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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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August 2022
Ido Tzanani MD MPH, Daniel Bendayan MD, Anat Jaffe MD PHD, and Zohar Mor MD MPH MHA

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the risk factors for progression from latent to active tuberculosis. However, the effect of DM on subsequent tuberculosis treatment is still inconclusive.

Objectives: To compare tuberculosis treatment outcomes and the rate of drug resistance of tuberculosis patients with or without DM.

Methods: This case-control study was conducted between 2005 and 2015 at the only tuberculosis ward in Israel. All 80 tuberculosis patients who had DM and were hospitalized during the study period were included in this study, as were a randomized sample of 213 tuberculosis patients without DM. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from patient files in the hospital and clinics after discharge.

Results: Tuberculosis patients with DM were more often older and more likely to be Israeli citizens with a lower socioeconomic status than patients without DM. No statistically significant differences were found in clinical presentation, radiological findings, and sputum smear tests between the two groups. Culture converting times were prolonged in patients with DM compared to normoglycemic patients. Multidrug drug resistance tuberculosis was more common among normoglycemic tuberculosis patients than tuberculosis patients with DM (9.2% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.12). Treatment success rates were 76.2% and 83.1% for tuberculosis patients with or without DM, respectively (P = 0.18). DM was not statistically significant in the multivariate analysis predicting treatment success, which controlled for age, citizenship, compliance, addictions, and chronic diseases.

Conclusions: The presence of DM does not necessarily affect tuberculosis treatment outcomes as long as treatment compliance is optimal.

December 2012
M. Papiashvili, I. Bar, L. Sasson, M. Lidji, K. Litman, A. Hendler, V. Polanski, L. Treizer and D. Bendayan

Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) presents a difficult therapeutic problem due to the failure of medical treatment. Pulmonary resection is an important adjunctive therapy for selected patients with MDR-TB.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of pulmonary resection in the management of MDR-TB patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of MDR-TB patients referred for major pulmonary resections to the departments of thoracic surgery at Assaf Harofeh and Wolfson Medical Centers. For the period under study, 13 years (from 1998 to 2011), we analyzed patients’ medical history, bacteriological, medical and surgical data, morbidity, mortality, and short-term and long-term outcome.

Results: We identified 19 pulmonary resections (8 pneumonectomies, 4 lobectomies, 1 segmentectomy, 6 wedge resections) from among 17 patients, mostly men, with a mean age of 32.9 years (range 18–61 years). Postoperative complications developed in six patients (35.3%) (broncho-pleural fistula in one, empyema in two, prolonged air leak in two, and acute renal failure in one). Only one patient (5.8%) died during the early postoperative period, three (17.6%) in the late postoperative period, and one within 2 years after the resection. Of 12 survivors, 9 were cured, 2 are still under medical treatment, and 1 is lost from follow-up because of poor compliance.

Conclusions: Pulmonary resection for MDR-TB patients is an effective adjunctive treatment with acceptable morbidity and mortality.
 

February 2012
D. Bendayan, A. Hendler, K. Litman and V. Polansky
Background: Interferon-gamma release tests are appealing alternatives to the tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection.

Objectives: To determine the yield of the Quantiferon TB Gold test (QFT-G) in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis disease, with a focus on elderly patients, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB).

Methods: The QFT-G test was performed in 98 patients suspected of having active tuberculosis. The results were evaluated for each subgroup of patients and compared to the results of the TST.

Results: Active tuberculosis was diagnosed in 92 of the 98 patients. Sixteen (17.3%) were elderly patients (over age 70), 15 (16%) were co-infected with HIV, and 14 (15%) had EPTB. QFT-G was positive in 49 patients (53%) and indeterminate in 4. The results were not significantly affected by HIV co-infection (P = 0.17), old age (P = 0.4), or the presence of EPTB (P = 0.4). There was a good correlation between the TST and the QFT-G test (P < 0.001). In EPTB and in the elderly, the QFT-G test appears to be better than the TST.

Conclusions: The QFT-G test is suboptimal in its ability to detect active tuberculosis and should not be used to exclude it.
February 2010
D. Bendayan, K. Littman and V. Polansky

Background: Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection among people infected with human immunodeficiency virus and its first cause of morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of a population in Israel with both tuberculosis disease and HIV[1] infection in order to identify factors that contribute to outcome.

Methods: The study group comprised patients hospitalized in the Pulmonary and Tuberculosis Department of Shmuel Harofeh Hospital during the period January 2000 to December 2006. They were located by a computer search in the hospital registry and the pertinent data were collected.

Results: During the study period 1059 cases of active tuberculosis disease were hospitalized; 93 of them were co-infected with HIV. Most of them came from endemic countries (61.2% from Ethiopia and 20.4% from the former Soviet Union; none of them was born in Israel). Ten percent of the cases were multiple-drug resistant and 32% showed extrapulmonary involvement. The response rate to the treatment was good, and the median hospitalization time was 70 days. The mortality rate was 3.2%.

Conclusions: Despite the high prevalence of pulmonary disease in our group, the short-term outcome was good and the Mycobacterium was highly sensitive to first-line drugs. These encouraging results can be attributed to the fact that tuberculosis patients in Israel are identified early and treated continuously and strictly, with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy, which ensures that the development of drug resistance is low.






[1] HIV = human immunodeficiency virus


September 2006
R. Yerushalmi, E. Fenig, D. Shitrit, D. Bendayan, A. Sulkes, D. Flex and M.R. Kramer

Background: Endobronchial stents are used to treat symptomatic patients with benign or malignant airway obstructions.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety and outcome of airway stent insertion for the treatment of malignant tracheobronchial narrowing.

Methods: The files of all patients with malignant disease who underwent airway stent insertion in our outpatient clinic from June 1995 to August 2004 were reviewed for background data, type of disease, symptoms, treatment, complications, and outcome.

Results: Airway stents were used in 34 patients, including 2 who required 2 stents at different locations, and one who required 2 adjacent stents (total, 37 stents). Ages ranged from 36 to 85 years (median 68). Primary lung cancer was noted in 35% of the patients and metastatic disease in 65%. Presenting signs and symptoms included dyspnea (82%), cough (11.7%), hemoptysis (9%), pneumonia (5.9%), and atelectasis (3%). The lesions were located in the left mainstem bronchus (31%), trachea (26%), right mainstem bronchus (26%), subglottis (14.3%), and bronchus intermedius (2.9%). Conscious sedation alone was utilized in 73% of the patients, allowing for early discharge. Eighteen patients (50%) received brachytherapy to the area of obstruction. Complications included stent migration (one patient) and severe or minimal bleeding (one patient each). Ninety-four percent of the patients reported significant relief of their dyspnea. Three of the four patients who had been mechanically ventilated before the procedure were weaned after stent insertion. Median survival from the time of stent placement was 6 months (range 0.25–105 months).

Conclusion: Stent placement can be safely performed in an outpatient setting with conscious sedation. It significantly relieves the patient's symptoms and may prolong survival.
 

July 2006
D. Starobin, M.R. Kramer, A. Yarmolovsky, D. Bendayan, I. Rosenberg, J. Sulkes and G. Fink
 Background: Different exercise tests are used to evaluate the functional capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The cardiopulmonary exercise test is considered the gold standard, but the 6 minute walk and the 15 step exercise oximetry tests are considerably less expensive.

Objectives: To determine whether reliable data could be obtained at lower cost.

Methods: The study sample consisted of 50 patients with mild to severe stable COPD]1[. All underwent pulmonary function test and the cardiopulmonary exercise test, 6 minute walk and 15 step exercise oximetry test as part of their regular follow-up visit. Functional capacity was graded according to each test separately and the functional capacities obtained were correlated.

Results: The results showed that most of the patients had severe COPD according to pulmonary function tests (mean forced expiratory volume in the first second 46.3 ± 19.9% of predicted value). There was a good correlation between the cardiopulmonary exercise test and the 6 minute walk functional capacity classes (r = 0.44, P = 0.0013). We did not find such correlation between the 15 step exercise oximetry test and the cardiopulmonary exercise test (r = 0.07, P = 0.64).

Conclusions: The study shows that the 6 minute walk is a reliable and accurate test in the evaluation of functional capacity in COPD patients.


 





[1] COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


June 2006
D. Prais, Y. Raviv, D. Shitrit, A. Yellin, G. Sahar, D. Bendayan, Y. Yahav, O. Efrati, N. Reichart, H. Blau, I. Bakal, G. Buchman, M. Saute, B. Vidne and M.R. Kramer
 Background: Lung transplantation is a well-established therapeutic option for end-stage lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Although it confers a clear survival advantage, outcome differs among centers according to local experience, patient selection, transplantation procedure, and postoperative care.

Objectives: To evaluate the national Israeli experience with lung transplantation in patients with CF[1].

Methods: We reviewed the medical charts of all CF patients who underwent lung transplantation between January 1996 and June 2005 at the two Israeli centers that performed this procedure.

Results: Eighteen transplantations were performed in 17 patients. Mean patient age at transplantation was 25.3 ± 9.1 years, and mean duration of follow-up in survivors (n=14) was 37.2 months (range 1–113 months). The actuarial survival rate was 88% at 1 year and 74% at 5 years. Pulmonary function, expressed as percent of predicted normal forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, improved from 22.4 ± 8.1% to 76 ± 16.8% at one year after transplantation. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome was diagnosed in 5 patients (29%), of whom 2 died and 2 are currently candidates for retransplantation. Median time to onset of BOS[2] was 34.2 months (range 17–64 months).

Conclusion: In Israel, the early and intermediate-term results of lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis are encouraging. BOS remains a major complication that threatens long-term outcome.


 





[1] CF = cystic fibrosis

[2] BOS = bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome


April 2006
D. Bendayan, D. Shitrit and M.R. Kramer

Background: New drugs have significantly improved the prognosis and quality of life of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, PAH[1] associated with autoimmune disease, particularly progressive sclerosis, remains a very serious problem

Objectives: To evaluate whether the course of the disease and survival is significantly different in patients with PAH related to autoimmune disease as compared to other patients with PAH and to determine the prognostic factors in these patients.

Methods: We retrospectively compared 24 patients with PAH associated with autoimmune disease to 42 patients with other causes of PAH. We focused on the clinical and hemodynamic parameters and on the outcome.

Results: The early mortality rate was slightly higher in patients with PAH associated with autoimmune disease (13% after the first year, 25% after the fifth year). The prognostic factor was a shorter distance on the 6 minutes walking distance test (r = 0.2, P = 0.01).

Conclusions: The early detection of PAH associated with autoimmune disease should encourage earlier and more aggressive treatment than in idiopathic PAH.






[1] PAH = pulmonary arterial hypertension


February 2004
M. Yigla, M.R. Kramer, D. Bendayan, S.A. Reisner and A. Solomonov

Background: Unexplained pulmonary hypertension is assumed to occur mainly in young adults.

Objectives: To describe the features of the disease in older patients and compare them to those in PHT[1] patients of all ages.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective evaluation of the files of patients over 65 years of age in whom UPHT[2] was diagnosed between 1987 and 1999 at two PHT centers serving a population of 4 million. Patients were followed for survival until March 2003. Clinical variables of the study patients were compared to those in PHT patients of all ages.

Results: The study group included 14 patients, 10 females and four males, with a mean age of 70.5 ± 6.7 years. The calculated mean annual incidence of UPHT for the study population was one new case per year per million persons. Seven patients (50%) had systemic hypertension. The mean interval from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 8.3 months. At diagnosis, 64% of patients had functional capacity of III-IV according to the New York Heart Association classification, and 43% had right heart failure. Mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure was 80 ± 21 mmHg, peripheral vascular resistance 11.7 ± 7 mmHg/L/min, cardiac index 2.16 ± 0.81, and mean right atrial pressure 10.5 ± 5.9 mmHg. Median survival time was 43 months; survival rates for 1 year, 3 years and 5 years were 92.6%, 50%, 40%, respectively. Compared to data from the U.S. National Institute of Health Registry, UPHT in older patients is more common in females, but the incidence as well as clinical, hemodynamic and survival parameters are similar to those in PHT patients at any age.

Conclusions: UPHT occurs in the elderly more frequently than previously thought, with similar features in PHT patients of all ages. The coexistence of systemic and pulmonary hypertension warrants further investigation.






[1] PHT = pulmonary hypertension



[2] UPHT = unexplained pulmonary hypertension


April 2002
Daniele Bendayan, MD, Gershon Fink, MD, Dan Aravot, MD, Mordechai Ygla, MD, Issahar Bendov, MD, Leonard Bliden, MD, Nir Amiran, MD and Mordechai Kramer, MD

Background: Primary idiopathic pulmonary hypertension is a rapidly progressive disease with a median survival of less than 3 years. Recently its prognosis was shown to dramatically improve with the use of epoprostenol, an arachidonic acid metabolite produced by the vascular endothelium, which increases the cardiac output and decreases the pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure. This drug enhances the quality of life, increases survival and delays or eliminates the need for transplantation.

Objective: To review the experience of Israel hospitals with the use of epoprostenol.

Methods: The study group comprised 13 patients, 5 men and 8 women, with an age range of 3–53 years. All patients suffered from arterial pulmonary hypertension. Epoprostenol was administered through a central line in an increased dose during the first 3 months, after which the dose was adjusted according to the clinical syndrome and the hemodynamic parameters.

Results: After 3 months the mean dose was 10 ng/kg/min and the pulmonary artery pressure decreased from 7 to 38%. After one year, the PAP decreased at a slower rate. Two cases required transplantation, three patients died, and seven continued taking the drug (one of whom discontinued). Four episodes of septicemia were observed. Today 10 patients are alive and well and 7 continue to take epoprostenol.

Conclusion: We found that epoprostenol improves survival, quality of life and hemodynamic parameters, with minimum side effects.

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