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עמוד בית
Thu, 23.05.24

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March 2023
Alla Lubovich MD, Mariana Issawy MD, Liza Grosman-Rimon PhD, Fabio Kusniec MD, Ibrahim Marai MD, Doron Sudarsky MD, Edo Y. Birati MD, Offer Amir MD FACC, Shemy Carasso MD FESC FASE, Gabby Elbaz-Greener MD MHA DRCPSC

Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents a spectrum of ischemic myocardial disease including unstable angina (UA), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Various prognostic scores were developed for patients presenting with NSTEMI-ACS. Among these scores, the GRACE risk score offers the best discriminative performance for prediction of in-hospital and 6-month mortality. However, the GRACE score is limited and cannot be used in several ethnic populations. Moreover, it is not predictive of clinical outcomes other than mortality.

Objective: To assess the prognostic value of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and laboratory biomarkers in predicting 6-month major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), including hospitalization, recurrent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), stroke, and cardiovascular mortality in patients with NSTEMI treated with PCI.

Methods: This retrospective study included consecutive patients admitted with an initial diagnosis of NSTEMI to the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) at the Tzafon Medical Center, Israel, between April 2015 and August 2018 and treated by PCI within 48 hours of admission.

Results: A total of 223 consecutive patients with NSTEMI treated by PCI were included in the study. Logarithmebrain natriuretic peptide (LogₑBNP), prior MI, and Hb levels were found to be significant predictors of any first MACCE. Only logₑBNP was found to be an independent predictor of a first MACCE event by multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Conclusions: LogₑBNP is an independent predictor of worse prognosis in patients with NSTEMI. Routine evaluation of BNP levels should be considered in patients admitted with NSTEMI.

October 2021
Nicholay Teodorovich MD, Michael Jonas MD, Dan Haberman MD, Haitham Abu Khadija MD‏, Omar Ayyad MD, Gera Gandelman MD, Lion Poles MD, Jacob George MD, and Alex Blatt MD MSc

Background: Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) are a known biomarker of endothelial dysfunction and damage in clinical practice, especially in autoimmune disease.

Objectives: To determine the relation between natural AECA levels and prognosis related to coronary artery disease.

Methods: Candidates for coronary angiography were prospectively enrolled. AECA levels were determined by ELISA assay. Mortality was evaluated after more than 5 years follow-up.

Results: Of a total 857 patients, 445 had high AECA levels (group 1) and 412 had low levels (< 1 OD unit, group 2). Both groups did not differ in age, sex, or presence of diabetes. The median follow up was 2293 days (76 months). Patients with high AECA levels were more likely to have normal coronary arteries on angiography (21.6% vs. 16.9%, P = 0.047) and less likely to have calcified lesions (19.0% vs. 26.6%, P = 0.028) and lower prevalence of abnormal renal functions (71.1 mg/dl vs. 66.5 mg/dl, P = 0.033). Patients with higher AECA levels had lower mortality levels (20.1% vs. 27.6%, P = 0.006). A logistic regression model demonstrated independent association between lower AECA levels and the presence of coronary atherosclerosis based on angiogram.

Conclusions: After a median of more than 6 years, higher natural AECA levels were associated with less coronary artery disease and lower mortality rates in patients undergoing coronary angiography

March 2021
David Zahler MD, Ilan Merdler MD, Keren-Lee Rozenfeld MD, Gil Shenberg MD, Assi Milwidsky MD, Shlomo Berliner MD, Shmuel Banai MD, Yaron Arbel MD, and Yacov Shacham MD

Background: Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) was shown to be associated with an increased risk for new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); however, the optimal time frame to measure CRP for risk stratification is not known.

Objectives: To evaluate the relation between the change in CRP over time (CRP velocity [CRPv]) and new-onset AF among STEMI patients treated with primary PCI.

Methods: We included 801 STEMI patients who underwent PCI between 2007 and 2017 and had their CRP measured with a wide range assay (wr-CRP) at least twice during the 24 hours after admission. CRPv was defined as the change in wr-CRP concentration (mg/l) divided by the change in time (in hours) between the two measurements. Patient medical records were reviewed for occurrence of new-onset AF.

Results: New onset AF occurred in 45 patients (6%). Patients with new onset AF had significantly higher median CRPv (1.27 vs. 0.43 mg/l/h, P = 0.002). New-onset AF during hospitalization occurred in 3.4%, 4.5 %, and 9.1% of patients in the first, second and third CRPv tertiles, respectively (P for trend = 0.006). In a multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for clinical variables the odds ratios for new onset AF was 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.0–3.59, P = 0.04) for patients in the third CRPv tertile.

Conclusion: CRPv might be an independent and rapidly measurable biomarker for new-onset AF following primary PCI in STEMI patients.

August 2018
Jurgen Sota MD, Antonio Vitale MD, Donato Rigante MD PhD, Ida Orlando MD, Orso Maria Lucherini PhD, Antonella Simpatico MD, Giuseppe Lopalco MD, Rossella Franceschini MD PhD, Mauro Galeazzi MD PhD, Bruno Frediani MD PhD, Claudia Fabiani MD PhD, Gian Marco Tosi MD PhD and Luca Cantarini MD PhD

Background: Behçet’s disease (BD) is an inflammatory disorder potentially leading to life- and sight-threatening complications. No laboratory marker correlating with disease activity or predicting the occurrence of disease manifestations is currently available.

Objectives: To determine an association between serum amyloid-A (SAA) levels and disease activity via the BD Current Activity Form (BDCAF), to evaluate disease activity in relation to different SAA thresholds, to examine the association between single organ involvement and the overall major organ involvement with different SAA thresholds, and to assess the influence of biologic therapy on SAA levels.

Methods: We collected 95 serum samples from 64 BD patients. Related demographic, clinical, and therapeutic data were retrospectively gathered.

Results: No association was identified between SAA levels and BD disease activity (Spearman's rho = 0.085, P = 0.411). A significant difference was found in the mean BDCAF score between patients presenting with SAA levels < 200 mg/L and those with SAA levels > 200 mg/L (P = 0.027). SAA levels > 200 mg/L were associated with major organ involvement (P = 0.008). A significant association was found between SAA levels > 150 mg/dl and ocular (P = 0.008), skin (P = 0.002), and mucosal (P = 0.012) manifestations. Patients undergoing biologic therapies displayed more frequently SAA levels < 200 mg/L vs. patients who were not undergoing biologic therapies (P = 0.012).

Conclusions: Although SAA level does not represent a biomarker for disease activity, it might be a predictor of major organ involvement and ocular disease relapse at certain thresholds in patients with BD.

August 2017
Fabiola Atzeni MD PhD, Rossella Talotta MD PhD, Ignazio F. Masala MD, Sara Bongiovanni MD, Laura Boccassini MD and Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini MD

Biomarkers are important for guiding the clinical and therapeutic management of all phases of rheumatoid arthritis because they can help to predict disease development in subjects at risk, improve diagnosis by closing the serological gap, provide prognostic information that is useful for making therapeutic choices and assessing treatment responses and outcomes, and allow disease activity and progression to be monitored. Various biomarkers can be used to identify subjects susceptible to the disease and those with pre-clinical rheumatoid arthritis before the onset of symptoms such as rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. They can be correlated with a risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis and can predict more bone erosions and severe disease progression. Biomarkers such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels provide information about disease activity, while predictive biomarkers allow clinicians to assess the probability of a treatment response before starting a particular therapy particularly in the era of biological drugs. This move from traditional approaches to patient stratification and targeted treatment should greatly improve patient care and reduce medical costs.

April 2016
Nicola A. Pascarelli PhD, Sara Cheleschi PhD, Giovanni Bacaro PhD, Giacomo M. Guidelli MD, Mauro Galeazzi MD and Antonella Fioravanti MD PhD

Background: Balneotherapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for osteoarthritis (OA). Recent data indicate that some biomarkers could be useful to predict OA progression and to assess therapeutic response.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of mud-bath therapy on serum biomarkers in patients with knee OA. 

Methods: The study group comprised 103 patients with primary symptomatic bilateral knee OA who were randomly assigned to receive a cycle of mud-bath therapy over a period of 2 weeks or to continue their standard therapy alone. Clinical and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and after 2 weeks. Clinical assessments included global pain score on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide type II collagen (CTX-II), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) serum levels were assessed by ELISA.

Results: At the end of mud-bath therapy we observed a statistically significant improvement in VAS and WOMAC subscores. Serum levels of COMP, MPO and hsCRP did not show any significant modification in both groups, while a significant increase (P < 0.001) in CTX-II serum levels was observed in the mud-bath group after the treatment.

Conclusions: A cycle of mud-bath therapy added to usual treatment had a beneficial effect on pain and function in patients with knee OA. The evaluation of serum biomarkers showed only a significant increase of CTX-II, perhaps due to an increase of cartilage turnover induced by thermal stress.

February 2016
Michal Laufer Perl MD, Ariel Finkelstein MD, Miri Revivo MHA, Shlomo Berliner MD, Itzhak Herz MD, Itay Rabinovich MD, Tomer Ziv-Baran PhD, Dalit Gotler, Gad Keren MD, Shmuel Bana MD and Yaron Arbel MD

Background: Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease. Nevertheless, the role of specific biomarkers as indicators for both coronary and carotid diseases is debatable.

Objectives: To evaluate the association of biomarkers with coronary and carotid disease.

Methods: We studied 522 consecutive patients with stable angina. All underwent coronary angiography and carotid duplex study on the same day. Patients with no apparent carotid plaques were evaluated for carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) using an automated system that sampled over 100 samples in each carotid artery. Biochemical markers of cardiovascular disease risk were obtained at the time of coronary angiography, including serum lipid levels, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), white blood cell count, fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).

Results: The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 11; 73% were males. Significant carotid stenosis was associated with higher hs-CRP (9.4 ± 17 vs. 6.3 ± 13 mg/L, P = 0.001), while high HbA1c (6.7 ± 1.6 vs. 5.8 ± 0.8%, P < 0.001) and low high density lipoprotein levels (40 ± 9 vs. 47 ± 14 mg/dl, P < 0.001) were linked with advanced coronary artery disease severity. In contrast, CIMT was not related to any of the biomarkers evaluated.

Conclusions: Although atherosclerosis is considered a systemic disease, different biomarkers are associated with coronary and carotid artery disease. Identifying the specific biomarkers for each disease is important for both prevention and for exposing the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism.

 

October 2015
Zaza Iakobishvili MD PhD, Adaya Weissler MD, Kiril Buturlin MD, Gustavo Goldenberg MD, Boris Strassberg MD, Ruth Tur MD and David Hasdai MD FESC

Background: The kinetics of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) levels after elective, biphasic, direct-current cardioversion for persistent atrial fibrillation/flutter remains unknown.

Methods: We examined hs-cTnT kinetics in 24 patients at baseline and at 2, 6 and 24 hours post-cardioversion, and again at 7 and 30 days. We also examined levels of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).

Results: Median (25th, 75th interquartiles) baseline hs-cTnT concentration was 19.8 (10.4, 35.2) ng/L with 14 patients presenting with levels above the 99th percentile (13 ng/L). Hs-cTnT levels did not change significantly over time although they tended to decrease by 30 days, 18.8 ng/L (12.5, 23.3). There was no significant rise in other markers of myocardial injury. Similarly, BNP and hs-CRP levels were elevated at baseline and tended to decrease over time.

Conclusions: Patients with persistent atrial fibrillation/flutter have elevated hs-cTnT levels, as part of a general rise in biomarkers such as BNP and hs-CRP, without a further rise after cardioversion. After cardioversion, there is a gradual non-significant decrease in biomarker levels over time, and thus a rise in hs-cTnT levels should not be attributed to cardioversion. 

 

Jonathan E. Cohen MD PhD, Yasmin Cohen MD, Tamar Peretz MD and Ayala Hubert MD

Background: Predictive biomarkers for personalized treatment of neoplasms are suggested to be a major advancement in oncology and are increasingly used in clinical practice, albeit based on level II evidence. Target Now® (TN) employs immunostaining and RNA expression on tumor samples to identify potentially beneficial or ineffective drugs. 

Objectives: To explore retrospectively the predictive value of TN for patients with colorectal and gastric carcinomas. 

Methods: The study group comprised colorectal and gastric carcinoma patients with TN test reports. We identified chemotherapy regimens given for stage IV disease for which TN reports indicated prediction. Protocols were classified as having clinical benefit (CB; i.e., stable disease or any objective response) or progressive disease, and this was compared with the TN prediction. 

Results: Nineteen patients – 12 colorectal and 7 gastric carcinomas – met the inclusion criteria. There were 26 evaluable treatment protocols; of 18 with a CB 15 were predicted to have a CB while 3 were predicted to have a lack of CB. Of eight protocols that had no CB, seven were predicted to have a CB and one was predicted to have a lack of CB. A chi-square test was non-significant (P = 0.78). An exploratory analysis yielded a positive predictive value of 68% and a sensitivity of 83% for the TN test. 

Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for larger multicenter studies to validate the TN test before it is adopted into clinical practice. 

 

February 2008
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