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עמוד בית
Sun, 03.03.24

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March 2011
J. Levy, T. Lifshitz, D. Goldfarb, B. Knyazer and N. Belfair

Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of adult blindness and accounts for about 10% of cases of legal blindness in Israel. Only about half of the patients with diabetes in Israel have regular eye examinations.

Objectives: To evaluate, for the first time in southern Israel, a new service for diabetic retinopathy screening that uses a mobile non-mydriatic mobile fundus camera in primary care patients.

Methods: Diabetic members of the largest health fund in southern Israel and over 18 years old were invited for non-mydriatic fundus examination between January and October 2009. Screening was performed by a trained photographer using the Topcon TRC NW-6S non-mydriatic camera in nine primary care centers.

Results: A total of 4318 diabetic patients were screened, of whom 53% were classified as normal. The incidence of diabetic retinopathy was 15.8% (1.2% had proliferative retinopathy and 2.4% had suspected macular edema and were referred for laser treatment). Other possible sight-threatening conditions were detected in 9.3%. Fundus pictures were inadequate for assessment in 16% of cases.

Conclusions: Diabetic retinopathy screening with a mobile non-mydriatic fundus camera improved the quality of care for diabetic patients in southern Israel. This screening method identified patients requiring prompt referral to the ophthalmologist for further complete eye examination. Extending this screening program to other areas in the country should be considered.

June 2006
H. Desatnik, Z. Habot-Wilner, A. Alhalel, I. Moroz, J. Glovinsky and J Moisseiev
 Background: The major cause of visual impairment in diabetic patients is macular edema. The failure of laser photocoagulation in a large subgroup of patients with clinically significant diabetic macular edema has prompted interest in other treatment methods.

Objectives: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of an intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide for clinically significant diabetic macular edema.

Methods: In a retrospective case series 31 diabetic patients with persistent, recurrent or diffuse clinically significant diabetic macular edema received a single 4 mg (0.1 ml) intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection and were followed for at least 6 months. The main outcome measures evaluated were classified as primary: visual acuity and central macular thickness, and secondary: intraocular pressure and cataract progression. Statistical analyses included Student’s t-test, chi-square test and the McNamar test.

Results: Best visual acuity results were observed 2.6 ± 2.4 months post-injection. At that time the mean foveal thickness had decreased by 37% from a baseline of 455 ± 100 to 288 ± 99 µ (P < 0.001) and the mean visual acuity improved from 6/42 to 6/23 (P < 0.001). Final mean visual acuity after an average of 10 ± 1.8 months follow-up (range 6–13 months) was identical to the baseline, although mean foveal thickness was still significantly lower than the initial thickness (368 ± 166 vs. 455 ± 100 µ, P < 0.01). Statistical analysis did not identify any pre-injection prognostic factors for improved visual acuity. The only complications that occurred were elevated intraocular pressure in 42% of patients and cataract progression in 21%. There was no endophthalmitis.

Conclusions: Intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide for clinically significant diabetic macular edema is effective in reducing foveal thickness and improving visual acuity in the short term. Longer follow-up revealed that visual acuity returned to pre-injection values, even though a modest decrease in the foveal thickness persisted. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy in conjunction with laser photocoagulation treatment.

February 2006
A. Barak, M. Regenbogen, M. Goldstein and A. Loewenstein

Background: Diabetic macular edema causes visual loss in almost one-third of diabetic patients. There is currently no treatment for the accompanying cystoid foveal changes.

Objectives: To assess the clinical outcome, i.e., change in visual acuity, in patients treated with steroids for long-standing diabetic macular edema with foveal cystoid changes.

Methods: In the ophthalmology department of a tertiary care university‑affiliated medical center and the ophthalmology service of a health management organization, 46 diabetic subjects (56 eyes) who had diabetic macular edema with cystoid foveal changes received one intravitreal injection of 4 mg triamcinolone acetonide.

Results: The mean baseline (pre‑injection) visual acuity of 0.21 increased to 0.31 and 0.48 at 1 and 3 months, respectively, after which it decreased to 0.33 at 6 months. The mean intraocular pressure was 15.07 mmHg at baseline, 15.83 at day 1, gradually rising to 17.16, 18.38 and 18.57 mmHg at 1, 3 and 6 months respectively. Three patients suffered immediate visual decline after the injection.

Conclusions: Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide may be a therapeutic option for long‑standing diabetic macular edema with foveal cystoid changes.

E. Averbukh and E. Banin

Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide.

March 2004
A. Pollack, G. Landa, G. Kleinman, H. Katz, D. Hauzer and A. Bukelman

Background: Eyes scheduled for posterior segment surgery may have cataract, which obscures the visualization of the retina. Surgery may be carried out either by a two-step procedure: i.e., removal of the cataract followed later by posterior segment surgery; or it may be done in a single session: i.e., combined surgery of both the anterior and posterior segments.

Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of combined surgery by phacoemulsification and vitrectomy.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 42 patients with coexisting cataract and vitreoretinal disease who underwent combined surgery by phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy at one session.

Results: Indications for surgery were vitreous hemorrhage in 71.4%, retinal detachment in 11.9%, macular hole in 11.9%, and epiretinal membrane in 4.8%. There were no significant intraoperative complications.The main early postsurgical complications were fibrinous formation in 11.9%, elevated intraocular pressure in 23.8%, and recurrent vitreous hemorrhage in 9.5%. There were a few late complications related to phacoemulsification: posterior synechia in 9.5%, posterior capsular opacification in 7.1%, and dislocating intraocular lens in 4.8%. Recurrent retinal detachment occurred in five eyes and rubeoisis iridis in one. Visual acuity was improved in 85.8%, stable in 7.1% and worse in 7.1%.

Conclusions: Phacoemulsification performed at the time of posterior segment surgery enables good visualization during the vitrectomy, facilitates surgery, and is associated with only minor complications. In cases with cataract and vitreoretinal diseases, combined surgery by phacoemulsification and vitrectomy in one session may be considered.

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