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עמוד בית
Sun, 23.06.24

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April 2018
Anne Graham Cummiskey MBBS, Amit Segev MD, Michael Segel MD, Jonathan Buber MD, Victor Guetta MD, Israel M. Barbash MD, Dan Elian MD, Elad Asher MD, Ori Vaturi MD and Paul Fefer MD

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of exercise hemodynamics during right heart catheterization (RHC) in the diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction (DD). Little data exists regarding exercise hemodynamics during RHC in symptomatic systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. 

Objectives: To assess the added diagnostic value of using exercise hemodynamics during RHC in assessment of patients with symptomatic SSc.

Methods: We performed 22 RHCs in 17 SSc patients with dyspnea and/or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Exercise was performed in 15 RHCs using isotonic arm exercises while holding a 1 kg weight in each hand. Measurements of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP), and cardiac output (CO) were taken at rest and during peak exercise. 

Results: Normal resting RHC (PAP 22 ± 3 mmHg, PAWP 11 ± 3 mmHg) was found in seven cases. Of these, exercise induced elevation in PAP was found in three (38 ± 7 mmHg), and exercise induced elevation in PAWP was found in four (24 ± 6 mmHg). Elevated resting PAP was found in 15 (41 ± 11 mmHg) with minor changes in exercise. Of the 22 RHCs, elevation of the PAWP was found in 11 (50%), half of which were in response to exercise. 

Conclusions: In symptomatic SSc patients, exercise hemodynamics provides important information on diastolic dysfunction that is not available with non-invasive testing. Findings on exercise RHC can explain patient symptoms in up to 50% of cases. Earlier and more accurate diagnosis of patient symptoms can aid in tailoring the correct therapy for each.

May 2016
Dan Levin, Salim Adawi MD, David A Halon MBChB, Avinoam Shiran MD, Ihab Asmer, Ronen Rubinshtein MD and Ronen Jaffe MD

Background: Radial artery occlusion (RAO) may occur following transradial catheterization, precluding future use of the vessel for vascular access or as a coronary bypass graft. Recanalization of RAO may occur; however, long-term radial artery patency when revascularization is more likely to be required has not been investigated. Transradial catheterization is usually performed via 5-Fr or 6-Fr catheters. Insertion of 7-Fr sheaths into the radial artery enables complex coronary interventions but may increase the risk of RAO. 

Objective: To assess the long-term radial artery patency following transradial catheterization via 7-Fr sheaths.

Methods: Antegrade radial artery blood flow was assessed by duplex-ultrasound in 43 patients who had undergone transradial catheterization via a 7-Fr sheath. 

Results: All patients had received intravenous unfractionated heparin with a mean activated clotting time (ACT) of 247 ± 56 seconds. Twenty-four patients (56%) had received a glycoprotein IIbIIIa inhibitor and no vascular site complications had occurred. Mean time interval from catheterization to duplex-ultrasound was 507 ± 317 days. Asymptomatic RAO was documented in 8 subjects (19%). Reduced body weight was the only significant univariate predictor of RAO (78 ± 11 vs. 89 ± 13 kg, P = 0.031). In a bivariate model using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, the combination of lower weight and shorter ACT offered best prediction of RAO (area under the ROC curve 0.813). 

Conclusions: Asymptomatic RAO was found at late follow-up in approximately 1 of 5 patients undergoing transradial catheterization via a 7-Fr sheath and was associated with lower body weight and shorter ACT. 

 

October 2010
R.O. Escarcega, J. Carlos Perez-Alva, M. Jimenez-Hernandez, C. Mendoza-Pinto, R. Sanchez Perez, R. Sanchez Porras and M. Garcia-Carrasco

Background: On-site cardiac surgery is not widely available in developing countries despite a high prevalence of coronary artery disease.

Objectives: To analyze the safety, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of transradial percutaneous coronary intervention without on-site cardiac surgery in a community hospital in a developing country.

Methods: Of the 174 patients who underwent PCI[1] for the first time in our center, we analyzed two groups: stable coronary disease and acute myocardial infarction. The primary endpoint was the rate of complications during the first 24 hours after PCI. We also analyzed the length of hospital stay and the rate of hospital readmission in the first week after PCI, and compared costs between the radial and femoral approaches.

Results: The study group comprised 131 patients with stable coronary disease and 43 with acute MI[2]. Among the patients with stable coronary disease 8 (6.1%) had pulse loss, 12 (9.16%) had on-site hematoma, and 3 (2.29%) had bleeding at the site of the puncture. Among the patients with acute MI, 3 (6.98) had pulse loss and 5 (11.63%) had bleeding at the site of the puncture. There were no cases of atriovenous fistula or nerve damage. In the stable coronary disease group, 130 patients (99%) were discharged on the same day (2.4 ± 2 hours). In the acute MI group, the length of stay was 6.6 ± 2.5 days with at least 24 hours in the intensive care unit. There were no hospital readmissions in the first week after the procedure. The total cost, which includes equipment related to the specific approach and recovery room stay, was significantly lower with the radial approach compared to the femoral approach (US$ 500 saving per intervention).

Conclusions: The transradial approach was safe and feasible in a community hospital in a developing country without on-site cardiac surgery backup. The radial artery approach is clearly more cost effective than the femoral approach.






[1] PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention



[2] MI = myocardial infarction


October 2008
February 2002
Diab Mutlak, MD, Luis Gruberg, MD, Shimon Reisner, MD and Walter Markiewicz, MD, FACC

Background: Percutaneous transluminal septal ablation was recently introduced as an alternative to surgical treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. In this procedure, alcohol is injected into a proximal septal artery to create a localized myocardial infarction.

Objectives: To characterize the immediate and mediumterm results following PTSMA.

Methods: Of 13 patients referred for PTSMA, 8 were found suitable for the procedure. Hemodynamic parameters were evaluated prior to and following the procedure, and clinical and echo-Doppler parameters at 2 weeks and 9 months later.

Results: The procedure was technically successful in all patients. Resting left ventricular outflow gradient at rest (by Doppler) fell from 82 + 37 to 15 + 8 mmHg (P<0.001) 9 months later. Late post-procedural gradient after the Valsalva maneuver was 2 + 24 mmHg. The degree of mitral regurgitation fell from 2.0 + 0 to 1.5 + 0.5 (P<0.05). New York Heart Association class for dyspnea improved from 2.8 + 0.5 to 1.8 + (P<0.01) and Canadian Cardiovascular Society class for angina from 2.0 + 1.3 to 1.3 + 1.2 (P=0.08). Complete right bundle branch block developed in six patients, temporary complete atrioventricular block in three, and persistent block requiring permanent pacing in one. No flow in the distal left anterior descending coronary artery (presumably due to spilling of alcohol) was seen in one (with development of a small antero-apical infraction) and ventricular fibrillation 2 hours post-procedure in one. None of the patients died.

Conclusion: PTSMA provided a substantial reduction in left ventricular outflow gradient associated with an improvement in symptomatology. Serious complications are not uncommon. Long-term follow-up is unknown.
 

January 2001
Gabriel Szendro MD FRCS, Luis Golcman MD, Alex Klimov MD, Charach Yefim MD, Batsheva Johnatan RVT, Elizabeth Avrahami RVT, Batsheva Yechieli RVT and Shemuel Yurfest MD

Background: Both diagnostic and therapeutic options in the management of iatrogenic false aneurysms have changed dramatically in the last decade, with surgery being required only rarely.

Objective: To describe our experience, techniques and results in treating pseudoaneurysms at a large medical center with frequent arterial interventions. We emphasize upper limb lesions.

Materials and Methods: We reviewed the data of all consecutive patients diagnosed by color-coded duplex Doppler between August 1992 and July 1998 as having upper limb and lower limb pseudoaneurysms (mainly post- catheterization). We accumulated 107 false aneurysms (mainly post- catheterization lesions): 5 were upper limb lesions and 102 were groin aneurysms.

Results: In the lower limb cases 94 of the 102 lesions were not operated upon (92.1%). Seventy lower limb cases were treated non-operatively by ultrasound-guided compression obliteration with a 95.7% success rate (67 cases). Two cases were treated by  percutaneous thrombin injection (2%) and 23 by observation only (22.5%). Altogether 12 patients underwent surgery (11.2%): 4 upper extremity and 8 lower extremity cases. None of the lower limb group suffered serious complications regardless of treatment, but all five upper limb cases did, four of them necessitating surgical intervention. Three of the five upper limb cases had a grave outcome with severe or permanent or neurological damage.

Conclusion: Most post- catheterization pseudoaneurysms can be managed non-surgically. False aneurysms in the upper extremity are rare, comprising less than 2% of all lesions. However, upper extremity pseudoaneurysms present a potentially more serious complication and require early diagnosis and prompt intervention to minimize the high complication rate and serious long-term sequelae. Prevention can be achieved by proper puncture technique and site selection, and correct post-procedure hemostatic compression with or without an external device. Some upper limb lesions are avoidable if the axillary artery is not punctured.
 

Abraham Matitiau, MD, Einat Birk, MD, Ludmyla Kachko, MD, Leonard C. Blieden, MD and Elchanan Bruckheimer, MB, BS

Background: Secundum atrial septal defect is a common congenital heart defect that causes right heart volume overload and produces symptoms usually after the third decade of life. Treatment until the last few years has been open heart surgery.

Objective: To review our early experience with transcatheter closure of ASD2 using the Amplatzer septal occluder.

Methods: Between November 1999 and February 2000, 20 children and young adults with a median age of 9.1 years (4.2-35.1 years) were referred for transcatheter closure of ASD2. Diagnosis was established by transthoracic echocardiography. Implantation was performed under general anesthesia through the femoral vein with the guidance of transesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopy. Femoral arterial puncture was performed for blood pressure monitoring during the procedure. The device size chosen was similar to the balloon-stretched diameter of the ASD2.

Results: Implantation was completed successfully in 18 patients. Two patients were referred for elective surgery: one had an unsuitable anatomy for transcatheter closure by TEE in the catheterization laboratory and the device could not implanted properly, the other patient had a large multiperforated septal aneurysm that was retrieved. Mean ASD2 diameter by TTE and TEE was similar (13.9 + 3 mm, 13.4 + 3.5 mm) and mean stretched diameter was 18.3 + 4.3 mm. Mean Qp:Qs (pulmonary flow: systemic flow) was 2.2 + 0.6. Mean fluoroscopy time for the procedure was 14.8 + 4.8 minutes.

The patients were discharged the day after the procedure.

Four patients had a tiny leak immediately post-procedure, and none had a leak at one month follow-up. The only complication was a small pseudoaneurysm of the femoral artery in one patient, that resolved spontaneously.

Conclusion: Transcatheter closure of ASD2 with the Amplatzer septal occluder is a safe and effective alternative to surgical closure. Long-term outcome has to be evaluated.

Eran E. Weinmann, MD and Arie Bass, MD
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