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עמוד בית
Wed, 06.12.23

Search results

December 2022
Felix Pavlotsky MD, Arik Alkhazov BMED Sc, Aviv Barzilai MD, Alon Scope MD

Background: The adherence to a narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) treatment plan is derived, in large part, from the patient’s skin tolerance to the phototherapy dose. At present, the initial and first-month incremental phototherapy doses are determined prior to treatment initiation based on the patient's Fitzpatrick skin phototyping.

Objectives: To identify variables that predict adherence to NB-UVB first-month treatment dosage plan.

Methods: Charts of 1000 consecutive patients receiving NB-UVB at a hospital-based phototherapy unit were retrospectively analyzed. We included patients receiving NB-UVB for atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo, and mycosis fungoides. The first-month NB-UVB treatment plan was determined based on the patient's Fitzpatrick phototype. Adherence to treatment was defined as receiving at least 80% of the planned first-month cumulative dose. We compared adherent vs. non-adherent patient groups for age, sex, Fitzpatrick phototype, presence of freckles, nevus count category, and type of dermatological disease.

Results: The study included 817 eligible patients, mean age 40 (2–95) years; 54% men; 32% had Fitzpatrick phototype I-II. Distribution by diagnosis was atopic dermatitis (29%), psoriasis (27%), vitiligo (23%), and mycosis fungoides (21%). Adherence to NB-UVB treatment plan was observed in 71% of patients. Adherence decreased with age, with 7% decrease per year (P = 0.03) and was higher among mycosis fungoides patients (77.3%) compared to all other diagnoses (69.8%; P = 0.02).

Conclusions: Adherence to NB-UVB treatment may be related to age and diagnosis. Fitzpatrick phototype-based first-month treatment plans should be modified accordingly.

November 2022
Johad Khoury MD, Itai Ghersin MD, Eyal Braun MD, Adi Elias MD, Doron Aronson MD, Zaher S. Azzam MD, Fadel Bahouth MD

Background: Current guidelines for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) are based on studies that have excluded or underrepresented older patients.

Objectives: To assess the value of guideline directed medical therapy (GDMT) in HFrEF patients 80 years of age and older.

Methods: A single-center retrospective study included patients hospitalized with a first and primary diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and ejection fraction (EF) of ≤ 40%. Patients 80 years of age and older were stratified into two groups: GDMT, defined as treatment at hospital discharge with at least two drugs of the following groups: beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), or mineralocorticoid antagonists; and a personalized medicine group, which included patients who were treated with up to one of these drug groups. The primary outcomes were 90-day all-cause mortality, 90-day rehospitalization, and 3-years mortality.

Results: The study included 1152 patients with HFrEF. 254 (22%) patients who were at least 80 years old. Of the group, 123 were GDMT at discharge. When GDMT group was compared to the personalized medicine group, there were no statistically significant differences in terms 90-day mortality (17% vs. 13%, P = 0.169), 90-day readmission (51 % vs. 45.6%, P = 0.27), or 3-year mortality (64.5% vs. 63.3%, P = 0.915).

Conclusions: Adherence to guidelines in the older adult population may not have the same effect as in younger patients who were studied in the randomized clinical trials. Larger prospective studies are needed to further address this issue.

September 2021
Michal Shani MD MPH, Doron Comaneshter PhD, and Alex Lustman MD MPH

Background: Oral anticoagulants (OAC) reduce the risk for stroke and death from all causes in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF)

Objective: To explore adherence rates of OAC among patients with NVAF in long-term use in a real-world setting and to examine patient characteristics associated with good adherence.

Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study with members of Clalit Health Services, Israel. All patients aged ≥ 30 years with a diagnosis of NVAF before 2016 who were treated with OAC were included. We included patients who filled at least one prescription per year in the three consecutive years 2016–2018. We analyzed all prescriptions that were filled for the medications from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2017. We considered purchasing of at least nine monthly prescriptions during 2017 as good medication adherence.

Results: We identified 26,029 patients with NVAF who were treated with OAC; 10,284 (39.5%) were treated with apixaban, 6321 (24.3%) with warfarin, 6290 (24.1%) with rivaroxaban, and 3134 (12.0%) with dabigatran. Rates of good medication adherence were 88.9% for rivaroxaban, 84.9% for apixaban, 83.6% for dabigatran, and 55.8% for warfarin (P < 0.0001). Advanced age was associated with higher adherence rates (P < 0.001). Socioeconomic status was not associated with medication adherence. Good adherence with OAC was associated with lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and glucose levels.

Conclusions: Adherence rates to OAC in chronic use among patients with chronic NAVF are high. Investing in OAC adherence may have a wider health impact than expected.

Edwina Landau PhD, Huda Mussaffi MD, Vardit Kalamaro PharmD, Alexandra Quittner PhD, Tammy Taizi RN, Diana Kadosh MSW, Hadas Mantin MA, Dario Prais MD, Hannah Blau MBBS, and Meir Mei-Zahav MD

Background: Adherence to treatment by adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) is often poor.

Objectives: To assess the impact of a focused clinical intervention on adherence in individual patients, including help in problem-solving key barriers to adherence. To implement a patient-centered problem-solving intervention using CF My Way tools. To identify and overcome a selected barrier to adherence.

Methods: Medication possession ratios (MPRs), number of airway clearance sessions, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were measured before and after the intervention.

Results: Sixteen patients with CF, aged 23.4 ± 6.7 years, participated. MPR increased for colistimethate sodium and tobramycin inhalations from a median of 21 (range 0–100) to 56 (range 0–100), P = 0.04 and 20 (range 0–100) to 33.3 (range 25–100), P = 0.03, respectively. BMI standard deviation score rose from -0.37 to -0.21, P = 0.05. No significant improvements were found in FEV1, airway clearance, or HRQoL scores.

Conclusions: The CF My Way problem-solving intervention increased adherence to medical treatments by removing barriers directly related to the needs and goals of young adults with CF

November 2018
Shlomit Koren MD, Michael Yoshpa MD, Ronit Koren MD, Dror Cantrell MD and Micha J. Rapoport MD

Background: Basal-bolus (BB) insulin treatment is increasingly used in poorly controlled diabetes patients during hospitalization and is commonly recommended at discharge; however, the extent of adherence with this recommendation is unknown.

Objectives: To determine short-term adherence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients discharged from internal medicine wards with recommendation for BB insulin treatment.

Methods: Prescription (primary physician adherence) and purchase (patient adherence) of long-acting and short-acting insulins during the first month following discharge from internal medicine wards was determined in 153 T2DM patients. Adherence was defined as full if prescription/purchase of both basal (long-acting) and bolus (short-acting) insulin was completed, and as partial if only one kind of insulin (basal or bolus) was prescribed/purchased. Association between demographic and clinical parameters and adherence was determined.

Results: Full adherence with discharge instructions was higher for primary physicians than for patients )79.1% vs. 69.3%, respectively, P = 0.0182). Pre-hospitalization hemoglobin A1C was significantly associated with adherence by both patients and primary physicians (full-adherence group 9.04% ± 2.04%; no-adherence group 7.51% ± 1.35%, P = 0.002). Age was negatively associated with adherence of both primary physicians and patients; however, this association did not reach statistical significance. Patients with certain background diseases such as atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, and chronic heart failure had significantly worse adherence (P < 0.05). When the sole cause of admission was diabetes, full adherence (100%) of both primary physicians and patients was found.

Conclusions: Short-term adherence with discharge recommendation for BB insulin treatment is associated with pre-hospitalization patient characteristics.

April 2017
Valeria Zhdanov MPH, Natalya Bilenko MD MPH PhD and Zohar Mor MD MPH MHA

Background: Recurrent tuberculosis (TB) is one of the indices used to assess the effectiveness of the Israeli National TB Programs (NTP).

Objectives: To estimate the incidence of recurrent TB in Israel and to identify the associated risk factors.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all TB patients who were Israeli citizens and diagnosed between 1999 and 2011 with a treatment outcome recorded as “success." We compared those who had recurrent TB with those who did not. In addition, a nested case-control study included all those who had recurrent TB with a random sample from this cohort matched by age, gender, and year of TB diagnosis.

Results: Of 3515 TB patients diagnosed between 1999 and 2011, 37 (1.05%) had recurrent TB during the follow-up period, with an incidence rate of 1.55 cases per 1000 person-years (PY). Male gender [hazard ratio (HR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.4–7.4], human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (HR 3.9, 95%CI 1.5–10.4), positive sputum culture [odds ratios (OR) 2.7, 95%CI 1.1–6.9], and low adherence to anti-TB treatment (OR 3.2, 95%CI 1.0–10.3) were found to be risk factors for recurrent TB.

Conclusions: Male gender, HIV infection, positive sputum culture, and low adherence to anti-TB drugs during the initial TB episode were risk factors for developing recurrent TB.

Noam Oz MD, Danny Alon MD, Gideon Y Stein MD PhD and Dan Turner MD

Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for populations at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still not available in Israel.

Objectives: To analyze post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) treatment adherence rates among adult men in Tel Aviv, Israel, who have sex with men (MSM), and to obtain data on the demographics of PEP users, exposure types, timeline of exposure and PEP administration, incidence of side effects, number of treatments per individual, and satisfaction with selected elements of treatment provision.

Methods: The authors conducted an observational cohort study of adult MSM who requested PEP treatment in the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. Information from patients receiving treatment between January 2013 and June 2014 was obtained through telephone interviews by means of a 30-item questionnaire.

Results: Of 336 individuals requesting PEP treatment, 255 (75.9%) were adult MSM, and 100 (39.2%) satisfactorily completed the interview. The average age of the study cohort was 32.4 years (standard deviation of 7.5). Ninety-one (91%) reported completing a full 28-day course of treatment, 84% reported side effects, and 20% underwent multiple courses. Satisfaction was high for interactions with the HIV specialists. Patient experience with PEP treatment in the emergency room setting, and follow-up were inadequate deficient.

Conclusions: PEP adherence rates in Tel Aviv were significantly higher than previously reported. PEP should be administered in designated community settings. PrEP as a general treatment policy might suit the MSM population in Tel Aviv.


October 2014
Yael Bar-On MD, Varda Shalev MD, Dahlia Weitzman PhD, Gabriel Chodick PhD and Howard Amital MD MHA
September 2014
Ohad Hilly MD, Sagit Stern-Shavit MD, Shimon Ilan MD and Raphael Feinmesser MD

Background: Treatment guidelines for well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are based on retrospective studies and vary among different professional thyroid associations.

Objectives: To evaluate physician adherence to guidelines, overall and by specialty.

Methods: Questionnaires on the approach to low risk PTC were distributed among 51 surgeons and endocrinologists treating patients with PTC in tertiary medical centers.

Results: A wide range of answers was recorded among physicians regarding the danger posed by low risk PTC to the patient’s life, urgency with which treatment should be administered, type of treatment, and risks associated with this treatment. There was a significant between-group difference in treatment preference: endocrinologists chose total thyroidectomy with radioactive iodine, while surgeons favored hemithyroidectomy alone.

Conclusions: There is a wide difference in treatment recommendations between treating physicians and different specialties with regard to low risk PTC. The wide variation within and between specialties may be explained by biases. 

January 2013
U. Yoel, T. Abu-Hammad, A. Cohen, A. Aizenberg, D. Vardy and P. Shvartzman
 Background: The rate of adherence to treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN) and lipid metabolic disorder (LMD) is significantly lower in the Bedouin population compared with the Jewish population in southern Israel.

Objectives: To investigate the reasons for non-adherence associated with cardiovascular risk factors among Bedouins.

Methods: We identified Bedouin patients with HTN, DM or LMD from medical records and randomly selected 443 high adherent and 403 low adherent patients. Using trained interviewers we conducted in-depth structured interviews regarding knowledge and attitudes to chronic illness and its treatment, health services evaluation, and socio-demographic factors.

Results: The study population included 99 high and 101 low adherent patients. More low adherent patients agreed that traditional therapy can replace prescribed medications for DM, HTN or LMD (47% vs. 26%, P < 0.01), and 10% used only traditional medications. Also, more low adherent patients believed that the side effects of prescribed drugs are actually worse than the disease itself (65% vs. 47%, P < 0.05), and 47% cited this as a reason for discontinuing drug treatment (47% vs. 31%, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in this minority population the basis for non-adherence derives directly from patients' perceptions of chronic disease and drug treatment. A focused intervention should emphasize the importance of early evidence-based drug therapy with open patient-physician dialogue on the meaning of chronic disease and the side effects of prescribed drugs.

November 2011
G. Vashitz, J. Meyer, Y. Parmet, Y. Henkin, R. Peleg, N. Liebermann and H. Gilutz

Background: There is a wide treatment gap between evidence-based guidelines and their implementation in primary care.

Objective: To evaluate the extent to which physicians "literally" follow guidelines for secondary prevention of dyslipidemia and the extent to which they practice "substitute" therapeutic measures.

Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis of data collected in a prospective cluster randomized trial. The participants were 130 primary care physicians treating 7745 patients requiring secondary prevention of dyslipidemia. The outcome measure was physician "literal" adherence or "substitute" adherence. We used logistic regressions to evaluate the effect of various clinical situations on “literal” and “substitute” adherence.

Results: "Literal" adherence was modest for ordering a lipoprotein profile (35.1%) and for pharmacotherapy initiations (26.0%), but rather poor for drug up-titrations (16.1%) and for referrals for specialist consultation (3.8%). In contrast, many physicians opted for "substitute" adherence for up-titrations (75.9%) and referrals for consultation (78.7%). Physicians tended to follow the guidelines “literally” in simple clinical situations (such as the need for lipid screening) but to use "substitute" measures in more complex cases (when dose up-titration or metabolic consultation was required). Most substitute actions were less intense than the actions recommended by the guidelines.

Conclusions: Physicians often do not blindly follow guidelines, but rather evaluate their adequacy for a particular patient and adjust the treatment according to their assessment. We suggest that clinical management be evaluated in a broader sense than strict guideline adherence, which may underestimate physicians' efforts.

D. Rosengarten, M.R. Kramer, G. Amir, L. Fuks and N. Berkman

Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (PEH), previously known as "intravascular bronchoalveolar tumor," is a rare vascular malignancy with an unpredictable prognosis. Treatment can vary from observation in asymptomatic patients to surgery in patients with resectable disease or chemotherapy in patients with disseminated disease. This report describes the clinical, radiological and pathological features of three cases of PEH and a review of the current literature.

September 2011
A.D. Heymann, R. Gross, H. Tabenkin, B. Porter and A. Porath

Background: A crucial part of controlling blood pressure is non-pharmaceutical treatment. However, only a few studies specifically address the question of hypertensive patients’ compliance with physicians’ recommendations for a healthy lifestyle.

Objectives: To explore factors associated with hypertensive patients’ compliance with lifestyle recommendations regarding physical activity, smoking cessation and proper diet.

Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis of a representative sample of 1125 hypertensive patients in Israel's two largest health funds. Data were collected in 20022003 by telephone interviews using structured questionnaires. The response rate was 77%. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted.

Results: About half of the hypertensive patients reported doing regular exercise and adhering to a special diet; 13% were smokers. About half reported receiving counseling on smoking cessation and diet and a third on physical exercise. A quarter reported receiving explanations regarding self-measurement of blood pressure and signs of deterioration. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients’ beliefs about hypertension management, their knowledge on hypertension and its management, and physician counseling on a healthy lifestyle and self-care, have an independent effect on compliance with recommended lifestyle behaviors.

Conclusions: The low counseling rates suggest that there may be a need to improve physicians’ counseling skills so that they will be more confident and effective in delivering this service to their patients. A model based on educating both physicians and patients may contribute to improving the care of hypertensive patients.

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