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עמוד בית
Tue, 06.06.23

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November 2022
Rivka Sheinin MD, Ana Rita Nogueira MD, Nicola L. Bragazzi MD PhD, Abdulla Watad MD, Shmuel Tiosano MD, Tal Gonen MD, Kassem Sharif MD, Yehuda Kameri MD PhD, Howard Amital MD MHA, Daniela Amital MD MHA, Hofit Cohen MD

Background: Statin-induced myalgia is defined as muscle pain without elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase levels and is a well-known complaint among statin users. Chronic pain syndromes affect a high percentage of the population. These pain syndromes may confound the reports of statin-induced myalgia.

Objectives: To compare the occurrence of chronic pain among patients on statin therapy who developed myalgia with those who did not.

Methods: This study included 112 statin-treated patients, who were followed at the lipid center at Sheba Medical Center. Fifty-six patients had a diagnosis of statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) and 56 did not. Verified questionnaires were used to assess the diagnoses of fibromyalgia, pain intensity, functional impairment, anxiety, and depression in the study population.

Results: Patients with statin myalgia were more likely to fulfil the diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia than patients without statin myalgia (11 [19.6%] vs. 0, respectively). Patients in the SAMS group exhibited higher levels of anxiety and depression compared with the control group. Female sex, higher scores on the Brief Pain Inventory pain intensity scale, and a Hamilton rating scale level indicative of an anxiety disorder were found to be significant predictors for fibromyalgia in patients presenting with statin myalgia.

Conclusions: A significant percentage of patients diagnosed with statin myalgia fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia depression or anxiety disorder. Detection of these patients and treatment of their primary pain disorders or psychiatric illnesses has the potential to prevent unnecessary cessation of effective statin therapy.

Bar Pitaro Alter MD, Shmuel Tiosano MD, Yuval Kuntzman MD, Omer Gendelman MD, Guy Shalom MD, Abdulla Watad MD, Howard Amital MD MHA, Arnon D. Cohen MD MPH, Daniela Amital MD MHA

Backgrounds: Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic vasculitic multi-systemic disease of unknown etiology. BD is characterized by recurrent attacks of oral aphthae, genital ulcers, and uveitis. BD is a multisystemic disorder and as such it may provoke various psychiatric manifestations, including depression.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between BD and depression, adjusting for established risk factors for depression.

Methods: We executed a cross-sectional study based on the Clalit Health Services database, the largest healthcare organization in Israel, serving over 4.4 million members. For this study 873 BD patients were detected and matched with 4369 controls by age and sex.

Results: The rate of depression was higher among the BD patients compared with the control group (9.39% vs 5.49%, respectively, odds ratio [OR] 1.79, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.37–2.31, P < 0.001). An association between BD and depression was also observed on multivariable analysis (OR 1.83, 95%CI 1.39–2.39, P < 0.001). When stratifying the data, according to established risk factors, the association between BD and depression was prominent in the youngest age group (18–39 years of age), low and high socioeconomical status, and non-smokers.

Conclusions: Establishing the association between BD and depression should influence the attitude and the treatment of BD patients, as this relationship requires a more holistic approach and a multidisciplinary treatment regimen for all patient needs.

April 2016
Mahmoud Abu-Shakra MD

Physical, mental and social well-being are important outcomes in patients with chronic rheumatic diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The MOS SF-36 and the WHO QoL Bref are appropriate for assessing quality of life (QoL) in patients with SLE.  The QoL of patients with SLE is impaired compared with that of controls. Fibromyalgia adversely affects the QoL of SLE patients. Women with SLE had significantly lower scores on subscales of the sense of coherence (SoC) compared with matched controls. This reduced SoC in SLE women represents impaired adaptive coping and is independently associated with reduced QoL in women with SLE. Depression and anxiety are common among SLE patients, and the frequency is similar to that in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A reciprocal longitudinal relationship between depression and illness intrusiveness was found in patients with SLE. Disease activity and damage are not associated with depression. The subjective experience, not the illness per se, causes depression.

February 2016
Ohad Avny MD, Keren Cohen Nahum MD, Tatiana Michnick MD, Tatiana Teitelbaum MD, and Dalit May MD

We present a literature review of collaborative enterprises between psychiatrists and primary care physicians in Israel and other countries. Also described are local psychiatric liaison initiatives in Israel, as well as landmark studies of collaborative psychiatric care. These studies demonstrate the superiority of community psychiatric liaison models in the treatment of patients suffering from depressive anxiety disorders and somatization disorder. In light of the mental health reform process currently underway in Israel, it is important to develop, implement and assess such liaison models. 

December 2013
Howard Amital, Jacob Ablin, Valeire Aloush, Winfried Häuser and Dan Buskila
March 2013
R. Kory, A. Carney and S. Naimer
 Background: Following the 2005 evacuation of Gush Katif, a community of Jewish settlements located in the greater Gaza Strip, many evacuees reported a deterioration in their health status.

Objectives: To determine if and to what degree the evacuation of Gush Katif caused a worsening in the health status of the evacuees.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we assessed the medical records of 2962 evacuees for changes in prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and ischemic heart disease in the period beginning 1 year before and ending 5 years after the evacuation. The findings were compared to those for the general Israeli population. A questionnaire was distributed to 64 individuals to assess lifestyle and social change.

Results: An increase in diabetes and hypertension was found in men aged 45–64. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the 45–54 male group rose from 8.7% in 2004 to 12.6% in 2007 to 18.7% in 2010; in the 55–64 age group it rose from 24.6% in 2004 to 29.9% in 2007 to 32.9% in 2010. Hypertension in 45–64 year old men rose from 27.1% in 2004 to 35.12% in 2010. The increases in diabetes were significant and higher than those in the general population. The increases in hypertension were of similar magnitude. The prevalence of heart disease did not change and is similar to that in the general population. The questionnaire sample showed an increase in depression and overweight.

Conclusions: The Gush Katif evacuation appears to be associated with increased morbidity of chronic disease. This may be attributed to any of several mechanisms, with unemployment, depression, inactivity and overweight playing significant roles. Preventive medical interventions and measures should be employed to screen and treat this population which underwent a major stressful event and as a result seem at greater risk than their peers.

 

June 2012
I. Shlomi Polachek, L. Huller Harari, M. Baum and R.D. Strous

Background: While many are familiar with postpartum depression, the phenomenon of postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is less well known and investigated. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of postpartum PTSD in a cohort of women in Israel, and to examine factors affecting its development.

Methods: Eighty-nine women completed several ratings immediately after delivery and one month later. The factors examined related to the pregnancy, childbirth expectations, and delivery. Rating scales comprised evaluations of attachment, personality, PTSD, and demographic variables.

Results: The prevalence of post-partum PTSD was 3.4% (complete PTSD), 7.9% nearly complete PTSD, and 25.9% significant partial disorder. Women who developed PTSD symptoms had a higher prevalence of "traumatic" previous childbirth, with subsequent depression and anxiety. They also reported more medical complications and “mental crises” during pregnancy as well as anticipating more childbirth pain and fear. Instrumental or cesarean deliveries were not associated with PTSD. Most of the women who developed PTSD symptoms delivered vaginally but received fewer analgesics with stronger reported pain. Women with PTSD reported more discomfort with the undressed state, stronger feelings of danger, and higher rates of not wanting more children.

Conclusions: The study results indicate a) the importance of inquiring about previous pregnancy and birthing experiences, b) the need to identify at-risk populations, and c) increased awareness of the disorder. The importance of addressing anticipatory concerns of pain prior to delivery and of respecting the woman’s dignity and minimizing the undressed state during childbirth should not be underestimated. A short questionnaire following childbirth may enable rapid identification of symptoms relevant to PTSD.
 

May 2012
D. Amital, H. Amital, G. Shohat, Y. Soffer and Y. Bar-Dayan

Background: On 4 February 2008, two terrorists armed with suicide bombs arrived at the open market in the southern Israeli city of Dimona. One detonated his bomb at approximately 10:30 a.m. causing multiple casualties. Short-term emotional effects and acute stress reactions usually appear among survivors after such incidents.

Objectives: To compare the differences in emotions and in disturbances of daily life activities that emerge a couple of days following such an event and to identify patterns of stress development among resilient and low-resilient members of the population in Dimona and in the general population of Israel.

Methods: A telephone survey of two randomly selected representative samples of adults (428 Israeli residents and 250 Dimona residents) was conducted 2 days after the event.

Results: A higher prevalence of stress and fear and a lower prevalence of joy were reported among the population of Dimona compared to the general population in Israel (P < 0.05). Differences were also recorded when the population of Dimona was categorized by their personal degree of resilience (P < 0.05). A higher prevalence of disturbances in daily life activities and changes in leisure activity was found in the low-resilient population in Dimona (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that following a public terror event, self-reported low-resilient subjects have a higher prevalence of disturbances in daily life activities, as well as adverse emotional responses. These differences must be addressed by the relevant social service agencies for immediate public intervention

February 2012
D. Itzhaky, D. Amital, K. Gorden, A. Bogomolni, Y. Arnson and H. Amital

Background: Vitamin D is increasingly associated with the pathology of cognition and mental illness. Vitamin D receptors have been detected on neurons that regulate behavior.

Objective: To assess vitamin D serum concentrations in patients with major depression and schizophrenia as compared to healthy controls and to determine if a correlation exists between serum levels of vitamin D and disease activity.  

Methods: We recruited 50 patients with schizophrenia and compared them to 33 patients with major depression and 50 controls with no major psychopathology. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia and the Hamilton Depression scale for depression were administered on the same day the blood samples were drawn. We used LIAISON® 25-OH vitamin D (DiaSorin) immunoassay to measure serum concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D.

Results: Lower serum vitamin D concentrations were detected among patients with schizophrenia (15.0 ± 7.3 ng/ml) compared to patients with depression (19.6 ± 8.3 ng/ml) and to controls (20.2 ± 7.8 ng/ml, P < 0.05). We found no correlation between disease activity, measured by the PANSS score, and vitamin D levels.   

Conclusions: Serum vitamin D levels were lower in patients with schizophrenia as compared to patients with depression and to healthy controls. No correlation was found between serum concentration and disease activity. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the role of vitamin D in the autoimmune mechanism and in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

December 2011
G.A. Weiss, Y. Goldich, E. Bartov and Z. Burgansky-Eliash

Background: Comorbid depression may play an important role in non-compliance with medical treatment among patients with chronic illnesses. Glaucoma is a potentially blinding chronic disease requiring life-long commitment to medical therapy. Patient's failure to adhere to anti-glaucoma treatment may lead to disease progression and visual loss.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms in glaucoma patients and the association between these symptoms and non-compliance with anti-glaucoma therapy.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study. Compliance with pharmacotherapy was assessed with the Morisky Medication Adherence questionnaire (eight items). Screening for depression was performed by means of the CES-D scale (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale). The association between depression and compliance rates was analyzed.

Results: The study group comprised 76 glaucoma patients; 19.7% of the subjects were classified as "non-compliant" (Morisky cutoff < 10) and 21.1% suffered from depression (CES-D cutoff ≥ 16). We found a similar level of non-compliance when comparing depressed with non-depressed glaucoma patients. However, a significant correlation was observed between the level of depression and the level of non-compliance (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Our study revealed a similar rate of depression in glaucoma patients and the general Israeli population. The presence of depression was not associated with the presence of non-compliance, yet the level of depression was associated with the level of non-compliance.

October 2011
M. Kritchmann Lupo and R.D. Strous

Background: Religiosity has been examined as a mechanism of stress management. Since many studies have shown a high rate of psychological morbidity among medical students during different stages of training, it is important to investigate whether religiosity may serve as a protective factor.

Objectives: To assess the association between religiosity and depression or anxiety in a sample of medical students and to compare the results with a matched sample of students from other fields of study.

Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a sample of Tel Aviv University medical students and compared them with students in other faculties at the same university for any association between religiosity and depression or anxiety. The subjects completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, a modified religiosity inventory, and a demographic and psychosocial variables inventory.

Results: Findings did not show a significant association between religiosity and depression or anxiety in the general sample (n=119). A positive significant correlation between religiosity and anxiety was found among medical students, with 29.4% of them reporting anxiety and 25.2% depression. While high rates of depression and anxiety were reported by students in the first to third years (pre-clinical years), there was a decrease in depression and anxiety in the fourth to sixth years (clinical years). However, higher anxiety and depression scores were noted among controls as compared to medical students.

Conclusions: In contrast to another recent investigation, a negative correlation between religion and depression/anxiety does not necessarily exist. An association between religiosity and mental health could have many theoretical and practical implications and requires further investigation. Similar to previous studies, the rates of depression and anxiety among Israeli medical students were comparable with those of other countries. These rates are considered higher than those in the general population and emphasize the importance of alertness to mental health issues among students, especially during the early study years.
 

August 2007
G. Geulayov, J. Lipsitz, R. Sabar and R. Gross

Background: Depression is a leading cause of morbidity, disability and health care utilization. It is commonly encountered in primary care settings yet is often missed or suboptimally managed.


Objective: To summarize studies conducted in Israel on the prevalence of depression in primary care settings, its correlates, and predictors of treatment and outcome, and to discuss their implications for clinical practice and public health policy.

Methods: An electronic search was conducted using the MEDLINE and PsychINFO databases. The inclusion criteria were original studies that assessed aspects of depression in a population aged 18 or older, were conducted in primary care settings in Israel, and with sufficient detailed description of depression-related measures, study sample and outcome measures. Twelve articles reporting results from 7 studies met these criteria.

Results: The prevalence of current depression in primary care varied considerably across studies: 1.6–5.9% for major depression, 1.1–5.4% for minor depression, 14.3–24% for depressive symptoms. Depression was consistently related to female gender and few years of education, and was associated with disability, decreased quality of life, and increased health-related expenditure. Many cases of depression were undiagnosed and most patients had persistent depression or achieved only partial remission.

Conclusions: Depression represents a serious challenge for the primary health care system in Israel. Greater efforts should be focused on screening and treating depression in primary care. However, the studies reviewed here used different methodologies and assessed different aspects of depression, and, therefore, should be generalized cautiously. Systematic research on the prevalence, correlates and management of depression in primary care, with emphasis on collaborative care models, is strongly needed to inform research, clinicians and health care policy makers.

 
 

June 2006
S. Eilat-Tsanani, A. Merom, S. Romano, A. Reshef, I. Lavi and H. Tabenkin
 Background: Postpartum depression is a well-known phenomenon that occurs in about 10% of births and affects the quality of life of the mother as well as the family. As in other cases of depression, under-diagnosis of PPD[1] may keep patients from getting proper care and increase their physical and emotional distress.

Objectives: To identify patients with PPD and to describe their consultation patterns with primary care physicians for themselves and their babies.

Methods: Using a telephone survey and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale questionnaire we identified PPD in a sample of women who gave birth in HaEmek Medical Center. We also assessed the extent to which the women consulted with family physicians, gynecologists and/or pediatricians.

Results: The survey included 574 women, of whom 9.9% were diagnosed with PPD. There was a higher rate of PPD among Arab compared to Jewish women, among women with a prior history of depression, among women whose pregnancy was unplanned, among those who described the course of pregnancy as “difficult,” and among women who described their general health as “not good.” Women with PPD consulted more with family physicians and pediatricians. The reasons for the consultations are physical and emotional. There were cases of somatization manifested directly by the mother or indirectly through the baby.

Conclusions: Women with PPD have higher consultation rates than those without. By asking a few simple questions it is possible to identify a significant proportion of women with PPD.


 





[1] PPD = postpartum depression


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