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עמוד בית
Tue, 25.06.24

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January 2024
Maya Schwartz-Lifshitz MD, Stav Bloch Priel MD, Noam Matalon MD, Yehonathan Hochberg MD, Dana Basel MD, Doron Gothelf MD

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused significant global turmoil, including changes in social and societal conduct such as lockdowns, social isolation, and extensive regulations. These changes can be major sources of stress. The first wave of the pandemic (April–May 2020) was a time of global uncertainty. We evaluated symptom severity among 29 Israeli children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Our previous study found that most of these participants did not experience an exacerbation of symptoms.

Objective: To re-evaluate the OCD symptoms of 18 participants from the original group of 29 children and adolescents during three time points: before the pandemic, during the first wave, and 2 years later.

Methods: Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) were assessed using the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI), a functional questionnaire, and the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-child version (OCI-CV).

Results: OCS in patients did not change significantly during the three time points. Participants reported minimal changes in their general functioning 2 years after the outbreak of COVID-19 and showed minimal change in OCI-CV scale scores.

Conclusions: Our results indicated clinical stability of OCD symptoms among most of the participants.

July 2023
Aaron Hanukoglu MD, Dorit Lev MD

Children affected with Poland syndrome are born with missing or underdeveloped muscles (typically pectoralis major) on one side of the body. Breast abnormalities such as unilateral hypoplasia or agenesis of the breast and nipple may also occur. Other muscles on the affected side, including other muscles in the chest wall, shoulder, arm, and hand, may be missing or underdeveloped [1]. Ribs may be noticeable due to the loss of subcutaneous fat. Sparse or absent axillary and pectoral hairs are a common manifestation of this syndrome.

December 2022
Tanya Ebert MD, Nimrod Goldschmid MD, Edmond Sabo MD, Efrat City-Elifaz MD

Background: School closures due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak affected students physically, socially, and psychologically with an increase in the number of children and adolescent presenting with anxiety, depression, and drug abuse.

Objectives: To examine the impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on the mental health of minors during the pandemic period and to characterize the type and number of referrals to a regional psychiatric outpatient clinic.

Methods: This study included 380 children evaluated in an outpatient child psychiatric clinic. They were divided into two groups: before the lockdowns (BLD) (n=248), from January 2019 to February 2020, and during the lockdowns (LD) (n=132), from March 2020 to April 2021.

Results: When comparing the LD to BLD, there was increase in suicide attempts (9.8% vs. 2.8%) and in the use of psychotherapy (81% vs. 56%). There was a decrease in the diagnoses of behavior disorders (29.5% vs. 44.8%) and ADHD (29.5% vs. 50%); as well as a decrease in stimulant usage (22.7% vs. 38%). There was a statistically non-significant increase in the number of children with depression, anxiety, and drug-use disorder.

Conclusions: Many children developed educational, social, emotional, and behavioral gaps during LD, and they lost skills to deal with everyday problems due to social isolation. It is important to follow the long-term impact of the lockdowns and social isolation.

January 2022
Tamar Tzur MD, Yossi Tzur MD, Shaul Baruch MD, Noam Smorgick MD, and Yaakov Melcer MD

Background: A paraovarian cyst (POC) is located between the ovary and the fallopian tube. In many cases POCs are diagnosed and managed as ovarian cysts. But since POC are a distinct entity in their clinical presentation and surgical intervention, they should be better defined.

Objectives: To describe the clinical perioperative and operative characteristics of patients with POCs in order to improve pre-operative diagnosis and management.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients with an operative diagnosis of POC between 2007 and 2019 in a single university-affiliated tertiary care medical center was included. Demographic characteristics as well as symptoms, sonographic appearance, surgery findings, and histology results were retrieved from electronic medical records.

Results: During the study period 114 patients were surgically diagnosed with POC, 57.9% were in their reproductive years and 24.6% were adolescents. Most presented with abdominal pain (77.2%). Preoperative sonographic exams accurately diagnosed POC in only 44.7% of cases, and 50.9% underwent surgery due to suspected torsion, which was surgically confirmed in 70.7% of cases. Among women with confirmed torsion, 28.9% involved the fallopian tube without involvement of the ipsilateral ovary. Histology results showed benign cysts in all cases, except two, with a pathological diagnosis of serous borderline tumor.

Conclusions: POC should always be part of the differential diagnosis of women presenting with lower abdominal pain and sonographic evidence of adnexal cysts. If POC is suspected there should be a high level of suspicion for adnexal torsion and low threshold for surgical intervention, especially in adolescent, population who are prone to torsion

November 2021
Tal David Berger MD, Anna Gorodnichenko MD, Akiva Fradkin MD, and Batia Weiss MD

Background: Adequate dietary habits and physical activity during childhood and adolescence may promote growth and cognitive development and contribute to the prevention of chronic disease in later life. School is considered an important social environment that can promote healthy eating habits and life-style changes.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of a school-based intervention on nutritional knowledge, eating habits, and physical activity of adolescents.

Methods: We conducted a prospective questionnaire-based study. Anonymous questionnaires were administered at the beginning of the academic year (September 2014) in one high school. During the following year, vending machines containing milk products were installed within the school facility, and students were given two informative nutrition lectures regarding proper nutrition for age, calcium requirement and importance, and physical activity. One active sports day was initiated. At the beginning of the following academic year (September 2015), the students completed the same questionnaires.

Results: The study was comprised of 330 teenagers, mean age 15.1 ± 1.39 years, 53% males. Response rate was 83.6% ± 0.4% to multiple choice questions, 60.7% ± 0.5% to multiple section tables, and 80.3% ± 0.9% to open questions. Post-intervention, respondents reported an increase in eating breakfast (57% vs. 47.5%, P = 0.02) and a decrease in purchasing food at school (61.6% vs. 54.3%, P = 0.03). No changes were observed in consumption of milk products, knowledge regarding calcium and vegetable consumption, or sports activities.

Conclusions: Short-term high school-based interventions may lead to improvements in eating habits but are not sufficient for changing nutritional knowledge and physical activity

September 2021
Edwina Landau PhD, Huda Mussaffi MD, Vardit Kalamaro PharmD, Alexandra Quittner PhD, Tammy Taizi RN, Diana Kadosh MSW, Hadas Mantin MA, Dario Prais MD, Hannah Blau MBBS, and Meir Mei-Zahav MD

Background: Adherence to treatment by adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) is often poor.

Objectives: To assess the impact of a focused clinical intervention on adherence in individual patients, including help in problem-solving key barriers to adherence. To implement a patient-centered problem-solving intervention using CF My Way tools. To identify and overcome a selected barrier to adherence.

Methods: Medication possession ratios (MPRs), number of airway clearance sessions, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were measured before and after the intervention.

Results: Sixteen patients with CF, aged 23.4 ± 6.7 years, participated. MPR increased for colistimethate sodium and tobramycin inhalations from a median of 21 (range 0–100) to 56 (range 0–100), P = 0.04 and 20 (range 0–100) to 33.3 (range 25–100), P = 0.03, respectively. BMI standard deviation score rose from -0.37 to -0.21, P = 0.05. No significant improvements were found in FEV1, airway clearance, or HRQoL scores.

Conclusions: The CF My Way problem-solving intervention increased adherence to medical treatments by removing barriers directly related to the needs and goals of young adults with CF

April 2020
Ron Eremenko BSc, Shira Barmatz MSc, Nadia Lumelsky MD, Raul Colodner PhD, Merav Strauss PhD and Yoav Alkan MD

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection in children.

Early treatment may prevent renal damage in pyelonephritis. The choice of empiric antibiotic treatment is based on knowledge of the local susceptibility of urinary bacteria to antibiotics. In Israel the recommended empiric oral antibiotic treatment are First or second generation cephalosporin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

Objectives: To describe resistance rates of urine bacteria isolated from children with UTI in the community settings. Identify risk factors for resistance.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of UTI in children aged 3 months to 18 years diagnosed with UTI and treated as outpatients in a large community clinic between 7/2015 and 7/2017 with a diagnosis of UTI.

Results: A total of 989 urinary samples were isolated, 232 were included in the study. Resistance rates to cephalexin, cefuroxime, ampicillin/clavulanate and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole were 9.9%, 9.1%, 20.7%, and 16.5%, respectively. Urinary tract abnormalities and recurrent UTI were associated with an increase in antibiotic resistance rates. Other factors such as age, fever, and previous antibiotic treatment were not associated with resistance differences.

Conclusions: Resistance rates to common oral antibiotics were low compared to previous studies performed in Israel in hospital settings. First generation cephalosporins are the preferred empiric antibiotics for febrile UTI for outpatient children. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is not favorable due to resistance of over 20% and the broad spectrum of this antibiotic. Care should be taken in children with renal abnormalities as there is a worrying degree of resistance rates to the oral first line antibiotic therapy.

March 2020
Ori Hassin MD, Dana Danino MD, Ruth Schreiber MD, Eugene Leibovitz MD and Nahum Amit, MD
March 2019
Yossi Smorgick MD, Mitri Nassar MD, Eran Tamir MD, Sigal Tal MD, Yigal Mirovsky MD and Yoram Anekstein MD

Background: Gender differences in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) have been documented in curve progression, response to bracing, and outcomes of surgical treatment. However, limited information is available about the relation between gender and scoliosis curve patterns and radiographical characteristics.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of gender on curve pattern and compare clinical and radiographical characteristics between male and female patients with AIS.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data that compared clinical and radiographical characteristics between male and female surgical candidates. Demographic and clinical data including age at presentation, gender, family history of scoliosis, brace treatment history, clinical coronal balance, shoulder asymmetry, and hump size were recorded. All patients graded their pain with the use of a visual analogue scale (VAS) on a scale from 0 to 10. Radiographs of the spine were reviewed to determine the type of curve according to the Lenke classification, Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis angle, and the Risser sign. Radiologic coronal balance was recorded. Curve flexibility was determined by measuring the thoracic and lumbar curves magnitude on side bending radiographs

Results: The study included 163 patients with AIS including 35 males and 128 females patients. Although a trend toward more flexible major thoracic curves in females was noticed, there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups.

Conclusions: In this study we were not able to demonstrate any clinical nor radiological statistical differences between male and female patients who are candidate for surgical treatment.

January 2019
Emily Fisher MD MSc, Christine Loock MD, Ariana Melamed BA, Shulamit Blank MD and Gideon Koren MD

Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) may be under-recognized and under-diagnosed in Israel. Fewer than 10 FASD diagnoses were reported between 1998 and 2007; however, several hundred diagnoses have been made since. Furthermore, less than 10% of surveyed Israeli pediatricians reported adequate knowledge of FASD.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of suspected FASD, to establish a database as a starting point for epidemiological studies, and to develop FASD awareness for health, social, and educational services.

Methods: A chart review was conducted at an educational facility for children and adolescents with behavioral and learning challenges. The following information was extracted: adoption status, history of alcohol/drug abuse in the biological mother, medical diagnoses, medication use, and information regarding impairment in 14 published neurobehavioral categories. Subjects were classified as: category 1 (highly likely FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and evidence of maternal alcohol abuse was available; category 2 (possible FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and evidence to support maternal substance abuse (type/time unspecified); and category 3 (unconfirmed likelihood of FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and no information regarding the biological family.

Results: Of 237 files analyzed, 38 subjects (16%) had suspected FASD: 10 subjects (4%) in category 1, 5 (2%) in category 2, and 23 (10%) in category 3. Twenty-seven subjects with suspected FASD (69%) had been adopted.

Conclusions: This study is the most comprehensive review of FASD among Israeli children and adolescents in a population with learning and behavior challenges.

February 2018
Noam Shohat MD, Yossy Machluf PhD, Rivka Farkash BSc MPH, Aharon S. Finestone MD MHA and Yoram Chaiter MD MSc

Background: Children and adolescents are commonly referred to an orthopedic surgeon to assess knee malalignment.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of genu varum and valgum among adolescents, and to identify correlates of these conditions.

Methods: A medical database of 47,588 candidates for military service presenting to the northern recruitment center during an 11 year period was analyzed to identify clinical knee alignment. Based on the standing skin surface intercondylar distance (ICD) or intermalleolar distance (IMD), the prevalence rates of genu varum (ICD ≥ 3 cm) and genu valgum (IMD ≥ 4 cm) were calculated. The association of gender, body mass index (BMI), and place of residence to knee alignment was studied.

Results: The rates of genu varum and valgum were 11.4% (5427) and 5.6% (2639), respectively. Genu varum was significantly more prevalent among males than females (16.2% vs. 4.4%, P < 0.001). It was also more prevalent among underweight subjects and less prevalent among overweight and obese subjects (P < 0.001). Genu valgum was significantly more prevalent among females than males (9.4% vs. 2.9%) and in overweight and obese subjects compared to those with normal BMI, while less prevalent in underweight subjects (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that genu varum was independently positively associated with male gender, underweight, and living in a rural area. Genu valgum was independently positively associated with female gender, overweight, and obesity.

Conclusions: This study establishes a modern benchmark for the cutoff and prevalence of genu varum and valgum as well as associations with gender and BMI.

Ori Eyal MD, Asaf Oren MD, Dganit Almasi-Wolker MD, Yardena Tenenbaum-Rakover MD, Marianna Rachmiel MD and Naomi Weintrob MD

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) as the first presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a serious complication that is preventable.

Objectives: To identify risk factors for DKA at presentation of T1DM to delineate high-risk Israeli populations that could benefit from preventative measures.

Methods: Data for this multicenter retrospective study were collected from the medical files of three pediatric diabetes centers representing three districts in Israel. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of T1DM, age at diagnosis ≤ 17 years, permanent residency in Israel, and documentation of the presence or absence of DKA at presentation.

Results: The study population included 607 patients of whom 438 met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 ± 4.5 years. DKA was present at diagnosis in 156/438 patients (35.6%). The incidence of DKA was different among the three diabetes centers (P = 0.04). The DKA group was significantly younger than the non-DKA group (8.4 ± 4.5 vs. 9.5 ± 4.4, respectively, P = 0.008). DKA was significantly associated with maternal origin (Ashkenazi Jewish origin [lower] vs. non-Ashkenazi, P = 0.04) and with paternal education level (academic [lower] vs. non-academic education, P = 0.04). Stepwise logistic regression showed that maternal Ashkenazi Jewish origin has a protective effect on DKA (odds ratio [OR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.21–0.74, P = 0.004) and that younger age is an independent risk factor (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.01–1.1, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: A diabetes educational program targeting high-risk population groups may reduce the prevalence of DKA nationwide.

December 2017
Michal Kori MD, Jacob Yahav MD, Rita Berdinstein MD and Haim Shmuely, MD

Background: Empiric treatment for Helicobacter pylori is influenced by antibiotic susceptibility of infecting strains. A rise in the resistance rate to clarithromycin and metronidazole has been reported in pediatric populations.

Objectives: To assess the primary and secondary antibiotic resistance of H. pylori isolates in Israeli children and adolescents.

Methods: A retrospective review of H. pylori isolates cultured from antral biopsies of consecutive children aged 1 to 18 years, who were referred to the Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Kaplan Medical Center, over a 2.8 year period, was performed. Antibiotic susceptibility to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin was determined by E-test. Data on the age of the patient, indication for endoscopy, and antibiotic treatment for H. pylori in previously treated children was collected.

Results: Cultures for H. pylori yielded 123 isolates. In children not previously treated (n=95), the primary global resistance was 38% with resistance to clarithromycin 9.5%, metronidazole 32.6 %, and to both 4.2%. Respective rates of resistance in previously treated children (n=28) were 71% (P = 0.002), 29% (P = 0.02), and 61% (P = 0.007). Simultaneous resistance to both drugs was found in 18% (P = 0.02). All H. pylori strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin. Past eradication treatment was the only independent risk factor for antibiotic resistance in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Significantly higher resistance rates were found in previously treated patients, stressing the need to refrain from empiric treatment using the "test and treat strategy." Culture-based treatment strategy should be considered in all previously treated children.

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