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עמוד בית
Tue, 16.04.24

Search results

April 2024
Raymond Farah MD, Dvir Novak MD, Rola Khamisy-Farah MD

Background: Syncope is responsible for approximately 1–3% of all emergency department (ED) visits and up to 6% of all hospital admissions in the United States. Although often of no long-term consequence, syncope can be the first presentation of a range of serious conditions such as strokes, tumors, or subarachnoid hemorrhages. Head computed tomography (CT) scanning is therefore commonly ordered in the ED for patients presenting with syncope to rule out any of these conditions, which may present without other associated physical or neurological findings on initial examination. However, the diagnostic yield of head CTs in patients presenting with syncope is unclear.

Objectives: To determine the diagnostic yield of head CT in the ED in patients with syncope.

Methods: We conducted an observational analytical retrospective cross-sectional study on 360 patients diagnosed with syncope who underwent a head CT to determine the diagnostic yield of syncope to determine whether head CT is necessary for every patient presenting with syncope to the ED.

Results: The total of new CT findings was 11.4%. Percentages varied between men (12.8%) and women (9.7%), P = 0.353. There were no significant differences between sexes regarding the findings in head CT, yet the incidence increased, especially among elderly males.

Conclusions: Age had a more significant impact on diagnostic yield of syncope than head CT. The use of a head CT scan as a routine diagnosis tool in patients with syncope is unjustifiable unless there is an indication based on medical history or physical examination.

December 2023
Nitzan Maixner MD PhD, Yulian Weissbuch MD, Howard Amital MD MHA, Zehavit Kirshenboim MD

Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a medical emergency requiring rapid diagnosis and intervention to avoid irreversible neurological damage [1]. While MSCC is best diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this modality is often limited and is usually preceded by a computed tomography (CT) scan of the spine.

October 2023
Moran Drucker Iarovich MD, Sara Apter MD, Eli Konen MD MHA, Yael Inbar MD, Marrianne Michal Amitai MD, Eyal Klang MD

Background: Computed tomography (CT) is the main diagnostic modality for detecting pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Objectives: To assess the frequency of missed pancreatic adenocarcinoma on CT scans according to different CT protocols.

Methods: The medical records of consecutive pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients were retrospectively collected (12/2011–12/2015). Patients with abdominal CT scans performed up to a year prior to cancer diagnosis were included. Two radiologists registered the presence of radiological signs of missed cancers. The frequency of missed cancers was compared between portal and pancreatic/triphasic CT protocols.

Results: Overall, 180 CT scans of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients performed prior to cancer diagnosis were retrieved; 126/180 (70.0%) were conducted using pancreatic/triphasic protocols and 54/180 (30.0%) used portal protocols. The overall frequency of missed cancers was 6/180 (3.3%) in our study population. The frequency of missed cancers was higher with the portal CT protocols compared to the pancreatic/triphasic protocols: 5/54 (9.3%) vs. 1/126 (0.8%), P = 0.01. CT signs of missed cancers included small hypodense lesions, peri-pancreatic fat stranding, and dilated pancreatic duct with a cut-off sign.

Conclusions: The frequency of missed pancreatic adenocarcinoma is higher on portal CT protocols. Physicians should consider the cancer miss rate on different CT protocols.

Samuel N. Heyman MD, Yuri Gorelik MD, Mogher Khamaisi MD PhD, Zaid Abassi PhD

Recent studies using propensity score matching have clearly indicated that contrast nephropathy following computed tomography occurs in hospitalized patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2) and that this iatrogenic complication is likely underestimated because of concomitant renal functional recovery, unrelated to the imaging procedure. These findings should be considered regarding contrast-enhanced studies in such patients.

August 2023
Elchanan Parnasa MD, Fadi Kharouf MD, Limor Rubin MD

Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is defined as the repeated occurrence of elevated body temperature above 38.3°C (101°F) lasting for at least 3 weeks with no clear diagnosis despite a thorough investigation of more than one-week duration. FUO cases could be categorized into three major etiologies: infectious, neoplastic, and systemic inflammatory. Despite novel diagnostic modalities, clinicians still encounter a significant number of unresolved FUO cases, accounting for as many as 50% of cases [1]. Prolonged futile FUO investigations may be a source of frustration for many clinicians [2]. We described a unique cause for FUO that shares the complexity of the diagnostic workup and emphasizes the importance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) modality in the process of investigating FUO.

January 2023
Matityahou Ormianer MD, Benjamin Z. Koplewitz MD, Ron Eliashar MD, Menachem Gross MD, Jeffrey M. Weinberger MD, Nir Hirshoren MD

Background: Unilateral intratonsillar abscess (ITA) is an underreported, well-known complication of acute tonsillitis. The prevalence of unilateral ITA compared to peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is 1:14. However, bilateral ITA is an extremely rare entity, with only four cases reported thus far.

Objectives: To describe past cases and our experience, elaborating the diagnostic challenge and the surgical treatment for bilateral ITA.

Methods: We conducted a literature search in the PubMed database using the key words intra-tonsillar abscess, tonsillar abscess, bilateral tonsillar abscess, bilateral intra-tonsillar abscess and bilateral peritonsillar abscess. Our search was limited to the years 1980 to 2020.

Results: We found that only four cases of bilateral ITA were previously published. All were characterized by a delay in diagnosis with a median of 10 days (4–14 days), symmetrical oral cavity appearance, enlarged bilateral kissing tonsils, and subsequent treatment by surgical drainage/paracentesis. Respiratory compromise was a concern in most cases. Our patient was treated with bilateral quinsy tonsillectomy and had a prompt recovery.

Conclusions: Bilateral ITA is a rare, deceiving entity, with a diagnosis delay attributed to the symmetrical oral bulging. We present the fifth case reported and the first ever reported in a pediatric patient. We describe the assumed pathogenesis and the main characteristics among all five patients, emphasizing the important role of a high index of suspicion and appropriate imaging, guiding to proper diagnosis and treatment.

December 2022
Noy Nachmias-Peiser MD, Shelly Soffer MD, Nir Horesh MD, Galit Zlotnick MD, Marianne Michal Amitai Prof, Eyal Klang MD

Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a medical condition with high levels of morbidity and mortality. However, most patients suspected of AMI will eventually have a different diagnosis. Nevertheless, these patients have a high risk for co-morbidities.

Objectives: To analyze patients with suspected AMI with an alternative final diagnosis, and to evaluate a machine learning algorithm for prognosis prediction in this population.

Methods: In a retrospective search, we retrieved patient charts of those who underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) for suspected AMI between January 2012 and December 2015. Non-AMI patients were defined as patients with negative CTA and a final clinical diagnosis other than AMI. Correlation of past medical history, laboratory values, and mortality rates were evaluated. We evaluated gradient boosting (XGBoost) model for mortality prediction.

Results: The non-AMI group comprised 325 patients. The two most common groups of diseases included gastrointestinal (33%) and biliary-pancreatic diseases (27%). Mortality rate was 24.6% for the entire cohort. Medical history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) had higher risk for mortality (odds ratio 2.2). Laboratory studies revealed that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) had the highest diagnostic ability for predicting mortality in the entire cohort (AUC 0.70). The gradient boosting model showed an area under the curve of 0.82 for predicting mortality.

Conclusions: Patients with suspected AMI with an alternative final diagnosis showed a 25% mortality rate. A past medical history of CKD and elevated LDH were associated with increased mortality. Non-linear machine learning algorithms can augment single variable inputs for predicting mortality.

November 2022
Lior Fisher MD, Howard Amital MD MHA, Orly Goitein MD

Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) refers to acute, subacute, or chronic thrombosis and occlusion of the mesenteric veins. MVT is an uncommon disorder, with an estimated incidence of is 2.7 per 100,000 patient-years. It accounts for 1 in 5000 to 15,000 inpatient admissions [1,2].

August 2022
Aviv Gour MD, Emily Elefant MD, Feda Fanadka MD, Meir Kestenbaum MD, and Nirit Lev MD, PhD
January 2022
Nissim Arish MD, Ariel Rokach MD MHA, Amir Jarjou'i MD, Naama Bogot MD, Irith Hadas Halperen MD, Maher Deeb MD, Eli Golomb MD, and Gabriel Izbicki MD
December 2021
Ada Rosen MD, Sorin Elias MD, Hadas Ganer Herman MD, Alexander Condrea MD, and Shimon Ginath MD

Background: The current approach to performing sacral neuromodulation consists of a two-stage procedure, the first of which includes insertion of the sacral electrode under fluoroscopic visualization of the S3 foramen. Alternatively, in certain situations computed tomography (CT)-guided insertion can be used.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of CT in cases of reinsertion of the electrode due to infection, dislocation, or rupture.

Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent neuromodulation device reinsertion between 2005 and 2016 for fecal incontinence were reviewed. Study outcomes included procedure course, successful placement, and long-term treatment success.

Results: During the study period, we inserted a neuromodulation device in 67 patients. A CT-guided insertion of a sacral electrode was performed in 10 patients. In nine patients, the insertion and the final location of the electrode were successful. In one patient, the electrode migrated upward due to a malformation of the S3 foramen on both sides and had to be placed in S4. In a mean follow-up of 68.4 ± 30.0 months following the re-insertion, there was a significant reduction in the number of incontinence episodes per day (P < 0.001) and the number of pads used per day (P = 0.002).

Conclusions: CT-guided insertion of a sacral electrode is a safe and promising option, especially in recurrent and or selected cases

August 2021
Omer Or MD, Rehan Saiyed MD, Eric Marty MD, Angelique Boyer BS, Yuliya S. Jahnwar MD, Rueben Niesvizky MD, and Joseph M. Lane MD

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) affects the long bones in 25% of patients. The advent of positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners offers the possibility of both metabolic and radiographic information and may help determine fracture risk. To the best of our knowledge, no published study correlates these two factors with long bone fractures.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of PET/CT on fracture risk assessment in multiple myeloma patients.

Methods: We identified all bone marrow biopsy proven multiple myeloma patients from 1 January 2010 to 31 January 2015 at a single institution. We prospectively followed patients with long bone lesions using PET/CT scan images.

Results: We identified 119 patients (59 males/60 females) with 256 long bone lesions. Mean age at diagnosis was 58 years. The majority of lesions were in the femur (n=150, 59%) and humerus (n=84, 33%); 13 lesions in 10 patients (8%) required surgery for impending (n=4) or actual fracture (n=9). Higher median SUVmax was measured for those with cortical involvement (8.05, range 0–50.8) vs. no involvement (5.0, range 2.1–18.1). SUVmax was found to be a predictor of cortical involvement (odds ratio = 1.17, P = 0.026). No significant correlation was found between SUVmax and pain or fracture (P = 0.43).

Conclusions: Improved medical treatment resulted improvement in 8% of patients with an actual or impending fracture. The orthopedic surgeons commonly use the Mirels classification for long bone fracture prediction. Adding PET/CT imaging to study in myeloma long bone lesions did not predict fracture risk directly but suggested it indirectly by cortical erosion.

June 2021
Zvi Shimoni MD, Vendi Danilov MD, Shoshana Hadar MD, and Paul Froom MD

Background: Recommendations for a head computed tomography (CT) scan in elderly patients without a loss of consciousness after a traumatic brain injury and without neurological findings on admission and who are not taking oral anticoagulant therapy, are discordant.

Objectives: To determine variables associated with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and the need for neurosurgery in elderly patients after low velocity head trauma

Methods: In a regional hospital, we retrospectively selected 206 consecutive patients aged ≥ 65 years with head CT scans ordered in the emergency department because of low velocity head trauma. Outcome variables were an ICH and neurological surgery. Independent variables included age, sex, disability, neurological findings, facial fractures, mental status, headache, head sutures, loss of consciousness, and anticoagulation therapy.

Results: Fourteen patients presented with ICH (6.8%, 3.8–11.1%) and three (1.5%, 0.3–4.2%) with a neurosurgical procedure. One patient with a coma (0.5, 0.0–2.7) died 2 hours after presentation. All patients who required surgery or died had neurological findings. Reducing head CT scans by 97.1% (93.8–98.9%) would not have missed any patient with possible surgical utility. Twelve of the 14 patients (85.7%) with an ICH had neurological findings, post-trauma loss of consciousness or a facial fracture were not present in 83.5% (95% confidence interval 77.7–88.3) of the cohort.

Conclusions: None of our patients with neurological findings required neurosurgery. Careful palpation of the facial bones to identify facial fractures might aid in the decision whether to perform a head CT scan.

March 2021
Lisa Kaly MD, Igor Bilder MD, Michael Rozenbaum MD, Nina Boulman MD, Doron Rimar MD, Abid Awisat MD, Itzhak Rosner MD, Haya Hussein MD, Amal Silawy MD, Tamar Gaspar MD, and Gleb Slobodin MD
February 2021
Nir Hod MD MHA, Daniel Levin MD, Sophie Lantsberg MD, Gideon Sahar MD, Karen Nalbandyan MD, Aharon Yehonatan Cohen MD, and Aryeh Shalev MD
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