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עמוד בית
Sun, 14.04.24

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November 2023
Gassan Moady MD, Moanis Serhan MD, Shaul Atar MD, Alexander Shturman MD

Background: The continuity equation (CE) used for evaluating aortic stenosis (AS) is based on values obtained from transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with the assumption that the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) has a circular shape. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) may be used for accurate measurement of the LVOT cross-sectional area (CSA). Previous studies have focused on fusion from TEE for LVOT-CSA measurement and TTE for velocity time integrals (VTI) calculations.

Objectives: To assess aortic valve area (AVA) using parameters obtained exclusively from TEE as an alternative approach.

Methods: Thirty patients with equivocal AS based on TTE were evaluated using TEE for further assessment.

Results: The mean pressure gradient across the aortic valve (AV) was 38 ± 5.9 and 37.9 ± 7.6 mmHg in TTE and TEE, respectively, P = 0.42. LVOT-CSA was larger in TEE (3.6 ± 0.3 vs. 3.4 ± 0.3 cm2, P = 0.049). VTI over the AVA was similar (98.54 ± 22.8 and 99.52 ± 24.52 cm in TTE and TEE, respectively, P = 0.608), while VTI across the LVOT was higher when measured by TTE (24.06 ± 5.8 vs. 22.03 ± 4.3 cm, P < 0.009). Using the CE, AVA was 0.82 ± 0.3 vs. 0.83 ± 0.17 cm2 in TEE vs. TTE, respectively, P = 0.608. Definitive grading was achieved in all patients (26 patients defined with severe AS and 4 with moderate).

Conclusions: In equivocal cases of AS, full assessment using TEE may be a reliable modality for decision making.

March 2022
Israel Mazin MD, Ori Vaturi MD, Rafael Kuperstein MD, Roy Beigel MD, Micha Feinberg MD, and Sagit Ben Zekry MD

Background: Estimated frequency of aortic stenosis (AS) in those over 75 years of age is 3.4%. Symptomatic patients with severe AS have increased morbidity and mortality and aortic valve replacement should be offered to improve life expectancy and quality of life.

Objectives: To identify whether systolic time intervals can identify severe AS.

Methods: The study comprised 200 patients (mean age 79 years, 55% men). Patients were equally divided into normal, mild, moderate, or severe AS. All patients had normal ejection fraction. Acceleration time (AT) was defined as the time from the beginning of systolic flow to maximal velocity; ejection time (ET) was the time from onset to end of systolic flow. The relation of AT/ET was calculated. Death or aortic valve intervention were documented.

AT increased linearly with the severity of AS, similar to ET and AT/ET ratio (P for trend < 0.05 for all). Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that AT can identify severe AS with a cutoff ≥ 108 msec with 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity, while a cutoff of 0.34 when using AT/ET ratio can identify severe AS with 96% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Multivariate analysis adjusting to sex, stroke volume index, heart rate, and body mass index showed similar results. Kaplan-Meier curve for AT ≥ 108 and AT/ET ≥ 0.34 predicted death or aortic valve intervention in a 3-year follow-up.

Conclusions: Acceleration time and AT/ET ratio are reliable measurements for identifying patients with severe AS. Furthermore, AT and AT/ET were able to predict aortic valve replacement or death

August 2013
A. Segev, D. Spiegelstein, P. Fefer, A. Shinfeld, I. Hay, E. Raanani and V. Guetta

Background: Trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as a novel therapeutic approach for patients with severe tricuspid aortic stenosis (AS) not suitable for aortic valve replacement.

Objectives: To describe our initial single-center experience with TAVI in patients with "off-label" indications.

Methods: Between August 2008 and December 2011 we performed TAVI in 186 patients using trans-femoral, trans-axillary, trans-apical and trans-aortic approaches. In 11 patients (5.9%) TAVI was undertaken due to: a) pure severe aortic regurgitation (AR) (n=2), b) prosthetic aortic valve (AV) failure (n=5), c) bicuspid AV stenosis (n=2), and d) prosthetic valve severe mitral regurgitation (MR) (n=2).

Results: Implantation was successful in all: six patients received a CoreValve and five patients an Edwards-Sapien valve. In-hospital mortality was 0%. Valve hemodynamics and function were excellent in all patients except for one who received an Edwards-Sapien that was inside a Mitroflow prosthetic AV and led to consistently high trans-aortic gradients. No significant residual regurgitation in AR and MR cases was observed.
Conclusions: TAVI is a good alternative to surgical AV replacement in high risk or inoperable patients with severe AS. TAVI for non-classical indications such as pure AR, bicuspid AV, and failed prosthetic aortic and mitral valves is feasible and safe and may be considered in selected patients. 

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