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עמוד בית
Fri, 22.09.23

Search results


June 2023
Yaron Niv MD FACG AGAF, Theodore Rokkas MD PhD FACG AGAF FEBGH

Background: Mucins, heavily glycosylated glycoproteins, are synthesized by mucosal surfaces and play an important role in healthy and malignant states. Changes in mucin synthesis, expression, and secretion may be a primary event or may be secondary to inflammation and carcinogenesis.

Objectives: To assess current knowledge of mucin expression in the small bowel of celiac disease (CD) patients and to determine possible associations between mucin profile and gluten-free diet.

Method: Medical literature searches of articles in English were conducted using the terms mucin and celiac. Observational studies were included. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.

Results: Of 31 articles initially generated by a literature search, 4 observational studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria remained eligible for meta-analysis. These studies included 182 patients and 148 controls from four countries (Finland, Japan, Sweden, United States). Mucin expression was significantly increased in small bowel mucosa of CD patients than in normal small bowel mucosa (odds ratio [OR] 7.974, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] (1.599–39.763), P = 0.011] (random-effect model). Heterogeneity was significant: Q = 35.743, df (Q) = 7, P < 0.0001, I2 = 80.416%. ORs for MUC2 and MUC5AC expression in the small bowel mucosa of untreated CD patients were 8.837, 95%CI 0.222–352.283, P = 0.247 and 21.429, 95%CI 3.883–118.255, P < 0.0001, respectively.

Conclusions: Expression of certain mucin genes in the small bowel mucosa of CD patients is increased and may serve as a diagnostic tool and assist in surveillance programs.

January 2016
Baruch Yerushalmi MD, Raffi Lev-Tzion MD and Neta Loewenthal MD
August 2015
Shmuel Chen MD PhD, Oded Shamriz MD, Ori Toker MD, Zvi G. Fridlender MD MSc and Yuval Tal MD PhD
April 2015
Mahmoud Soubra MD, Yehudith Assouline-Dayan MD and Ron Schey MD FACG
March 2011
S. Shrot, E. Konen, M. Hertz and M. Amitai

Background: Assessment of small intestinal disease remains a challenge for both clinicians and radiologists. Modern magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) is a non-radiation modality that can demonstrate both intestinal wall pathologies and extraluminal lesions.

Objectives: To analyze the results of 213 MRE scans performed since 2005.

Methods: Consecutive MRE[1] scans performed in our academic medical center between December 2005 and November 2009 were reviewed for patients' demographic data, indications for the examination, and main imaging findings. The imaging findings recorded were mural changes and intraluminal filling defects; there were also mesenteric findings and extraintestinal inflammatory findings.

Results: During the study period 213 MRE scans were performed; 70% of them for proven or suspected Crohn's disease (CD) of the small bowel. Another indication was small bowel neoplasm (6% of the scans). Bowel wall thickening and enhancement were seen in 60% and 53% of MRE scans, respectively. Mesenteric involvement was found in 52% of the patients. Incidental extraintestinal findings were detected in 17% of the scans. In 22% of the scans there was no pathological finding.

Conclusions: Our 4-year clinical experience with MRE shows that this non-invasive and non-radiating modality is a powerful technique for evaluation and long-term follow-up of small bowel pathologies. The most common clinical indication was the evaluation of Crohn’s disease. With physicians’ increased awareness, the future use of MRE in the evaluation of other small bowel pathologies such as neoplasm and celiac disease will increase.






[1] MRE = magnetic resonance enterography



 
May 2010
E. Israeli, T. Hershcovici, I. Grotto, Z. Rouach, D. Branski and E. Goldin

Background: In the last decade the diagnosis of celiac disease has increasingly been made in adults.

Objectives: To determine disease prevalence (including silent and potential disease) in this population group.

Methods: We performed serologic screening of celiac disease in a representative and homogenous sample of a young adult general population in Israel, namely, 18 year old military conscripts, in 2003. Serologic screening was performed on serum samples randomly obtained from 850 healthy recruits (male/female = 1.1). Immunoglobulin A anti-tissue transglutaminase was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In cases of IgA[1] deficiency, IgG anti-endomysial antibodies were determined. A small intestinal biopsy was offered to all patients with positive serology.

Results: The prevalence of overt CD[2] diagnosed prior to recruitment was 0.12% (0.1% in men and 0.14% in women). The overall prevalence based on positive serology was 1.1%. Six of nine subjects with positive serology agreed to undergo endoscopy and intestinal biopsies. In all cases, biopsies were compatible with celiac disease (five biopsies were graded as Marsh 3a and one as Marsh 3b). One subject previously reporting irritable bowel-like symptoms was diagnosed with overt atypical CD. The prevalence of overt CD diagnosed by screening was 0.12%. The ratio of overt to silent CD was 1:8. No cases of potential disease were encountered.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that CD is highly prevalent in the young adult population in Israel. Serologic screening for CD is a reliable and simple method for diagnosing this disease before symptoms or complications develop.
 

[1] Ig = immunoglobulin

[2] CD = celiac disease

December 2004
January 2004
B. Weiss, Y. Bujanover, B. Avidan, A. Fradkin, I. Weintraub and B. Shainberg

Background: Screening for celiac disease is based on the sequential evaluation of serologic tests and intestinal biopsy; an optimal screening protocol is still under investigation. The screening policy of one of the main healthcare providers in Israel (Maccabi) consists of measuring total immunoglobulin A and tissue transglutaminase IgA[1] antibodies and confirming positive results by endomysial antibodies. For IgA-deficient patients antigliadin IgG is measured.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of tTGA[2] as a first-level screening test in patients suspected of having celiac disease

Methods: The results of tTGA and EMA[3] tests over a 3 month period were obtained from the laboratory computer. Letters were sent to the referring physicians of patients with positive tests, requesting clinical information and small intestinal biopsy results. tTGA was performed using an anti-guinea pig tTG-IgA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.

Results: Overall, 2,505 tTGA tests were performed: 216 (8.6%) were tTGA-positive of which 162 (75%) were EMA-negative (group 1) and 54 (25%) EMA-positive (group 2). Clinical information was obtained for 91 patients in group 1 and 32 in group 2. Small intestinal biopsy was performed in 33 (36%) and 27 patients (84%) in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Celiac disease was diagnosed in 4 biopsies (12%) in group 1 and 23 (85%) in group 2 (P < 0.0001). The positive predictive value was 45% for tTGA and 85% for EMA.

Conclusions: Symptomatic patients with positive tTGA and negative EMA have a low rate of celiac disease compared to those who are tTGA-positive and EMA-positive. Confirmation with EMA is advised when tTGA is performed as a first-level screening for suspected celiac disease.






[1] Ig = immunoglobulin



[2] tTGAa = transglutaminase IgA antibodies



[3] EMA = endomysial antibodies


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