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עמוד בית
Tue, 25.06.24

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September 2019
Yael Shachor-Meyouhas MD, Amir Hadash MD, Zipi Kra-Oz PhD, Einat Shafran MS, Moran Szwarcwort-Cohen PhD and Imad Kassis MD

Background: Adenovirus is responsible for 2–7% of childhood viral respiratory infections, 5–11% of viral pneumonia and bronchiolitis. Most are self-limited but may cause severe respiratory infection.

Objectives: To describe adenovirus respiratory infection in immunocompetent children in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Methods: Children with adenovirus respiratory infection in our PICU from 2007 to 2016 were included. Data were retrospectively retrieved, including background, clinical manifestation, and treatment. Adenovirus was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction, immune fluorescence, or both.

Results: Of 9397 samples, 956 were positive for adenovirus in children hospitalized during the study period. In total, 49 patients (aged 2 months–11.5 years) were admitted to our PICU, five were immunocompromised and excluded from the study, 19/44 (43%) were referred from other hospitals. Twenty-eight (64%) had underlying conditions, 66% had fever and cough, 11% had conjunctivitis, and 34% received antibiotics before admission. White blood cell counts ranged from 790 to 34,300 (mean 14,600) and 36% had counts above 15,000. Chest X-ray was consistent with viral infection in 77% of patients and normal in three (13.6%). Viral co-infection was found in 9 patients, 7 had presumed bacterial super-infection, and 27 (61.4%) needed mechanical ventilation. Two patients received cidofovir, 33 (75%) steroids, and 37 (84 %) antibiotics. Four patients died.

Conclusions: Adenovirus respiratory infection may cause severe disease necessitating PICU admission and mechanical ventilation, mostly in patients with underlying conditions. Many patients received steroids and antibiotics, which may be unnecessary. Mortality was 9%, mainly among young infants and those with underlying conditions.

 

December 2016
Najwan Nasrallah MD, Yael Shachor-Meyouhas MD, Zipi Kra-Oz PhD, Tania Mashiach MA, Moran Szwarcwort-Cohen PhD, Eynat Shafran MSc and Imad Kassis MD

Background: In March 2009 the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) strain was identified. The disease initially appeared to be accompanied by complications and high mortality rates. It became an endemic virus during the influenza season in our region, along with the classical seasonal H3N2.

Objectives: To identify the burden of pandemic influenza, its effect in pediatric patients, and complicated hospitalizations, compared to seasonal influenza years after the pandemic.

Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary hospital. Data were collected from the medical records of all children who were hospitalized from April 2009 to 2011 with laboratory-confirmed influenza.

Results: Of 191 patients with influenza, 100 had the 2009 pandemic influenza, 62 had seasonal influenza, and 29 had H1N1 in 2010–2011. Patients with the 2009 H1N1 were characterized by older age, more co-morbidity conditions and more symptoms including fever, cough and rhinitis on admission. No significant differences in outcomes between the groups were recorded. Of patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza in 2009, 28% had complicated hospitalizations, compared with 17.7% of patients hospitalized with seasonal influenza in 2010–11. Children with pandemic influenza received more oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) (94% vs. 19.4%, P < 0.001) and more antibiotics than the other groups.

Conclusions: The type of influenza had no effect on outcome. There were no significant differences between groups in the percentages of in-hospital mortality, admission to intensive care units, prolonged hospitalization (> 9 days), or the development of complications during hospitalization.

 

June 2015
Yael Shachor-Meyouhas MD, Alla Fesenko MD, Zipi Kra-Oz PhD, Irina Zaidman MD, Moran Szwarcwort-Cohen PhD, Einat Shafran MSc and Imad Kassis MD

Abstract

Background
: Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) reactivation after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is well known and has been linked with several clinical manifestations. The significance of HHV-6 viremia and related complications in this setting is still unclear.

Objective: To estimate the incidence of HHV-6 reactivation and associated morbidity in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT.

Methods: Blood samples obtained weekly (for cytomegalovirus surveillance) from children who underwent allogeneic HCST during the period January 2006–June 2010 were retrospectively tested for the presence of HHV-6 DNA using standard real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Clinical records were reviewed for correlation between viremia and clinical manifestations.

Results: Samples from 39 children were tested. Twenty patients had viral loads above 1000 copies/ml (51%) in at least one sample. Higher viral loads were seen in patients with primary immunodeficiency and in those with cord blood transplant. Attributable symptoms were present in 12 patients (60%) concurrently with positive PCR. Clinical manifestations spontaneously resolved without treatment in most cases, concomitantly with a decrease in viral load.

Conclusions: HHV6 reactivation during allogeneic HSCT is common. HHV-6 reactivation should be considered in patients with graft-vs-host disease-like rash, onset of CNS symptoms, delay in engraftment, and in patients after cord blood transplantation.

 

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