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עמוד בית
Sun, 03.03.24

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June 2020
Yonit Wiener-Well MD, Mustafa Hadeedi MD, Yuval Schwartz MD, Amos M. Yinnon MD and Gabriel Munter MD

Background: Antibiotic stewardship programs are necessary to test the appropriateness of local guidelines for empirical antibiotic treatment by audits.

Objectives: To assess whether compliance to local guidelines achieved a higher rate of appropriate antibiotic treatment and reduced morbidity and mortality, and whether infectious disease counseling improved the rate of appropriate treatment.

Methods: Our cohort comprised 294 patients with proven bacteremia. Data were retrieved from medical records including diagnosis, empiric antibiotic treatment, and outcomes.

Results: The empirical treatment was consistent with bacterial susceptibility in 227 patients (77%), and matched in 64% of the time to the first line, and another 24% to the second line of institutional guidelines. A strong correlation was found between appropriate empiric treatment according to bacterial susceptibility and reduced mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.403, P = 0.007). A similar correlation was found with the choice of appropriate antibiotics according to local guidelines (OR 0.392, P = 0.005). Infectious disease consultation was related to an increase in the rate of appropriateness of treatment according to guidelines (85% vs.76%, P = 0.005). A tendency to increased appropriateness was related to microbial susceptibility (87% vs. 74%, P = 0.07).

Conclusions: In this study, initiation of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy, according to the hospital's guidelines, was found associated with reduced mortality in patients with bacteremia.

June 2018
Raymond Farah, Rola Khamisy-Farah and Nicola Makhoul

Background: Accurate diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is crucial to its proper management and to combating antibiotic resistance. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been shown to distinguish pneumonia from other pathological conditions and can be used to control the severity of infection during admission.

Objective: To investigate an association between consecutive measurements of CRP and the severity of CAP in hospitalized patients.

Methods: A total of 500 patients with CAP were admitted to the hospital. Traditional markers of inflammation including CRP, leukocyte count, body temperature, were measured on the first, second, and fifth days of hospitalization. Correlations between these measures and the length of the hospital stay were calculated.

Results: Mean levels of CRP, body temperature, and leukocyte count were significantly lower on the second day after hospital admission and even lower on the fifth day. A positive correlation of medium strength was found between the level of CRP on the second day of hospitalization and the length of hospital stay (P < 0.001, rs = 0.447), and a negative correlation was noted between the decrease in CRP level from the first to second day and the length of hospital stay.

Conclusions: CRP levels correlated with body temperature and leukocyte count, traditional markers of inflammation. A greater decrease in CRP level between the first and second day of hospitalization was associated with shorter hospital stay and rapid improvement. These findings support the use of CRP as a marker for the severity and complication of CAP.

June 2004
E. Aizen, P.A. Feldman, R. Madeb, J. Steinberg, S. Merlin, E. Sabo, V. Perlov and I. Srugo

Background: Dysphagia is a common disorder among the elderly population. As many as 50% of nursing home residents suffer from dysphagia. It is important to identify patients at increased risk for colonization of dental and denture plaque by pathogenic organisms for prevention of associated disease.

Objectives: To quantify the prevalence and evaluate the effect of dental and denture plaque colonization by Candida albicans in hospitalized elderly dysphagic patients as a complication of stroke, as well as the effect of systemic antimicrobial therapy on C. albicans colonization in these patients.

Methods: We evaluated dysphagia and antibiotic therapy as risk factors for dental and denture plaque colonization by C. albicans in elderly stroke rehabilitating patients with dysphagia, as compared to elderly non-dysphagic stroke and non-stroke rehabilitating patients on days 0, 7 and 14 following admission to the Fliman Geriatric Rehabilitation Hospital.

Results: The risk of C. albicans colonization of dental plaque was greater in dysphagic patients than in those without dysphagia on day 0 (50% vs. 21%, P = 0.076), day 7 (58 vs. 15.2%, P = 0.008) and day 14 (58 vs. 15.2%, P = 0.08). Similarly, patients on antibiotic therapy were at greater risk for C. albicans colonization of dental plaque on day 0 (56 vs. 11%, P = 0.002), day 7 (44 vs. 14.8%, P = 0.04) and day 14 (39 vs. 19%, P = 0.18). The risk of C. albicans colonization of denture plaque as opposed to dental plaques in non-dysphagic patients was significantly greater on day 0 (45.7 vs. 21.2%, P = 0.03), day 7 (51.4 vs. 15.1%, P = 0.0016) and day 14 (54.3 vs. 15.1%, P = 0.0007). Dysphagia did not increase the risk of denture plaque colonization by C. albicans.

Conclusiona: Both dysphagia and antibiotic therapy are risk factors for C. albicans colonization of dental plaque, and although dysphagia does not significantly increase colonization of denture plaque, denture wearers are at greater risk of such colonization.

May 2000
Zvi Shimoni, MD, Mark Niven, MA, MB, Bchir MRCP, Margarita Mosenkis, MD and Joel Greif, MD
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