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עמוד בית
Sun, 21.04.24

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May 2023
Alon Bnaya MD, Gabriel S. Breuer MD, Eliel Ben-David MD, Linda Shavit MD

The patient, a 32-year-old woman diagnosed with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), according to the 2016 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, presented with paresthesia of her face and limbs. Extra glandular manifestations of her primary disease included severe Raynaud's phenomenon and chronic interstitial nephritis. There was no family history of neurologic diseases. Neurological examination was notable for symmetrical decreased sensation in the upper limbs distally. The rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable.

October 2022
Walid Shalata MD, Motaz Abo Abod MD, Liora Boehm Cohen MD, Michael Kassirer MD, Dana Potashner MD, Yael Raviv MD
November 2019
Nabil Abu-Amer MD, Dganit Dinour MD, Sharon Mini MD and Pazit Beckerman MD
February 2018
Ori Eyal MD, Asaf Oren MD, Dganit Almasi-Wolker MD, Yardena Tenenbaum-Rakover MD, Marianna Rachmiel MD and Naomi Weintrob MD

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) as the first presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a serious complication that is preventable.

Objectives: To identify risk factors for DKA at presentation of T1DM to delineate high-risk Israeli populations that could benefit from preventative measures.

Methods: Data for this multicenter retrospective study were collected from the medical files of three pediatric diabetes centers representing three districts in Israel. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of T1DM, age at diagnosis ≤ 17 years, permanent residency in Israel, and documentation of the presence or absence of DKA at presentation.

Results: The study population included 607 patients of whom 438 met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 ± 4.5 years. DKA was present at diagnosis in 156/438 patients (35.6%). The incidence of DKA was different among the three diabetes centers (P = 0.04). The DKA group was significantly younger than the non-DKA group (8.4 ± 4.5 vs. 9.5 ± 4.4, respectively, P = 0.008). DKA was significantly associated with maternal origin (Ashkenazi Jewish origin [lower] vs. non-Ashkenazi, P = 0.04) and with paternal education level (academic [lower] vs. non-academic education, P = 0.04). Stepwise logistic regression showed that maternal Ashkenazi Jewish origin has a protective effect on DKA (odds ratio [OR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.21–0.74, P = 0.004) and that younger age is an independent risk factor (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.01–1.1, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: A diabetes educational program targeting high-risk population groups may reduce the prevalence of DKA nationwide.

May 2017
Shlomit Koren MD, Shani Zilberman-Itskovich MD, Ronit Koren MD, Keren Doenyas-Barak MD and Ahuva Golik MD

Background: Concerns about metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) prohibit the use of metformin in a large subset of diabetic patients, mostly in patients with chronic kidney disease. Increasing evidence suggests that the current safety regulations may be overly restrictive.

Objectives: To examine the association between chronic metformin treatment and lactate level in acute illness on the first day of admission to an internal medicine ward.

Methods: We compared diabetic and non-diabetic hospitalized patients treated or not treated with metformin in different sets of kidney function.

Results: A total of 140 patients participated in the study, 54 diabetic patients on chronic metformin treatment, 33 diabetic patients without metformin and 53 patients with no diabetes. Most participants were admitted for conditions that prohibit metformin use, such as heart failure, hypoxia and sepsis. Average lactate level was significantly higher in the diabetes + metformin group compared to the diabetes non-metformin group. Metformin treatment was not associated with higher than normal lactate level (hyperlactatemia) or low pH. No patient was hospitalized for lactic acidosis as the main diagnosis.

Conclusions: Chronic metformin treatment mildly increases lactate level, but does not induce hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis in acute illness on the first day of admission to an internal medicine ward. These data support the expansion of metformin use.

June 2016
June 2013
A. Hilmi, Y. Pasternak, M. Friger, N. Loewenthal, A. Haim and E. Hershkovitz
 Background: The existent glycemic control of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients in daily practice might not reach the goals determined in guidelines. Ethnic diversity was also shown to influence glycemic control.

Objectives: To evaluate glycemic control, prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at presentation, diabetic complications rate, and associated autoimmune diseases in a pediatric T1DM patient population in the Negev area.

Methods: Clinical and demographic details of 168 T1DM patients were evaluated, including HbA1C levels, long-term complications, related autoimmune diseases, and insulin pump usage. The data were analyzed and the Jewish and Bedouin patient groups compared.

Results: Only 13.1% of the patients had reached the HbA1C levels recommended by the current guidelines at the first and second year follow-up visits, and 9.5% and 7.1% at the third and fourth year visits, respectively. A significant difference in HbA1c levels between Jewish and Bedouin patients was found (P = 0.045 at the first year follow-up, P ≤ 0.01 thereafter). Significant difference was found between the Jewish and the Bedouin groups regarding presentation with DKA, 33% and 56% of the patients respectively (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Existent glycemic control in daily practice is far from the guideline goals. Bedouin ethnicity was associated with less favorable diabetes control, emphasizing the need for better awareness of T1DM and its treatment options in this population. More resources should be directed to address T1DM in the general population, especially among the Bedouin.

 

May 2012
L. Barski, R. Nevzorov, E. Rabaev, A.B. Jotkowitz, I. Harman-Boehm, M. Zektser, L. Zeller, E. Shleyfer and Y. Almog

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common and serious complication of diabetes mellitus (DM).

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, hospital management and outcomes of patients with DKA.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with DKA during the period 1 January 2003 to 1 January 2010. Three groups were compared: patients with mild DKA, with moderate DKA, and with severe DKA. The primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes were 30 days all-cause mortality, length of hospital stay, and complication rate.

Results: The study population comprised 220 patients with DKA. In the mild (78 patients) and moderate (116 patients) groups there was a higher proportion of patients with type 1 DM (75.6%, 79.3%) compared with 57.7% in the severe group (26 patients, P = 0.08). HbA1C levels prior to admission were high in all three groups, without significant difference (10.9 ± 2.2, 10.7 ± 1.9, and 10.6 ± 2.4 respectively, P = 0.9). In all groups the most frequent precipitating factors were related to insulin therapy and infections. The patients with severe DKA had more electrolyte abnormalities (hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia) compared with the mild and moderate forms of the disease. While 72.7% of the entire cohort was hospitalized in the general medical ward, 80.8% of those with severe DKA were admitted to the intensive care unit. The in-hospital mortality rate for the entire cohort was 4.1%, comparable with previous data from experienced centers. Advanced age, mechanical ventilation and bedridden state were independent predictors associated with 30 day mortality: hazard ratio (HR) 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.11; HR 6.8, 95% CI 2.03–23.1; and HR 3.8, 95% CI 1.13–12.7, respectively.

Conclusions: Patients with DKA in our study were generally poorly controlled prior to their admission, as reflected by high HbA1c levels. Type 2 DM is frequently associated with DKA including the severe form of the disease. The most common precipitating factors for the development of DKA were related to insulin therapy and infections. Advanced age, mechanical ventilation and bedridden state were independent predictors of 30 day mortality.
 

May 2004
I. Furstenberg Liberty, D. Todder, R. Umansky and I. Harman-Boehm
December 2003
M. Kamar, A. Raziel, S. Susmallian, S. Kyzer and I. Charuzi
September 2002
Matitiahu Lifshitz, MD and Vladimir Gavrilov, MD
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