Background: The role of autoimmune factors in the etiology of coronary artery disease (CAD) was suggested in numerous studies but has not been definitively determined.
Objectives: To assess the possible influence of antiphospholipid and antinuclear antibodies on atherosclerosis development in young patients after myocardial revascularization procedures.
Methods: The study group included 39 patients younger than 45 years with coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent myocardial revascularization. Serum levels of antiphospholipid (aPL), antinuclear (ANA) and antineutrophil cytoplasmatic (ANCA) antibodies were tested within 1 month after the procedure.
Results: All three types of aPL were significantly higher in CAD patients when compared to healthy controls: anti-β2-glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI), both immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM classes (median 4.10 SGU, range 3.45–21.63 vs. 0.76, 0.12–6.01, P < 0.001, and 2.82 SGU, 1.44–11.70 vs. 1.08, 0.44–3.64, P < 0.001, respectively); anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) both IgG and IgM classes (3.13 GPL, 1.32–14.03 vs. 2.42, 0.96–18.45, P = 0.0037, and 6.94 MPL, 1.90–26.40 vs. 4.32, 1.9–28.73, P < 0.008, respectively); and lupus anticoagulant (LA) (27.7% vs. 0%, P = 0.005). ANA were elevated in one patient and ANCA in 23 (60%). The levels of aPL did not correlate with the presence of a clot in a coronary vessel detected during angiography or with exacerbation of coronary artery atherosclerosis.
Conclusions: In young patients with CAD who underwent myocardial revascularization the levels of aPL were significantly higher than in young healthy subjects. Thus, besides the classic risk factors for CAD, autoimmunity may play an important role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression.