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עמוד בית
Sat, 22.06.24

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April 2012
December 2011
A.Ben-Haroush, J. Farhi, I. Ben-Aharon, O. Sapir, H. Pinkas and B. Fisch

Background: Adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients may be associated with amenorrhea and a marked reduction in ovarian reserve.

Objectives: To assess the use of letrozole with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue protocols, based on reported attempts to avoid the estradiol (E2) increase during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for embryo cryopreservation in breast cancer patients using a combination of low dose FSH and aromatase inhibitor (letrozole) in a GnRH-antagonist protocol.

Methods: Twenty-four breast cancer patients were treated with recombinant FSH (150–450 U/day) and letrozole (5 mg/day) in a long GnRH-agonist (n=7) or GnRH-antagonist (n=17) protocol. After oocyte retrieval, insemination and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection was performed. The embryos were frozen.

Results: The average interval from surgery to oocyte retrieval was 40 days. Average duration of treatment was 9.6 days and mean peak E2 level 1342 ± 1091 pmol/L, yielding 16.0 ± 16.3 oocytes (range 0–82). Mean fertilization rate was 69.5 ± 20.4% and mean number of embryos cryopreserved 10.3 ± 9.3. More oocytes were retrieved with the long GnRH protocol, but the difference was not statistically significant (24.8 ± 24.6 vs. 12.0 ± 8.8 pmol/L, P = 0.07).

Conclusions: As previously reported, ovarian stimulation with letrozole and FSH, in both the long GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antagonist protocols, is apparently effective in breast cancer patients and spares them exposure to high E2 levels.
 

June 2011
G. Zeligson, A. Hadar, M. Koretz, E. Silberstein, Y. Kriege and A. Bogdanov-Berezovsky
May 2011
April 2011
D. Belkic and K. Belkic

There are major dilemmas regarding the optimal modalities for breast cancer screening. This is of particular relevance to Israel because of its high-risk population. It was suggested that an avenue for further research would be to incorporate advances in signal processing through the fast Padé transform (FPT) to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We have now applied the FPT[1] to time signals that were generated according to in vitro MRS[2] data as encoded from extracted breast specimens from normal, non-infiltrated breast tissue, fibroadenoma and cancerous breast tissue. The FPT is shown to resolve and precisely quantify the physical resonances as encountered in normal versus benign versus malignant breast. The FPT unambiguously delineated and quantified diagnostically important metabolites such as lactate, as well as phosphocholine, which very closely overlaps with glycerophosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine, and may represent a magnetic resonance-visible molecular marker of breast cancer. These advantages of the FPT could clearly be of benefit for breast cancer diagnostics via MRS. This line of investigation should continue with encoded data from benign and malignant breast tissue, in vitro and in vivo. We anticipate that Padé-optimized MRS will reduce the false positive rates of MR-based modalities and further improve their sensitivity. Once this is achieved, and given that MR entails no exposure to ionizing radiation, new possibilities for screening and early detection emerge, especially for risk groups. For example, Padé-optimized MRS together with MR imaging could be used with greater surveillance frequency among younger women with high risk of breast cancer.






[1] FPT = fast Padé transform



[2] MRS = magnetic resonance spectroscopy


November 2010
B. Chikman, R. Lavy, T. Davidson, I. Wassermann, J. Sandbank, N. Siegelmann-Danieli and A. Halevy

Background: Infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma account for more than 90% of all invasive breast cancer histological types. The rate of ILC[1] is reported to be increasing steadily in the United States and Europe.

Objectives: To describe the trend in the incidence of ILC in a large cohort of patients who underwent surgery in a single institution over an 18 year period.

Methods: Our comprehensive database of 2175 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed during the period 1992–2009 served for the analysis. Several potential factors associated with lobular carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma were evaluated.

Results: During this period, a 2.4-fold increase in the incidence of pure ILC was noted, from 4.6% in the years 1992–1994 to 10.9% in 2004–2006, followed by a modest decrease to 8.7% in 2007–2009. A significant association of lobular malignancies with external hormonal use was noted, including hormone replacement therapy exposure in patients diagnosed at age 50–64, and ovarian overstimulation during in vitro fertilization in those diagnosed at age 50 or less.  

Conclusions: Better diagnostic tools – such as the liberal use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging – and more accurate pathological definition for ILC type appear to influence the changes in the incidence of ILC in the subgroups of invasive breast cancer.






[1] ILC = infiltrating lobular carcinoma


June 2010
A. Yosepovich, C. Avivi, J. Bar, S. Polak-Charcon, C. Mardoukh and I. Barshack

Background: HER2 is an important prognostic and predictive marker in invasive breast cancer. It is currently assessed by immunohistochemistry for protein over-expression and by fluorescence in situ hybridization for gene amplification. The immunohistochemistry-equivocal cases (2+) are currently retested by FISH[1] to determine eligibility for trastuzumab treatment. Retesting by FISH significantly raises the cost of patient management and sometimes delays treatment. The 4B5 is a new, FDA-approved, rabbit monoclonal antibody for HER2 testing.

Objectives: To examine the reliability of 4B5 IHC[2] HER2 testing in cases found to be HER2 status equivocal by CB11 IHC.

Methods: Twenty-eight invasive breast cancer cases, with an equivocal HER2 status by CB11 IHC, were retested by the 4B5 antibody as well as by FISH analysis. The scoring was performed using the same guidelines as HercepTest and was correlated with the FISH ratio. Results: Of the original 28 CB11 clone designated equivocal cases, 14 (50%) showed negative HER2 staining using the 4B5 clone (HercepTest score 0 and 1+). Five cases (18%) proved to be positive (HercepTest score 3+) and 9 cases (32%) remained equivocal (HercepTest score 2+). The corresponding FISH ratio results showed that all 4B5 negative cases were negative by FISH testing, with a negative predictive value of 100% 4 of 5 of the 4B5-positive cases were positive by FISH testing, with a positive predictive value of 80%. One 4B5-positive case was borderline-high (2.2 ratio) by FISH. The correlation between 4B5 IHC and FISH was statistically significant (P = 0.0013) by chi-square test.

Conclusions: Sequential testing by 4B5 IHC could greatly reduce the need for FISH testing in cases considered HER2 equivocal by CB11 IHC.

 

 
[1] FISH = fluorescence in situ hybridization

[2] IHC = immunohistochemistry

October 2008
L. Keinan-Boker, L. Lerner-Geva, B. Kaufman and D. Meirow

The frequency of pregnancy-associated breast cancer, a rare but serious occurrence, may increase in light of the secular trends for lower parity in general and for an older age at first full-term delivery in particular. Data on PABC[1] in individuals who are at high risk for breast cancer are limited. A computerized search of PUBMED showed that the reported incidence of PABC is 1:3000 pregnancies; it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and its prognosis is inferior compared to non-PABC. Carriers of mutations in the genes BRCA1/2 may present a specific high risk group for PABC especially at younger ages. Women treated with fertility treatment drugs may be at a higher risk for PABC as well.  






[1] PABC = pregnancy-associated breast cancer


S. Bortnik, D. J Cohen, L. Leider-Trejo and I. G Ron
June 2008
S. Lieberman, T. Sella, B. Maly, J. Sosna, B. Uziely and M. Sklair-Levy

Background: Occult breast cancer without clinically or mammographically detectable breast tumor is an uncommon presentation.

Objectives: To assess the role of breast MRI in women with metastatic carcinoma and an occult primary, and to define the MRI characteristics of the primary breast tumor.

Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 20 women with metastatic carcinoma of unknown origin who underwent breast MRI between 2000 and 2006. Four women were excluded, leaving 16 in the study group. Probability of malignancy was assessed according to BIRADS classification. MRI performance in detecting lesions and evaluating disease extent was assessed, with the gold standard being surgical or biopsy pathology.

Results: MRI detected suspicious lesions in 15 patients. Lesion size ranged from 0.4 to 7 cm (median 1.5 cm). MRI detected a single lesion in 6 patients (40%), multifocal disease in 3 (20%), multicentric disease in 4 (27%), and bilateral breast lesions in 2 (13%). In 13 patients MRI depicted the primary breast cancer. Initial treatment was surgical in nine; MRI correctly estimated disease extent in 6 (67%), underestimated disease extent in 1 (11%), and overestimated it in 2 (22%). Four patients had biopsy followed by chemotherapy; one had multicentric disease and one had multifocal disease. MR findings were false positive in two patients and false negative in one.

Conclusions: MRI is sensitive in detecting the primary tumor and beneficial in assessing tumor extent. Small size and multiple foci are common features. We suggest that bilateral breast MRI be part of the evaluation of women with metastatic carcinoma and an occult primary.
 

May 2008
November 2007
Y. Laitman, B. Kaufmann, E. Levy Lahad, M.Z. Papa and E. Friedman

Background: Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes account for only 20–40% of familial breast cancer cases. The CHEK2 gene encodes a checkpoint kinase, involved in response to DNA damage, and hence is a candidate gene for breast cancer susceptibility. Indeed, the CHEK2*1100delC truncating mutation was reported in a subset of mostly North European breast cancer families. The rate of the CHEK2*1100delC variant in the Ashkenazi* Jewish population was reported to be 0.3%.

Objectives: To evaluate whether CHEK2 germline mutations contribute to a breast cancer predisposition in Ashkenazi-Jewish high risk families.

Methods: High risk Ashkenazi Jewish women, none of whom was a carrier of the predominant Jewish mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2, were genotyped for germline mutations in the CHEK2 gene by exon-specific polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of abnormally migrating fragments.

Results: Overall, 172 high risk women were genotyped: 75 (43.6%) with breast cancer (average age at diagnosis 49.6 ± 9.6 years, mean ± SD) and 97 asymptomatic individuals (age at counseling 48.3 ± 8.2 years). No truncating mutations were noted and four previously described missense mutations were detected (R3W 1.2%, I157T 1.2%, R180C 0.6% and S428F 5%), one silent polymorphism (E84E 20.5%) and one novel missense mutation (Y424H 1.2%). Segregation analysis of the I157T and S428F mutations (shown to affect protein function) with the cancer phenotype showed concordance for the CHK2*I157T mutation, as did two of three families with the CHK2*S428F mutation.

Conclusions: CHEK2 missense mutations may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility in Ashkenazi Jews.

 






*  Of East European descent


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