• IMA sites
  • IMAJ services
  • IMA journals
  • Follow us
  • Alternate Text Alternate Text
עמוד בית
Mon, 22.07.24

Search results

March 2017
Asaf Achiron MD, Yael Birger MD, Lily Karmona MD, Haggay Avizemer MD, Elisha Bartov MD, Yocheved Rahamim PhD and Zvia Burgansky-Eliash MD

Background: Warm compresses are widely touted as an effective treatment for ocular surface disorders. Black tea compresses are a common household remedy, although there is no evidence in the medical literature proving their effect and their use may lead to harmful side effects. 

Objectives: To describe a case in which the application of black tea to an eye with a corneal epithelial defect led to anterior stromal discoloration; evaluate the prevalence of hot tea compress use; and analyze, in vitro, the discoloring effect of tea compresses on a model of a porcine eye.

Methods: We assessed the prevalence of hot tea compresses in our community and explored the effect of warm tea compresses on the cornea when the corneal epithelium’s integrity is disrupted. An in vitro experiment in which warm compresses were applied to 18 fresh porcine eyes was performed. In half the eyes a corneal epithelial defect was created and in the other half the epithelium was intact. Both groups were divided into subgroups of three eyes each and treated experimentally with warm black tea compresses, pure water, or chamomile tea compresses. We also performed a study in patients with a history of tea compress use. 

Results: Brown discoloration of the anterior stroma appeared only in the porcine corneas that had an epithelial defect and were treated with black tea compresses. No other eyes from any group showed discoloration. Of the patients included in our survey, approximately 50% had applied some sort of tea ingredient as a solid compressor or as the hot liquid.

Conclusions: An intact corneal epithelium serves as an effective barrier against tea-stain discoloration. Only when this layer is disrupted does the damage occur. Therefore, direct application of black tea (Camellia sinensis) to a cornea with an epithelial defect should be avoided.


July 2001
April 2001
Ausim Azizi, MD, PhD, Perry Black, MD, Curtis Miyamoto, MD and Sidney E. Croul, MD

Background: The impact of repeated surgical resection on the survivorship of patients with malignant astrocytomas is an issue of some controversy in the medical literature.

Objectives: To clarify this issue through a retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes in a brain tumor clinic.

Methods: The patient records from the Brain Tumor Clinic at Hahnemann University Hospital for the period 1988 to 2000 were reviewed. From these, 112 cases of glioblastoma multiforme and 50 cases of anaplastic astrocytoma were chosen for analysis.

Results: The group of patients with glioblastomas showed a median survival of 415 days. When analyzed as subgroups based on the number of surgical resections, the median survival was 393 days in the group with biopsy only, 380 days in the group with one surgical resection, and 548 days in the group with two or three resections. Using the Kaplan-Meier method to generate survival plots and the log rank test to compare groups, repeat debulking was found to be a significant predictor of survival (P= 0.1 73). The group of patients with anaplastic astrocytomas showed a median survival of 1,311 days. When analyzed by subgroups, the patients with biopsy only had a median survival of 544 days, those with one debulking 1,589 days and those with two or three debulkings 1,421 days. There was a trend toward increased survival with debulking and the log rank test again showed statistical significance (P 0.1998).

Conclusions: This study indicates that repeated surgical resections offer increased survival for both glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas.

Legal Disclaimer: The information contained in this website is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or medical advice on any matter.
The IMA is not responsible for and expressly disclaims liability for damages of any kind arising from the use of or reliance on information contained within the site.
© All rights to information on this site are reserved and are the property of the Israeli Medical Association. Privacy policy

2 Twin Towers, 35 Jabotinsky, POB 4292, Ramat Gan 5251108 Israel