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עמוד בית
Sun, 14.07.24

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July 2014
A. Nobre MD, Walber P. Vieira MD, Francisco E.S. da Rocha MD, Jozelio F. de Carvalho MD PhD and Carlos E.M. Rodrigues MD PhD

Smoking is a risk factor for thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO, Buerger’s disease) and arteriosclerosis, but there are few cases of coronary heart disease (CAD)-associated Buerger's disease. A literature search for articles in English, Spanish and French published between 1966 and 2012 on patients with coronary involvement and TAO revealed 12 patients. We describe an additional case with involvement of the central nervous system, myocardium and large-diameter proximal arteries. The main clinical manifestations in these 13 cases were lower limb claudication and acute thoracic pain. The histologic findings showed thrombosis with unbroken internal elastic lamina and intimal clusters of granulocytes; coronary angiography revealed predominant involvement of the left anterior descending and right coronary artery. Treatment included coronary bypass procedures, coronary angioplasty, smoking cessation, and anticoagulant therapy. A complete therapeutic response was observed in half the patients. This review of all published cases of TAO patients with coronary symptoms, together with our patient, demonstrates the rarity of this clinical association. Patients under age 40 with CAD but no prominent cardiovascular risk factors besides smoking should be evaluated for the presence of Buerger's disease.

July 2010
L. Barski, R. Nevzorov, J. Horowitz and S. Horowitz

Background: Clinical and epidemiologic features of coronary heart disease may not be explained solely by established risk factors. The role of infectious pathogens in the development and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques remains elusive but an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and CHD[1] has been previously reported

Objectives: To determine whether there is an association between mycoplasmal infections and CHD.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of 150 consecutive hospitalized patients with CHD (85 with acute coronary syndrome and 65 admitted for unrelated reasons) and 98 healthy blood donors. Antibody titers for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, M. fermentans, M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were measured with the agglutination test or specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all three groups of patients.

Results: Analysis of the antibody titers did not reveal any significant difference in the presence of mycoplasmal antibodies between the patients with ACS[2], patients with known stable CHD hospitalized for non-CHD reasons, and healthy blood donors.

Conclusions: Determination of specific antibodies did not reveal a significant association among different types of mycoplasmal infection and CHD.





[1] CHD = coronary heart disease

[2] ACS = acute coronary syndrome

October 2009
N. Koren-Morag, D. Tanne and U. Goldbourt

Background: The incidence of stroke varies among ethnically and culturally diverse groups.

Objectives: To examine the ethnic-geographic patterns of stroke incidence in men and women with coronary heart disease in Israel, focusing on the extent to which this variability can be explained by known differences in risk factors for stroke.

Methods: Patients with documented coronary heart disease were followed for 6–8 years for incident cerebrovascular events. Baseline medical evaluation included assessment of vascular risk factors and measures of blood lipids. Among 15,052 patients, a total of 1110 were identified with any incident ischemic cerebrovascular event by ICD-9 codes, of whom 613 had confirmed ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

Results: A major excess of ischemic cerebrovascular events among Israeli Arab women as compared to males, and an inverse finding among Israeli born Jews, were noted. The high risk in the Arab population in Israel reflected an unfavorable risk profile, since predicted rates by multivariate analysis and observed rates were 69 and 68 per 1000, respectively. High ischemic cerebrovascular event rates were identified among patients born in the Balkan countries and North Africa (89 and 90 per 1000) but unfavorable risk factor levels of these individuals did not explain them. Most trends appeared similar in male and female patients. A comparison of observed and accepted-according-to-risk-profile rates of ischemic cerebrovascular events yielded significant differences (P = 0.04), consistent with an additional role of geographic/ethnic origin, resulting from factors that remain unrecognized,or with variables unassessed in this study.

Conclusions: We identified an ethnic diversity in stroke risk among Israeli born in different parts of the world beyond what could be expected on the basis of differences in known risk factors. These findings call for detailed research aimed at identifying additional differences in the risk profile of patients with atherothrombotic disease exposed to an increased risk of stroke.
 

October 2008
April 2007
R. Jabara, S. Namouz, J. D. Kark and C. Lotan

Background: There is little published information on the coronary risk characteristics of Palestinian women. However, there are documented lifestyle differences as well as socioeconomic inequalities between Arab and Jewish women in Israel.

Objectives: To compare the risk factor characteristics of coronary heart disease patients in Palestinian and Israeli women.

Methods: This study included 546 women (444 Jews and 102 Arabs) aged 35-74, all residents of Jerusalem, who underwent cardiac catheterization at the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center between 2000 and 2003, and were confirmed to have coronary artery disease; Data on multiple risk factors were obtained from patient interviews and files.

Results: Compared with Jewish women, Arab women had a higher prevalence of diabetes, had borne more children/were younger, had a lower socioeconomic status, consumed jess alcohol and more olive oil, suffered more passive smoking and were less physically active. On the other hand, fewer Arab women had dyslipidemia, used hormone replacement therapy and had a family history of CHD.

Conclusions: Compared to Jewish women, Palestinian Arab women in Jerusalem appear to have more diabetes and exhibit lifestyle factors that generally increase the risk for CHD. Greater attention to primary prevention in this ethnic group is needed. This study suggests the need to investigate determinants of the metabolic syndrome and the possible role of passive smoking in Arab women as well as modes of intervention via health promotion and risk factor management in this population.
 

April 2004
D. Weisman, M. Motro, E. Schwammenthal, E.Z. Fisman, A. Tenenbaum, D. Tanne and Y. Adler
July 2003
L. Shilo, J. Feldman, V. Gendlman, L. Shenkman and Y.N. Berner

Background: Treatment of hyperlipidemia is important for secondary prevention in patients suffering from coronary heart disease. It has been proven that “young elderly” (patients aged 65–75 years) can benefit from the treatment at least as much as younger patients.

Objective: To assess the adequacy of treatment as part of secondary prevention in “young elderly” and younger patients.

Methods: In this prospective study, 389 patients discharged from the hospital with the diagnosis of coronary heart disease were divided according to age groups. Data were collected regarding lipid profile examinations, dietary and drug therapy, and results of lipid profiles.

Results: Less than one-third of the patients achieved target low density lipoprotein levels. More patients in the older age group achieved the treatment goals. The goals were achieved despite the fact that the percentage of patients treated with lipid-lowering drugs was lower in the older age group.

Conclusion: The percentage of patients treated for hyperlipidemia as part of a secondary prevention plan in Israel is similar to that in other developed countries. The fact that more “young elderly” patients achieve adequate lipid profiles compared to younger patients indicates that there is no age discrimination towards this patient group. The finding that less than one-third of the patients reach the treatment goals should prompt physicians to treat hyperlipidemia more aggressively.

June 2002
Eyal Leibovitz, MD, Dror Harats, MD and Dov Gavish, MD

Background: Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol can significantly reduce the risk of CHD[1], but many patients fail to reach the target LDL-C[2] goals due to low doses of statins or low compliance.

Objectives: To treat high risk patients with atorvastatin in order to reach LDL-C goals (either primary or secondary prevention) of the Israel Atherosclerosis Society.

Methods: In this open-label study of 3,276 patients (1,698 of whom were males, 52%), atorvastatin 10 mg was given as a first dose, with follow-up and adjustment of the dose every 6 weeks. While 1,670 patients did not receive prior hypolipidemic treatment, 1,606 were treated with other statins, fibrates or the combination of both.

Results: After 6 weeks of treatment, 70% of the patients who did not receive prior hypolipidemic medications and who needed primary prevention reached target LDL-C levels. Interestingly, a similar number of patients on prior hypolipidemic treatment reached the LDL-C goals for primary prevention. The patients treated with other statins, fibrates or both did not reach the LDL-C treatment goals. Only 34% of all patients who needed secondary prevention reached the ISA[3] LDL-C target of 100 mg/dl. Atorvastatin proved to be completely safe; only two patients had creatine kinase elevation above 500 U/L, and another six had mild CK[4] elevation (<500 U/L). None of the patients had clinical myopathy, and only one had to be withdrawn from the study.

Conclusion: Atorvastatin is a safe and effective drug that enables most patients requiring primary prevention to reach LDL-C goal levels, even with a low dose of 10 mg. Patients in need of secondary prevention usually require higher doses of statins.

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[1] CHD = coronary heart disease


[2] LDL-C = low density lipoprotein-cholesterol


[3] ISA = Israel Atherosclerosis Society


[4] CK = creatine kinase




October 2000
Raana Shamir, MD, Aaron Lerner, MD, MHA and Edward A. Fisher, MD, PhD
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