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עמוד בית
Thu, 29.02.24

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April 2020
Ron Eremenko BSc, Shira Barmatz MSc, Nadia Lumelsky MD, Raul Colodner PhD, Merav Strauss PhD and Yoav Alkan MD

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection in children.

Early treatment may prevent renal damage in pyelonephritis. The choice of empiric antibiotic treatment is based on knowledge of the local susceptibility of urinary bacteria to antibiotics. In Israel the recommended empiric oral antibiotic treatment are First or second generation cephalosporin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

Objectives: To describe resistance rates of urine bacteria isolated from children with UTI in the community settings. Identify risk factors for resistance.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of UTI in children aged 3 months to 18 years diagnosed with UTI and treated as outpatients in a large community clinic between 7/2015 and 7/2017 with a diagnosis of UTI.

Results: A total of 989 urinary samples were isolated, 232 were included in the study. Resistance rates to cephalexin, cefuroxime, ampicillin/clavulanate and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole were 9.9%, 9.1%, 20.7%, and 16.5%, respectively. Urinary tract abnormalities and recurrent UTI were associated with an increase in antibiotic resistance rates. Other factors such as age, fever, and previous antibiotic treatment were not associated with resistance differences.

Conclusions: Resistance rates to common oral antibiotics were low compared to previous studies performed in Israel in hospital settings. First generation cephalosporins are the preferred empiric antibiotics for febrile UTI for outpatient children. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is not favorable due to resistance of over 20% and the broad spectrum of this antibiotic. Care should be taken in children with renal abnormalities as there is a worrying degree of resistance rates to the oral first line antibiotic therapy.

January 2004
I. Belmaker, M. Alkan, A. Barnea, L. Dukhan, S. Yitzhaki and E. Gross

Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, found predominantly in agricultural workers, port workers and dairy workers.

Objective: To investigate the risk of disease transmission to dairy workers following an outbreak in 1999 of Leptospirosis hardjo in the dairy herds of two kibbutzim in southern Israel.

Methods:  A seroepidemiologic survey of all the dairy workers from these two kibbutzim was conducted, including individual interview and examination. Data were collected on the presence of clinical symptoms of leptospirosis during the previous month. One month later the medical personnel on the two kibbutzim were contacted in order to determine if any worker had subsequently developed clinical signs or symptoms of leptospirosis. All dairy workers had blood drawn for serology. Those workers whose initial serology had been borderline for leptospirosis had a repeated serology test between 2 and 4 weeks later. Doxycycline was given prophylactically to all dairy workers on one kibbutz only.

Results:  Either with or without chemoprophylaxis, no dairy workers exposed to herds infected with Leptospira hardjo showed evidence of seroconversion or disease. This indicated a low risk of transmission of this serovar from cows to dairy workers.

Conclusion: Since human illness with leptospirae can cause illness associated with significant morbidity we recommend that dairy workers exposed to an infected herd receive doxycycline prophylaxis.

August 2003
M. Huerta, H. Castel, I. Grotto, O. Shpilberg, M. Alkan and I. Harman-Boehm

Background: We treated two patients diagnosed with legionellosis and simultaneous Rickettsia conorii co-infection.

Objectives: To report the clinical and laboratory characteristics of this unusual combination, and to describe the execution and results of our environmental and epidemiologic investigations.

Methods: Serial serologic testing was conducted 1, 4 and 7 weeks after initial presentation. Water samples from the patients’ residence were cultured for Legionella. Follow-up cultures were taken from identical points at 2 weeks and at 3 months after the initial survey.

Results: Both patients initially expressed a non-specific rise in anti-Legionella immunoglobulin M titers to multiple serotypes. By week 4 a definite pattern of specifically elevated IgG[1] titers became apparent, with patient 1 demonstrating a rise in specific anti-L. pneumophila 12 IgG titer, and patient 2 an identical response to L. jordanis. At 4 weeks both patients were positive for both IgM and IgG anti-R. conorii antibodies at a titer ³ 1:100. Heavy growth of Legionella was found in water sampled from the shower heads in the rooms of both patients. Indirect immunofluorescence of water cultures was positive for L. pneumophila 12 and for L. jordanis.

Conclusions: Although most cases of community-acquired Legionella pneumonia in our region appear simultaneously with at least one other causative agent, co-infection with R. conorii is unusual and has not been reported to date. This report illustrates the importance of cooperation between clinicians and public health practitioners.






[1] Ig = immunoglobulin


April 2002
Rosalia Smolyakov, MD, Klaris Riesenberg, MD, Francisc Schlaeffer, MD, Abraham Borer, MD, Jacob Gilad, MD, Nechama Peled, MSc and Michael Alkan, MD
June 2001
Jacob Gilad, MD, Abraham Borer, MD, Dafna Hallel-Halevy, MD, Klaris Riesenberg, MD, Michael Alkan, MD and Francisc Schlaeffer, MD
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