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עמוד בית
Sun, 14.04.24

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February 2023
Gassan Moady MD MPH, Alexander Shturman MD, Elias Daud MD, Gal Rubinstein MD, Dror Leviner MD, Shaul Atar MD

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) often develops following stressors such as cardiac surgery. It may be fatal in rare cases. Our 70-year-old female patient presented with a rare case of tricuspid valve papillary fibroelastoma, which was complicated by fatal TTS after successful resection. The patient had a right atrial mass that was investigated with computed tomography and transesophageal echocardiography (TTE). She was scheduled for surgery. Pathology findings were consistent with papillary fibroelastoma of the tricuspid valve. Three weeks after successful surgery, the patient was admitted due to cardiogenic shock with echocardiographic findings of apical ballooning and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction consistent with TTS. The patient died one hour after her admission despite optimal medical therapy.

October 2019
Ayelet Shapira-Daniels MD, Orit Blumenfeld PhD, Amit Korach MD, Ehud Rudis MD, Uzi Izhar MD and Oz M. Shapira MD

Background: Recently, Israel established the first national-level adult cardiac surgery database, which was linked to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS).

Objectives: To validate and compare the STS predicted risk of mortality (PROM) to logistic EuroSCORE I (LESI) and EuroSCORE II (ESII) in Israeli patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 1279 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgeries with a calculable PROM. Data were prospectively entered into our database and used to calculate PROM, LESI, and ESII. Scores were normalized and correlated using linear regression and Pearson's test. To examine model calibration, we plotted the total observed versus expected mortality for each score and across five risk-score subgroups. Model discrimination was assessed by measuring the area under the receiver operating curves.

Results: The observed 30-day operative mortality was 1.95%. The median (IQ1; IQ3) PROM, LESI, and the ESII scores were 1.45% (0.69; 3.22), 4.54% (2.28; 9.27), and 1.88% (1.18; 3.54), respectively, with observed over expected ratios of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.42–0.93), 0.59 (95%CI 0.40–0.87), and 0.24 (95%CI 0.17–0.36), respectively, (STS vs. ESII P = 0.36, STS vs. LESI P = 0.0001). There was good correlation among all scores. All models overestimated mortality. Model discrimination was high and similar for all three scores. Model calibration of the STS, PROM, and ESII were more accurate than the LESI, particularly in higher risk subgroups.

Conclusions: All scores overestimated mortality. In Israeli patients, the STS, PROM, and ESII risk-scores were more reliable metrics than LESI, particularly in higher risk patients.

September 2018
Marina Leitman MD, Marina Levitan MD, Vladimir Tyomkin MSc and Zvi Vered MD FACC FESC

Background: A cardiac restrictive filling patterns are associated with unfavorable prognoses. Cardiac interventions may change the natural history of patients.

Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of restrictive filling pattern in routine echocardiographic examinations and their association with morbidity and mortality.

Methods: The clinical and echocardiographic data of patients with newly diagnosed restrictive filling pattern were analyzed and summarized.

Results: Among 8000 patients who underwent an echocardiographic examination in our hospital in 2013, a restrictive filling pattern was identified in 256. Of these, 134 showed a restrictive filling pattern that was newly diagnosed. Mean age was 69 years. Hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease were found in 81%, 60%, and 53%, respectively. Left ventricular ejection fraction was 42% ± 16%. Severe valvular abnormalities were found in 18%. During follow-up (29 ± 15 months), 40% of patients died. The strongest predictor of mortality (73%) was moderate or more advanced aortic stenosis, P = 0.005. Renal failure was an important independent predictor of mortality (53%, P < 0.05). A very high E/E' ratio ≥ 20, was another independent mortality predictor (50%, P < 0.03). Patients who died were less likely to have undergone cardiac interventions than those who survived (26% vs. 45%, P < 0.03).

Conclusions: Prevalence of restrictive filling among echocardiographic studies is 3.2%. In a half of these, the restrictive filling pattern is a new diagnosis. Patients who are diagnosed with a new restrictive filling pattern have higher mortality rates. Patients with restrictive filling should be evaluated thoroughly for possible coronary artery or valvular heart disease.

November 2016
Gabriel Amir MD PhD, Georgy Frenkel MD, Elchanan Bruckheimer MD, Alexander Lowenthal MD, Amichay Rotstein MD, Jacob Katz MD, Yelena Zeitlin MD, Ofer Schiller MD and Einat Birk MD

Background: neonatal cardiac surgery has evolved over the last 50 years with a large percentage of the patients achieving complete physiological repair in the neonatal period. The remaining patients achieve staged palliation with an increasing amount of success. 

Objectives: To report our experience with 1000 neonatal cardiac surgical procedures performed in the last 10 years.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of surgical outcome in all neonatal patients who underwent cardiac surgery between January 2007 and July 2016 at Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel.

Results: A total of 1003 neonates aged < 30 days underwent surgery for congenital heart defects at our center. Neonatal surgery accounted for 22.5% of all cardiac surgeries. Neonatal operative mortality was 7.3%, Operative mortality for individual lesions were: simple aortic coarctation (CoA) (198 patients, 2.5%), CoA with hypoplastic arch (24, 4%), CoA with ventricular septal defect (VSD) (84, 2.3%), transposition of the great arteries (TGA, simple and complex, 185, 6.3%), TGA with VSD (37, 0%), truncus arteriosus (26, 3.8%), interrupted aortic arch (25, 4%), Norwood Sano (71, 19.7%), neonatal tetralogy of Fallot (41, 0%), and shunt (131 patients, 12%).

Conclusions: Neonatal surgical capabilities have improved substantially over the last decades. Excellent results can be expected for lesions that can be repaired to create biventricular circulation. Improved results can be attributed in part to the evolution of surgical strategies and assistive technologies, but essential is the collaborative effort of surgeons, cardiologists, anesthesiologists, and intensive care specialists acting as a cohesive team whose performance far exceeds the sum of its individual members’ contributions. 


June 2016
Michal Fertouk MD, Shahar Grunner MD, Zvi Peled MD, Zvi Adler MD, Oz M. Shapira MD and Gil Bolotin MD PhD
May 2013
E. Nahum, U. Pollak, O. Dagan, G. Amir, G. Frenkel and E. Birk
 Background: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been shown to have prognostic value for morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Less is known about its prognostic value in infants.

Objectives: To investigate the predictive value of BNP levels regarding the severity of the postoperative course in infants undergoing surgical repair of congenital heart disease.

Methods: We conducted a prospective comparative study. Plasma BNP levels in infants aged 1–12 months with congenital heart disease undergoing complete repair were measured preoperatively and 8, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. Demographic and clinical data included postoperative inotropic support and lactate level, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospitalization stay.

Results: Cardiac surgery was performed in 19 infants aged 1-12 months. Preoperative BNP level above 170 pg/ml had a positive predictive value of 100% for inotropic score ≥ 7.5 at 24 hours (specificity 100%, sensitivity 57%) and 48 hours (specificity 100%, sensitivity 100%), and was associated with longer ICU stay (P = 0.05) and a trend for longer mechanical ventilation (P = 0.12). Similar findings were found for 8 hours postoperative BNP above 1720 pg/ml. BNP level did not correlate with measured fractional shortening.

Conclusions: In infants undergoing heart surgery, preoperative and 8 hour BNP levels were predictive of inotropic support and longer ICU stay. These findings may have implications for preplanning ICU loads in clinical practice. Further studies with larger samples are needed.

January 2013
L. Sasson, I. Cohen, A. Tamir, A. Raucher Sternfeld, Y. Berlowitz, O. Lenczner and S. Houri
 Background: The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in children after cardiac surgery is well established. ECMO support is becoming an integral tool for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in specified centers.

Objectives: To review our use of ECMO over a 10 year period.

Methods: All children supported with ECMO from 2000 to 2010 were reviewed. Most of these children suffered from cardiac anomalies. The patients were analyzed by age, weight, procedure, RACHS-1 when appropriate, length of support, and outcome.

Results: Sixty-two children were supported with ECMO; their median age was 3 months (range 0–216 months) and median weight 4.3 kg (range 1.9–51 kg). Thirty-four patients (52.3%) needed additional hemofiltration or dialysis due to renal failure. The children requiring ECMO support represented a wide spectrum of cardiac lesions; the most common procedure was arterial switch operation 27.4% (n=17). ECMO was required mainly for failure to separate from the heart-lung machine (n=55). The median duration of ECMO support was 4 days (range 1–14 days); 29 (46.7%) patients were weaned successfully from ECMO during this time period, and 5 of them died during hospitalization, yielding an overall hospital survival rate of 38.7%.

Conclusions: ECMO support has significant survival benefit for patients with post-cardiotomy heart failure. Its early deployment should be considered in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

October 2010
R.O. Escarcega, J. Carlos Perez-Alva, M. Jimenez-Hernandez, C. Mendoza-Pinto, R. Sanchez Perez, R. Sanchez Porras and M. Garcia-Carrasco

Background: On-site cardiac surgery is not widely available in developing countries despite a high prevalence of coronary artery disease.

Objectives: To analyze the safety, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of transradial percutaneous coronary intervention without on-site cardiac surgery in a community hospital in a developing country.

Methods: Of the 174 patients who underwent PCI[1] for the first time in our center, we analyzed two groups: stable coronary disease and acute myocardial infarction. The primary endpoint was the rate of complications during the first 24 hours after PCI. We also analyzed the length of hospital stay and the rate of hospital readmission in the first week after PCI, and compared costs between the radial and femoral approaches.

Results: The study group comprised 131 patients with stable coronary disease and 43 with acute MI[2]. Among the patients with stable coronary disease 8 (6.1%) had pulse loss, 12 (9.16%) had on-site hematoma, and 3 (2.29%) had bleeding at the site of the puncture. Among the patients with acute MI, 3 (6.98) had pulse loss and 5 (11.63%) had bleeding at the site of the puncture. There were no cases of atriovenous fistula or nerve damage. In the stable coronary disease group, 130 patients (99%) were discharged on the same day (2.4 ± 2 hours). In the acute MI group, the length of stay was 6.6 ± 2.5 days with at least 24 hours in the intensive care unit. There were no hospital readmissions in the first week after the procedure. The total cost, which includes equipment related to the specific approach and recovery room stay, was significantly lower with the radial approach compared to the femoral approach (US$ 500 saving per intervention).

Conclusions: The transradial approach was safe and feasible in a community hospital in a developing country without on-site cardiac surgery backup. The radial artery approach is clearly more cost effective than the femoral approach.

[1] PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention

[2] MI = myocardial infarction

February 2005
U. Peleg, S. Schwartz, G. Sirota, I. Hochman, D. Cohen and E. Picard
March 2004
E. Raanani, A. Keren, A. Kogan, R. Kornowski and B.A. Vidne

Background: Reports from Europe and North America indicate that significant changes have occurred in the practice of cardiac surgery in the last two decades.

Objectives: To examine the trends and case-mix in cardiac surgery in Israel and their relationship with changes in invasive cardiology.

Methods: We analysed data collected by the Ministry of Health from all cardiac centers in Israel from 1985 to 2002.

Results: Three periods were identified: the 1980s, when a relatively small number of operations were performed; 1990–1994, characterized by a dramatic rise in the number of operations; and 1994–present, characterized by a small decline and stabilization in the rate of operations. The percentage of valve procedures increased significantly from 15% of all cardiac surgeries in 1991 to 21% in 2002 (P = 0.002). In addition, the chance of a diagnostic coronary angiography being followed, in the same patient, by an interventional procedure such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or by a coronary artery bypass graft increased dramatically from 42% in 1991 to 69% in 2002. At Rabin Medical Center, there was a constant decline in the percent of repeated CABGs[1] out of the total CABGs performed, from 6.7% in 1996 to 1.3% in 2002.

Conclusions: Despite the rise in the rate of percutaneous coronary interventions since 1991, there has been no significant decline in the rate of CABGs performed. However, there is a significant shift to more complex operations. The number of repeated CABG operations has significantly decreased and, in view of the growing use of arterial grafts and further improvements in invasive cardiology techniques, we expect this decline to continue.

[1] CABG = coronary artery bypass graft

October 2003
R. Gerrah, U. Izhar, A. Elami, El Milgalter, E. Rudis and G. Merin

Background: Cardiac surgery is being performed with increasing frequency in patients aged 80 years and older.

Objectives: To examine the long and short-term results of surgery in this age group.

Methods: We retrospectively investigated 202 consecutive patients aged 80 years or older who underwent cardiac surgery between 1991 and 1999. Ninety-six operations (48%) were urgent.

Results: The study group comprised 140 men (69%) and 62 women (31%) with a mean age of 82.1 years (range 80–89). Preoperatively, 120 patients (59%) had unstable angina, 37 (18%) had left main coronary artery disease, 22 (11%) had renal failure, 17 (8.5%) had a history of stroke, and 13 (6.5%) had previous cardiac surgery. Hospital mortality for the whole group was 7.4%. Postoperative complications included: re-exploration for bleeding in 15 (7.4%), stroke in 8 (4%), sternal wound infection in 3 (1.5%), low cardiac output in 17 (8.4%), new Q wave myocardial infarction in 5 (2.5%), renal failure in 17 (8.5%), and atrial fibrillation in 71 (35%). The actuarial survival for patients discharged from the hospital was 66% at 5 years and 46% at 8 years. The type of surgical procedure was significantly associated with increased early mortality (coronary artery bypass grafting only in 2.9%, CABG[1] + valve in 16.1%, valve only in 16.7%; P = 0.01). Significant predictors (P < 0.05) for late mortality included type of surgical procedure, congestive heart failure, and postoperative low cardiac output.

Conclusions: When appropriately applied in selected octogenarians, cardiac surgery can be performed with acceptable mortality and good long-term results.

[1] CABG = coronary artery bypass grafting

July 2003
O. Dagan, E. Birk, Y. Katz, O. Gelber and B. Vidne

Background: The mortality rate associated with congenital heart surgery is apparently related to caseload.

Objective: To determine whether an increase in caseload over the long term at a single center affects management and outcome in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

Methods: Data were collected prospectively over a 4 year period from the computerized registry of the hospital’s pediatric intensive care unit. Five parameters were analyzed: age at surgery, type of surgery, preventive measures (open chest), surgery-related and other complications (diaphragm paralysis and acute renal failure, respectively), and mortality. The data of a single-type surgery (arterial switch) were analyzed for bypass time and mechanical ventilation on an annual basis.

Results: The age distribution changed over the years, with more children under 1 year of age (20% newborns) undergoing surgery by the fourth year of the study. The caseload increased from 216 in the first year to 330 in the fourth, with a concomitant decrease in mortality rate from 4.9% to 3.2%. The chest was left open in 3.2% of patients in the first year and in 9.2% in the fourth year. The rate of diaphragm paralysis decreased from 6% to 2.4%. Death due to acute renal failure in patients requiring dialysis decreased from more than 80% in the first 2 years to 36% in the last two. These changes show an improvement but failed to reach statistical significance. Regarding the arterial switch operation, there was a significant improvement in pump time and duration of mechanical ventilation.

Conclusions: The increase in caseload in pediatric cardiac surgery was accompanied by improved management, with a lower complications-related mortality rate. We suggest that for optimal care of children with congenital heart disorders, quality management resources should be concentrated in centers with high caseloads.

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