mediator factor that contributes to autonomic dysfunction, which as a result may lead to autoimmunity. Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes are some of the autoimmune diseases PTSD patients are at higher risk of developing. Notably, some autoimmune diseases are shown to increase the susceptibility to develop PTSD, which may indicate a bidirectional influence. In addition, we elaborated on stress as a major component in both fibromyalgia and PTSD, as there are overlaps between the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia and PTSD. Underlying chronic low-grade inflammation, which characterizes PTSD patients, may be a potential target and biomarker in treating PTSD patients. We believe that chronic low-grade inflammation, high concentrations of cytokines, and other inflammatory biomarkers, which characterize PTSD patients, may be potential targets and biomarkers in the treatment of PTSD patients and part of the PTSD diagnostic criteria.

September 2022
Shaul Gelikas MD MBA, Dotan Yaari MD MHA, Guy Avital MD, Or Bainhoren MD, and Avi Benov MD MHA

Background: Pain management is fundamental in the treatment of a trauma casualty. Adequate pain management is associated with decreased long-term morbidity and chronic pain. Nonetheless, pain is frequently not documented nor adequately treated in the prehospital setting, a phenomenon described as oligoanalgesia. Gender bias has been suggested as a risk factor for oligoanalgesia.

Objectives: To examine the association between casualty gender and pain management in the prehospital trauma setting.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of the Israel Defense Forces Trauma Registry between 2015 and 2020. Univariable analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between casualty gender and pain management. For adult patients for whom gender was known, pain scores were documented.

Results: A total of 1044 casualties were included in the study; 894 (85.6%) were male. Females and males differed in several demographic and injury characteristics, including age in years (mean 36 vs. 27.6, P value < 0.001) and injury mechanism (16%% vs. 34.5% penetrating injury, P value < 0.001). Female casualties were less likely to be treated for pain (odds ratio [OR] 0.708, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.5–1, P = 0.05). However, after adjustment for various factors, including pain severity, this association was insignificant (OR 0.748, 95%CI 0.46–1.23, P = 0.25).

Conclusions: In this prehospital study, gender bias in pain management was not apparent. As women’s role on the battlefield continues to increase, further studies regarding the role of

November 2021
Meydan Ben Ishai MD, Michal Schaap Fogler MD, Rita Ehrlich MD, Noa Geffen MD, Orly Gal-Or MD, Irit Bahar MD MHA, and Gad Dotan MD

Background: Eye trauma is an unfortunate and often preventable cause of vision loss. Confetti cannons are common causes of injury. Awareness of ocular hazards of confetti cannons remains low because of limited reports describing ophthalmic injuries following their use.

Objectives: To describe outcomes of ocular trauma caused by confetti cannons and to increase recognition of their ocular risks.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of eye injuries caused by confetti cannons presenting to a single medical center between 2016 and 2020. Data collected included age, gender, eye injured, ocular damage, visual outcome, and details of surgeries performed.

Results: Overall, six consecutive patients (2 males, mean age 19.5 ± 9.74 years) were identified and studied. In all patients only one eye was injured (3 right eyes) during a private celebration, most commonly (n=5) to a bystander while in the vicinity of a cannon operated by someone else. Most common eye injuries included corneal erosion (n=4), traumatic hyphema (n=4), and retinal edema (n=3). Mean initial logMAR visual acuity in the injured eye was 0.73 ± 0.18, improving to 0.25 ± 0.16 at the final visit (P = 0.125). Two patients underwent eye surgery due to their trauma: one to repair globe penetration and another to undergo intravitreal injection of tissue plasminogen activator and C3F8 for submacular hemorrhage, followed 8 months later by intravitreal bevacizumab injection for choroidal neovascularization.

Conclusions: Confetti cannons pose hazards that can cause severe ocular trauma resulting in permanent vision loss. Increasing awareness of device hazards is necessary to prevent eye injuries

July 2021
Miri Dotan MD, Elena Zion MD, Haim Ben-Zvi PhD, Havatzelet Yarden-Bilavsky MD, and Efraim Bilavsky MD

Background: Adenovirus infections are prevalent in children. They usually cause a mild self-limited disease. However, this infection can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in specific populations, especially among immunocompromised children. Children with Down syndrome are susceptible to a higher frequency and increased severity of viral infections. Little is known about the severity and clinical course of adenovirus infections in children with Down syndrome.

Objectives: To characterize hospitalized children diagnosed with Down syndrome and presenting with adenovirus infection.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of children admitted with adenovirus from January 2005 to August 2014 from a single tertiary pediatric medical center in Israel. Data were compared between patients with and without Down syndrome.

Results: Among the 486 hospitalized children with adenoviral infection, 11 (2.28%) were diagnosed with Down syndrome. We found that children with Down syndrome were more likely to experience a higher incidence of complications (18.2% vs. 2.4%, P = 0.008), a higher rate of admissions to the intensive care unit (36.4% vs. 2.4%, P < 0.001), and more prolonged hospitalizations (17 ± 15.9 days compared to 4.46 ± 3.16, P = 0.025).

Conclusions: Children with Down syndrome who were hospitalized with adenovirus infection represent a high-risk group and warrant close monitoring. If a vaccine for adenovirus becomes available, children with Down syndrome should be considered as candidates

June 2021
Paula David MD, Arad Dotan, Naim Mahroum MD, and Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP MaACR
May 2021
Dotan Yogev MD, Yehonatan Bar Moshe MD, Hodaya Tovi MD, and David Rekhtman MD
February 2021
Dorit E. Zilberman MD, Yasmin Abu-Ghanem MD, Gil Raviv MD, Barak Rosenzweig MD, Eddie Fridman MD, Orith Portnoy MD, and Zohar A Dotan MD PhD

Background: Little is known about oncologic outcomes following robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy (RALP) for clinical T3 (cT3) prostate cancer.

Objectives: To investigate oncologic outcomes of patients with cT3 prostate cancer treated by RALP.

Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent RALP from 2010 to 2018 were retrieved. cT3 cases were reviewed. Demographic and pre/postoperative pathology data were analyzed. Patients were followed in 3–6 month intervals with repeat PSA analyses. Adjuvant/salvage treatments were monitored. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) meant PSA levels of ≥ 0.2 ng/ml.

Results: Seventy-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Median age at surgery was 64 years. Preoperative PSA level was 7.14 ng/dl, median prostate weight was 54 grams, and 23 cases (29.1%) were down-staged to pathological stage T2. Positive surgical margin rate was 42%. Five patients were lost to follow-up. Median follow-up time for the remaining 74 patients was 24 months. Postoperative relapse in PSA levels occurred in 31 patients (42%), and BCR in 28 (38%). Median time to BCR was 9 months. The overall 5-year BCR-free survival rate was 61%. Predicting factors for BCR were age (hazard-ratio [HR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.74–0.97, P = 0.017) and prostate weight (HR 1.04, 95%CI 1.01–1.08, P = 0.021). Twenty-six patients (35%) received adjuvant/salvage treatments. Three patients died from metastatic prostate cancer 31, 52, and 78 months post-surgery. Another patient died 6 months post-surgery of unknown reasons. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 92%.

Conclusions: RALP is an oncologic effective procedure for cT3 prostate cancer. Adjuvant/salvage treatment is needed to achieve optimal disease-control

May 2020
Yael Peled MD, Eilon Ram MD, Jacob Lavee MD, and Zohar Dotan MD

Background: Heart transplantation (HT) success rate is limited by a high incidence of cancer post-HT. Data on kidney cancer following solid organ transplantation, especially HT, are limited, and only a few cases have been reported.

Objectives: To report a unique case series of detected kidney cancer following HT.

Methods: Between 1997 and 2018, 265 patients who underwent HT were enrolled and prospectively followed in the HT registry of the Sheba Medical Center.

Results: The series included 5 patients, 4 men and a woman (age range 35–50 years at HT). The patients were diagnosed with kidney tumors 6–11 years after HT (age range at diagnosis 40–72 years). Two of the men were identical twin brothers. At HT four patients received induction therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin and all received an initial immunosuppressive regimen based on cyclosporine. All male HT recipients had a history of heavy smoking. Two male patients developed allograft vasculopathy, but all had preserved heart function. The 72-year-old woman developed a kidney tumor of the native kidney 5 years after re-HT and kidney transplantation. Two patients had features of multifocal papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and eventually underwent bilateral nephrectomy, while another patient underwent left partial nephrectomy with preserved renal function.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case series study describing kidney tumors following HT. With the improving outcomes and life expectancy of HT patients, a better understanding of the factors that determine cancer risk is of the utmost importance and may have a major impact on the non-cardiac surveillance.

April 2020
Nir Horesh MD, Yasmin Abu-Ghanem MD, Tomer Erlich MD, Danny Rosin MD, Mordechai Gutman MD FACS, Dorit E. Zilberman MD, Jacob Ramon MD and Zohar A. Dotan MD

Background: Pancreatic injuries during nephrectomy are rare, despite the relatively close anatomic relation between the kidneys and the pancreas. The data regarding the incidence and outcome of pancreatic injuries are scarce.

Objectives: To assess the frequency and the clinical significance of pancreatic injuries during nephrectomy.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients who underwent nephrectomy over a period of 30 years (1987–2016) in a large tertiary medical center. Demographic, clinical, and surgical data were collected and analyzed.

Results: A total of 1674 patients underwent nephrectomy during the study period. Of those, 553 (33%) and 294 patients (17.5%) underwent left nephrectomy and radical left nephrectomy, respectively. Among those, four patients (0.2% of the total group, 0.7% of the left nephrectomy group, and 1.36% of the radical left nephrectomy) experienced iatrogenic injuries to the pancreas. None of the injuries were recognized intraoperatively. All patients were treated with drains in an attempt to control the pancreatic leak and one patient required additional surgical interventions. Average length of stay was 65 days (range 15–190 days). Mean follow-up was 23.3 months (range 7.7–115 months).

Conclusions: Pancreatic injuries during nephrectomy are rare and carry a significant risk for postoperative morbidity.

September 2018
Ainat Klein MD, Gad Dotan MD and Anat Kesler MD

Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of unknown etiology. Its occurrence in the general population is 1/100,000, and 20/100,000 among overweight women of childbearing age. Familial occurrence is reportedly uncommon and not well-characterized.

Objectives: To describe a familial association with IIH.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all familial cases of IIH examined in the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of our medical center between January 2006 and June 2013.

Results: Of a total of 520 patients with IIH, 15 had other family members with IIH (from seven different families). The family relation was a mother and daughter in two families, a brother and sister in four families, and an aunt and two first-degree cousins in the seventh family. Symptoms, course of disease, and risk factors were similar among the relatives of all seven families, except for the age at diagnosis, which was different in one family. All of the adult patients of six families were obese (body mass index 25–35 kg/m2), and all of the members of the other family were morbidly obese. There was no association between other systemic risk factors and IIH.

Conclusions: IIH occurrence within a family is more common than previously believed, and its incidence in families is more common than in the general population. The clinical course appears to be similar in family members. Our findings suggest a genetic predisposition. Further investigation of familial cases may yield useful information on the pathogenesis and genetic nature of this condition.

January 2018
Oren Iny MD, Henit Yanai MD, Shay Matalon MD, Erwin Santo MD, Oren Shibolet MD, Iris Dotan MD and Nitsan Maharshak MD

Background: Up to 3.4% of Crohn’s disease (CD) patients will be diagnosed with concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Despite the worldwide increase incidence of CD, data on the clinical characteristics of PSC-CD patients are scarce.

Objectives: To clinically characterize CD in patients who have concomitant PSC.

Methods: A retrospective case-control analysis was conducted with 18 CD patients with concomitant PSC who attended the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center between 2011–2014 (PSC-CD patients). They were matched by age, gender, and disease duration to 90 control patients (those with CD who did not have concomitant PSC). Disease phenotype (according to the Montreal classification), demographics, and clinical data were compared in the two groups.

Results: PSC-CD patients were characterized by a disease that was more frequently limited to the colon (L2) (50% vs. 16%, P = 0.004) and by a non-stricturing and non-penetrating inflammatory phenotype (83% vs. 33%, P = 0.0001) compared to controls who had an increased prevalence of the penetrating phenotype (B3) (6% vs. 33% P < 0.05). Use of 5-aminosalicylic acid agents as a single therapy was significantly more prevalent among PSC-CD patients than in controls (39% vs. 7%, P < 0.005). In contrast, biologic therapy was significantly less common among PSC-CD patients compared to controls (17% vs. 52%, P = 0.0086).

Conclusions: Patients with PSC-CD are clinically distinct from patients with isolated CD, and are characterized by predominant colonic involvement and an inflammatory, non-stricturing and non-penetrating phenotype.

Gad Dotan MD, Eyal Cohen MD, Ainat Klein MD and Anat Kesler MD

Background: Recent evidence suggests that olfaction is impaired in patients with pseudotumor cerebri (PTC).

Objectives: To measure suprathreshold olfactory function by using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assessing its usefulness for routine clinical use.

Methods: Forty PTC patients underwent USPIT olfactory testing.

Results: Twenty-nine out of 40 (73%) PTC patients (36 women, 4 men; mean age 34 years) had reduced suprathreshold smell sensation according to UPSIT scores: 19 (47%) had mild microsmia, 9 (23%) had moderate microsmia, and one (3%) was classified as having severe microsmia. The mean UPSIT score of all patients was 32.4 (95% confidence interval 31.4–33.4). Multivariate regression analysis found that UPSIT scores were not related to disease activity, disease duration, initial intracranial pressure (ICP), or visual function.

Conclusions: Many PTC patients have reduced suprathreshold olfactory dysfunction that can be discovered by UPSIT, a rapidly administered smell test, which is suitable for clinical office use.

January 2017
Benjamin Spieler BA, Jeffrey Goldstein MD, Yaacov R. Lawrence MD, Akram Saad MD, Raanan Berger MD PhD, Jacob Ramon MD, Zohar Dotan MD, Menachem Laufer MD, Ilana Weiss MA, Lev Tzvang MS, Philip Poortmans MD PhD and Zvi Symon MD

Background: Radiotherapy to the prostate bed is used to eradicate residual microscopic disease following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Recommendations are based on historical series. 

Objectives: To determine outcomes and toxicity of contemporary salvage radiation therapy (SRT) to the prostate bed. 

Methods: We reviewed a prospective ethics committee-approved database of 229 patients referred for SRT. Median pre-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 0.5 ng/ml and median follow-up was 50.4 months (range 13.7–128). Treatment was planned and delivered using modern three-dimensional radiation techniques. Mean bioequivalent dose was 71 Gy (range 64–83 Gy). Progression was defined as two consecutive increases in PSA level > 0.2 ng/ml, metastases on follow-up imaging, commencement of anti-androgen treatment for any reason, or death from prostate cancer. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and multivariate analysis was performed using STATA. 

Results: Five year progression-free survival was 68% (95%CI 59.8–74.8%), and stratified by PSA was 87%, 70% and 47% for PSA < 0.3, 0.3–0.7, and > 0.7 ng/ml (P < 0.001). Metastasis-free survival was 92.5%, prostate cancer-specific survival 96.4%, and overall survival 94.9%. Low pre-radiation PSA value was the most important predictor of progression-free survival (HR 2.76, P < 0.001). Daily image guidance was associated with reduced risk of gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity (P < 0.005). 

Conclusions: Contemporary SRT is associated with favorable outcomes. Early initiation of SRT at PSA < 0.3 ng/ml improves progression-free survival. Daily image guidance with online correction is associated with a decreased incidence of late toxicity.


November 2013
M. Dotan, L. Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Z. Samra, G. Livni, H. Yarden-Bilavsky, J.b Amir and E. Bilavsky
 Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of lower respiratory tract disease and hospitalization in infants and young children. Infants of multiple births, which are often premature, might be more susceptible to developing a more severe RSV infection than singletons.

Objective: To assess the impact of multiple births on the severity of RSV infection and define risk factors for acquiring RSV infection in infants of multiple birth.

Methods: Clinical data on infants hospitalized with RSV infection between 2008 and 2010 were retrospectively collected.

Results: Twins comprised 7.6% (66/875) of hospitalized infants with RSV bronchiolitis during the study period. Infants in the twin group were younger (122.4 ± 131.7 vs. 204.5 ± 278.8 days, P = 0.014), had a lower mean gestational age (35.3 ± 2.6 vs. 38.6 ± 2.5 weeks, P < 0.001), and were more likely to have been born prematurely compared with singleton infants (65.6% vs. 13%, P < 0.001). On a multivariable logistic regression analysis, young age, early gestational age and male gender were the only variables identified as risk factors for pediatric intensive care unit admission (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). In contrast, the mere fact of a child being a twin was not found to be a significant risk factor for disease severity. In addition, if one twin is hospitalized due to RSV infection, the other has a 34% chance of also being hospitalized with bronchiolitis. Young age was a significant risk factor for hospitalization of the second twin (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that twins hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis do not have an increased risk for severe infection as compared to singletons. However, a twin of an infant hospitalized with RSV infection has a considerable risk of also being hospitalized with bronchiolitis, thus close monitoring is recommended. 

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