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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.04.24

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April 2007
N. Uriel,G. Moravsky, A. Blatt, A. Tourovski, Z. Gabara, I. Yofik, V. Danicek, A. Hendler, R. Braunstein, R. Krakover, Z. Vered and E. Kaluski

Background: Spontaneous coronary reperfusion occurs in 7–27% of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction, and is an independent predictor of myocardial salvage, percutaneous coronary intervention success, and improved outcome.

Objectives: To determine the optimal PCI[1] time for patients admitted to the hospital due to STEMI[2] with SCR[3].

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients admitted to the coronary care unit between July 2002 and November 2004 with a diagnosis of STEMI with SCR.

Results: The study group comprised 86 patients. There was not a single reinfarction episode during an observation period of 6579 patient hours. Cardiac catheterization was executed early (< 24 hours from pain onset) in 26 patients and late (> 24 hours) in 55. Pre-PCI angiographic TIMI flow 2–3 was seen in > 95% in both groups. PCI was performed more frequently in the “early” group (P = 0.024), while multi-vessel coronary artery disease (P = 0.094) requiring coronary bypass surgery (P = 0.056) was observed more frequently in the “late catheterization” group. Myocardial infarction and angina pectoris at 30 days occurred more frequently in the early catheterization group (P = 0.039), however no difference in any major adverse cardiac events was detected during long-term follow-up (491 ± 245 days).

Conclusions: Reinfarction after STEMI with SCR is a rare event. Early PCI in patients with STEMI and SCR, even when executed with aggressive anti-platelet therapy, seems to result in an excess of early MACE, without any long-term advantage. Prospective randomized trials should determine the optimal PCI timing for these patients.








[1] PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention

[2] STEMI = ST elevation myocardial infarction

[3] SCR = spontaneous coronary reperfusion


January 2007
R. Ilia, D. Zahger, C. Cafri, A. Abu Ful, J. Marc Weinstein, S. Yaroslavtsev, H. Gilutz, G. Amit

Background: The significance of arrhythmia occurring after successful recanalization of an occluded artery during treatment following primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is controversial.

Objectives: To study the association of reperfusion arrhythmia with short and long-term survival.

Methods: We used a prospective registry of consecutive STEMI[1] patients undergoing PPCI[2]. Patients with an impaired epicardial flow (TIMI flow grade < 3) at the end of the procedure were excluded.

Results: Of the 688 patients in the study group, 22% were women. Mean (± SD) age of the cohort was 61 (± 14) years and frequent co-morbidities included diabetes mellitus (25%), dyslipidemia (55%), hypertension (43%) and smoking (41%). RA[3] was recorded in 200 patients (29%). Patients with RA had lower rates of diabetes (16% vs. 30%, P < 0.01) and hypertension (48% vs. 62%, P < 0.01), and a shorter median pain-to-balloon time (201 vs. 234 minutes, P < 0.01) than patients without RA. Thirty day mortality was 3.7% and 8.3% for patients with and without RA, respectively (P = 0.04). After controlling for age, gender and pain-to-balloon time the hazard ratio for mortality for patients with RA during a median follow-up period of 466 days was 0.46 (95% confidence interval 0.23–0.92).

Conclusions: The occurrence of RA immediately following PPCI for acute STEMI is associated with better clinical characteristics and identifies a subgroup with a particularly favorable prognosis.






[1] STEMI = ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction



[2] PPCI = primary percutaneous coronary intervention



[3] RA = reperfusion arrhythmia


August 2006
A. Hamdan, R. Kornowski, A. Solodky, S. Fuchs, A. Battler and A.R. Assali

Background: The degree of left ventricular dysfunction determines the prognostic outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Objectives: To define the clinical, angiographic and procedural variables related to LV[1][1] dysfunction in patients with  with anterior wall AMI[1][2] referred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Methods: The sample included 168 patients treated by primary PCI[1][3] for first anterior wall AMI. Clinical, demographic and medical data were collected prospectively into a computerized registry, and clinical outcome (death, reinfarction, major cardiovascular event) were evaluated during hospitalization and 30 days after discharge. Patients were divided into three groups by degree of LV dysfunction (mild, moderate, severe) and compared for clinical, angiographic and procedural variables.

Results: LV dysfunction was associated with pre-PCI renal failure (serum creatinine > 1.4 mg/dl), peripheral vascular disease, high peak creatine kinase level, longer door to balloon time, low TIMI flow grade before and after PCI, and use of an intraaortic balloon pump. On multivariate analysis adjusted for baseline differences, peak creatine kinase level (r = 0.3, P = 0.0001) and door to needle time (r = 0.2, P = 0.008) were the most significant independent predictors of moderate or severe LV dysfunction after anterior AMI.

Conclusion: Abnormal LV function after first anterior AMI can be predicted by door to balloon time and the size of the infarction as assessed by creatine kinase levels. Major efforts should be made to decrease the time to myocardial reperfusion.







[1][1] LV = left ventricular

[1]
[2] AMI = acute myocardial infarction

[1]
[3] PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention 

January 2006
A. R. Zeina, I. Orlov, J. Blinder, A. Hassan, U. Rosenschein and E. Barmeir.

Multidetector-row computed tomography has been validated as a useful non-invasive diagnostic method in patients with various cardiac diseases.

 
 

November 2004
M. Leitman, V. Shir, E. Peleg, S. Rosenblatt, E. Sucher, R. Krakover, E. Kaluski and Z. Vered

Background: Cardiac rupture is a rare but ominous complication of myocardial infarction.

Objectives: To study the clinical presentation, medical course, outcome and echocardiographic predictors of patients with myocardial rupture.

Methods: We evaluated 15 consecutive patients with cardiac rupture during a 4 year period in our department. The current report explores the presence of potential risk factors, timing, relation to the thrombolysis, coronary interventions and outcome.

Results: The index event in all patients was first ST elevation myocardial infarction. In seven patients rupture occurred in the first 24 hours. Pericardial effusion on admission with a clot was present in three patients. Five patients received thrombolytic therapy. Only three patients underwent coronary angioplasty, but in one case it was performed late and in two patients the culprit artery could not be opened. Six patients reached the operating room, of whom three survived.

Conclusions: The lack of early mechanical reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction and thrombolytic therapy are risk factors for cardiac rupture. Pericardial effusion on admission and evidence of a clot are echocardiographic indicators of cardiac rupture and should alert the medical team to further assess the possibility of cardiac rupture.
 

November 2003
J.E. Arbelle, A. Porath, E. Cohen, H. Gilutz and M. Garty, for the Israeli National Survey Group on Acute Myocardial Infarction, 2000

Background: In the emergency department the physician is often confronted with the decision of where to hospitalize a patient presenting with chest pain and a possible acute myocardial infarction – in the cardiac care unit or in the internal medicine ward.

Objective: To characterize the clinical factors involved in the triage disposition of patients hospitalized with AMI[1] in Israel to either CCUs[2] or IMWs[3] and to determine to what extent the perceived probability of ischemia influenced the disposition decision.

Methods: During a 2 month nationwide prospective survey in the 26 CCUs and 82 of the 94 IMWs in Israel, we reviewed the charts of 1,648 patients with a discharge diagnosis of AMI. The probability of ischemia at admission was determined retrospectively by the Acute Coronary Ischemia Time-Insensitive Predictive Instrument. Co-morbidity was coded using the Index of Coexistent Diseases.

Results: The ACI-TIPI[4] score for patients admitted to CCUs or to IMWs was 76.2% and 57.7% respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that young patients with a high probability of ischemia and low co-morbidity or functional impairment were more likely to be hospitalized in CCUs than in IMWs.

Conclusion: In Israel, the factors that strongly influence the initial triage disposition of patients with AMI to CCUs or IMWs are age, perceived probability of ischemia, status of co-morbid conditions and functional impairment.

___________________________________



[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction

[2] CCU = cardiac care unit

[3] IMW = internal medicine ward

[4] ACI-TIPI = Acute Coronary Ischemia Time-Insensitive Predictive Instrument


September 2003
I. Gotsman, C. Lotan and M. Mosseri

Background: Acute myocardial infarction is rare in people under the age of 30.

Objective: To determine the clinical features and outcome in young patients presenting with AMI.

Methods: All patients aged 30 years and younger hospitalized with AMI during a period of 8 years (1993–2000) were evaluated for clinical features and outcome.

Results: Of the 3,758 patients with AMI, 15 were 30 years old or younger (0.4%). The mean age was 28 (range 21–30 years) and all were male. Eight had normal coronary arteries on angiogram; seven had obstructive coronary artery disease. Patients with OCA[1] had more classical risk factors for coronary disease. A complete diagnostic work-up was abnormal in four patients with NCA[2]: thrombophilia in two patients, spasm due to alcohol withdrawal and hyperthyroidism in one patient each. All patients presented with typical new-onset chest pain. None had a previous history of angina. All patients with OCA received reperfusion therapy as compared to one patient with NCA. Peak creatine phosphokinase in NCA and OCA was 504 ± 547 and 1,328 ± 440 respectively (P < 0.01). All patients with NCA had good left ventricular function on follow-up echocardiography, compared to only three in the OCA group (P = 0.02). There was one death due to cardiogenic shock in a patient with OCA. Follow-up of 4 ± 2 years demonstrated recurrent acute coronary syndromes in four of seven patients with OCA versus none in the NCA patients (P = 0.02).

Conclusions: AMI is rare in very young patients, and more than half have NCA. A thrombophilic tendency or spasm should be considered. Young patients with NCA have an excellent prognosis.






[1] OCA = obstructive coronary artery disease



[2] NCA = normal coronary arteries


April 2003
S. Behar, A. Battler, A. Porath, J. Leor, E. Grossman, Y. Hasin, M. Mittelman, Z. Feigenberg, C. Rahima-Maoz, M. Green, A. Caspi, B. Rabinowitz and M. Garty

Background: Little information is available on the clinical practice and implementation of guidelines in treating acute myocardial infarction patients in Israel.

Objective: To assess patient characteristics, hospital course, management, and 30 day clinical outcome of all AMI[1] patients hospitalized in Israel during a 2 month period in 2000.

Method: We conducted a prospective 2 month survey of consecutive AMI patients admitted to 82 of 96 internal medicine departments and all 26 cardiac departments operating in Israel in 2000. Data were collected uniformly by means of a hospital and 30 day follow-up form.

Results: During the survey 1,683 consecutive patients with a discharge diagnosis of AMI were included. Their mean age was 66 years; 73% were male. The electrocardiographic pattern on admission revealed ST elevation, non-ST elevation and an undetermined ECG[2] in 63%, 34% and 4% of patients respectively. Aspirin and heparin were given to 95% of patients. Beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were given to 76% and 65% of patients respectively. Among hospital survivors, 45% received lipid-lowering drugs. Thrombolytic therapy was administered in 28% of patients, coronary angiography was used in 45%, and 7% of patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The 7 and 30 day mortality rates were 7% and 11% respectively.

Conclusions: This nationwide survey shows that one-third of the AMI patients in Israel are elderly (≥ 75 years). The survey suggests that clinical guidelines for the management of patients with AMI are partially implemented in the community. Data from large surveys representing the "real world" practice are of utmost importance for the evaluation of clinical guidelines, research and educational purposes.






[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction



[2] ECG = electrocardiogram


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