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עמוד בית
Fri, 24.05.24

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July 2020
Michal Levmore-Tamir MD, Giora Weiser MD, Elihay Berliner MD, Matityahu Erlichman MD, Carmit Avnon Ziv MD, Floris Levy-Khademi MD

Background: Stress hyperglycemia (SH) is a common finding in patients in pediatric emergency departments (PED) and has been related to increased morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To assess the incidence of SH among children visiting the PED. To identify which diseases predispose patients to SH and whether they indicate a worse outcome.

Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from the medical records of all children aged 0–18 years who visited the PED during the years 2010–2014 and who had a glucose level of ≥ 150 mg/dl. Data collected included age, gender, weight, blood glucose level, presence or absence of a pre-existing or a new diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and previous treatment with medications affecting blood glucose levels or with intravenous fluids containing dextrose. Data were collected regarding hospitalization, duration of hospitalization, discharge diagnosis, and survival status.

Results: The study population included 1245 children with SH, which comprised 2.6% of all patients whose blood glucose level was measured in the PED during the study period. The mean age of children with SH was 49 months; 709 (56.9%) were male. The mean blood glucose level was 184 mg/dl. The rate of hospitalization was 57.8%. The mean duration of hospital stay was 5.6 days and mortality rate was 0.96%. The majority were diagnosed with a respiratory illness.

Conclusions: SH is a common phenomenon among children evaluated in the PED and is associated with a high incidence of hospitalization. It may serve as an additional clinical indicator of disease severity.

October 2015
Lone Sølling Avnon MD, Alexander Smoliakov MD, Igor Sinelko MD and Mahmoud Abu-Shakra MD
September 2010
I. Fuchs, M. Abu-Shakra, E. Gelfer, A. Smoliakov, D. Ben-Haroch, J. Horowitz and L.S. Avnon
December 2009
A. Avriel, U. Fainberg, L. Fuchs, A. Jotkowitz, A. Smoliakov, L.S. Avnon and E. Shleyfer
May 2009
L.S. Avnon, A. Smolikov and Y. Almog

Background: The most common and most serious complication of varicella (chickenpox) in adults is pneumonia, which can lead to severe respiratory failure. Varicella pneumonia is associated with considerable morbidity and even death.

Objectives: To summarize our experience with varicella pneumonia in terms of clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics as well as risk factors, management and outcome.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort survey in our facility from 1995 to 2008.

Results: Our cohort comprised 21 patients with varicella pneumonia, of whom 19 (90%) were men; their mean age was 35 ± 10.5 years. Nineteen patients (90%) were Bedouins and 18 (86%) were smokers. Eleven (52%) were admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit; 3 of them required mechanical ventilation and the remaining 10 (48%) were admitted to the general medical ward. Median length of stay was 6 ± 7.7 days. Hypoxemia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase on admission were associated with respiratory failure. Radiological manifestations were variable and nine patients exhibited characteristic findings. All but one patient were treated with acyclovir. All patients fully recovered.

Conclusions: In southern Israel varicella pneumonia is primarily a disease of young male Bedouins who are smokers. Severity ranges from mild disease to severe, resulting at times in respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Prognosis is favorable with complete recovery.

February 2009
by Lone S. Avnon, MD, Fauaz Manzur, MD, Arkadi Bolotin, PhD, Dov Heimer, MD, Daniel Flusser, MD, Dan Buskila, MD, Shaul Sukenik, MD and Mahmoud Abu-Shakra, MD.

Background: A high incidence of abnormal pulmonary function tests has been reported in cross-sectional studies among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Few patients have been enrolled in longitudinal studies.

Objectives: To perform PFT[1] in rheumatoid arthritic patients without pulmonary involvement and to identify variables related to changes in PFT over 5 years of follow-up.

Methods: Consecutive RA[2] patients underwent PFT according to American Thoracic Society recommendations. All surviving patients were advised to repeat the examination 5 years later.

Results: PFT was performed in 82 patients (21 men, 61 women). Their mean age was 55.7 (15.9) years and the mean RA duration was 11.1 (10) years. Five years later 15 patients (18.3%) had died. Among the 67 surviving patients, 38 (56.7%) agreed to participate in a follow-up study. The initial PFT revealed normal PFT in only 30 patients (36.6%); an obstructive ventilatory defect in 2 (2.4%), a small airway defect in 12 (17%), a restrictive ventilatory defect in 21 (25.6%), and reduced DLco in 17 (20.7%). Among the 38 patients participating in the 5 year follow-up study, 8 developed respiratory symptoms, one patient had a new obstructive ventilatory defect, one patient developed a restrictive ventilatory defect, and 5 patients had a newly developed small airway defect. The DLco had improved in 7 of the 8 patients who initially had reduced DLco, reaching normal values in 5 patients. Over the study period a new reduction in DLco was observed in 7 patients. Linear regression analyses failed to identify any patient or disease-specific characteristics that could predict a worsening in PFT. The absolute yearly decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec among our RA patients was 47 ml/year, a decline similar to that seen among current smokers.

Conclusions: Serial PFT among patients with RA is indicated and allows for earlier identification of various ventilatory defects. Small airways disturbance was a common finding among our RA patients.






[1] PFT = pulmonary function testing



[2] RA = rheumatoid arthritis


June 2007
A. Basok, M. Vorobiov, B. Rogachev, L. Avnon, D. Tovbin, M. Hausmann, N. Belenko, M. Zlotnik, A. Shnaider

Background: Patients with end-stage renal disease are at high risk of mycobacterial infection.

Objectives: To analyze the difficulties in reaching an accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis in dialysis patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective follow-up of patients who attended our peritoneal and hemodialysis units during the 10 year period 1995–2005.

Results: Our dialysis unit diagnosed 10 cases of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 9 cases of Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis. In the former group, five patients had mycobacterium in the sputum, which was diagnosed by intraabdominal mass biopsy in one, culture of the gastric juices in one, and pleural fluid culture or pleural biopsy in three. One of these patients was suffering from pleural TB[1] as well as Potts disease. Of the patients with Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis, five were diagnosed by sputum cultures, three by urine cultures and one in peritoneal fluid. Differences in treatment and outcome were also reviewed.

Conclusions: The diagnosis of TB in dialysis patients should be approached with a high index of suspicion. It is clear that extensive diagnostic procedures are required to ensure an accurate diagnosis of the disease. Tuberculosis incurs a significant added burden due to the need for isolation of infected patients within the dialysis unit. Treatment of patients with Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis should be addressed individually.






[1] TB = tuberculosis


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