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עמוד בית
Fri, 01.03.24

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August 2019
Eyal Meltzer MD, Lara Weiss, Mollie Lobl, Eyal Leshem MD and Shmuel Stienlauf MD

Background: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is frequently encountered in people traveling from high-income to low-income countries; however, its epidemiology in those traveling between high-income countries is not known.

Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of diarrhea in North American students relocating to Israel.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study involving medical students from the United States and Canada relocating to Israel was conducted. Students who relocated to Israel during 2010–2016 were contacted by email to participate in an anonymous survey. Data included demographic information as well as occurrence, timing, duration, and outcome of diarrhea after relocation.

Results: Ninety-seven students participated in the survey. Most (93.7%) students relocated from the United States or Canada. The period-prevalence of diarrhea was 69.1%. The incidence of diarrhea declined from 34.8 cases per 100 student-months during the first month after relocation to 1.3 cases per 100 student-months after 1 year. The duration of diarrhea was up to 1 week in 72.7%. Students who reported diarrhea were younger than students who did not (mean age 24.0 ± 2.2 and 28.4 ± 1.8 years, respectively, P < 0.001). No other demographic parameter was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of diarrhea.

Conclusions: A high proportion of North American medical students relocating to Israel reported diarrhea with clinical and epidemiological features similar to classic TD. Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative agents of TD in Israel.

October 2007
January 2006
E. Meltzer, L. Guranda, L. Vassilenko, M. Krupsky, S. Steinlauf and Y. Sidi.

Background: Lipoid pneumonia is a pneumonitis resulting from the aspiration of lipids, and is commonly associated with the use of mineral oil as a laxative. LP[1] is relatively unfamiliar to clinicians and is probably underdiagnosed.

Objectives: To increase physicians' awareness of LP, its diagnosis and prevention.

Methods: We present two illustrative cases of LP and review the literature.

Results: Two cases of LP were diagnosed within half a year in an internal medicine ward. Both cases were elderly patients, and LP was associated with the use of mineral oil as a laxative agent. Computerized tomography revealed bilateral low attenuation infiltrates, associated with a "crazy paving" pattern in one case. Sudan Black staining was diagnostic in both cases – in one on a transbronchial biopsy specimen, and in the other on sputum cytologic examination. Both patients suffered from neurologic diseases and were at risk of aspiration. In both cases clinical symptoms and signs continued for several months prior to diagnosis but resolved after the mineral oil was discontinued.

Conclusions: LP often occurs in elderly patients who are at risk of aspiration. The condition may be underdiagnosed. Since in most cases mineral oil cathartics are the causative agent, an effort at primary prevention is indicated. It is suggested that the licensing of mineral oil for internal use be changed.

April 2002
Eyal Meltzer, MD and Shmuel Steinlauf, MD

Background: Lithium has been a part of the psychiatric pharmacopoeia for more than half a century. Its efficacy is marred by a narrow therapeutic index and significant toxicity.

Objectives: To increase physicians’ awareness of the various manifestations of lithium intoxication.

Methods: We reviewed the clinical data of cases of lithium poisoning occurring in a municipal hospital during a 10 year period.

Results: Eight patient records were located. The mortality rate was 12.5%. All patients were women and the mean age was 66.4 years. The most common symptoms were neurological. One illustrative case is described in detail with lithium serum levels showing the usual two-phase decline.

Conclusions: Lithium poisoning can present in many forms. Increased physician awareness and the early use of effective treatment, mainly hemodialysis, will prevent mortality and protracted morbidity associated with this condition.
 

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