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עמוד בית
Mon, 27.05.24

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December 2019
Nili Greenberg PhD, Rafael S. Carel MD DrPH, Jonathan Dubnov MD MPH, Estela Derazne MSc and Boris A. Portnov PhD DSc

Background: Asthma is a common respiratory disease, which is linked to air pollution. However, little is known about the effect of specific air pollution sources on asthma occurrence.

Objective: To assess individual asthma risk in three urban areas in Israel characterized by different primary sources of air pollution: predominantly traffic-related air pollution (Tel Aviv) or predominantly industrial air pollution (Haifa bay area and Hadera). 

Methods: The medical records of 13,875, 16- 19-year-old males, who lived in the affected urban areas prior to their army recruitment and who underwent standard pre-military health examinations during 2012–2014, were examined. Nonparametric tests were applied to compare asthma prevalence, and binary logistic regressions were used to assess the asthma risk attributed to the residential locations of the subjects, controlling for confounders, such as socio-demographic status, body mass index, cognitive abilities, and education.

Results: The asthma rate among young males residing in Tel Aviv was 8.76%, compared to 6.96% in the Haifa bay area and 6.09% in Hadera. However, no statistically significant differences in asthma risk among the three urban areas was found in controlled logistic regressions (P > 0.20). This finding indicates that exposure to both industrial- and traffic-related air pollution is associated with asthma prevalence.

Conclusions: Both industrial- and traffic-related air pollution have a negative effect on asthma risk in young males. Studies evaluating the association between asthma risk and specific air pollutants (e.g., sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide) are needed to ascertain the effects of individual air pollutants on asthma occurrence. 

 

May 2017
Alon Farfel MD, Rona Rabinowicz MD, Gadi Abebe-Campino MD, Estela Derazne MsC, Tami Laron-Kenet MD and Zvi Laron MD
May 2012
Y. Gofin, A. Afek, E. Derazne, A. Toker and A. Shamiss

Background: The medical workforce shortage worldwide varies for different residencies.

Objectives: To determine future gaps in medical specialties in Israel by means of a model and to identify trends and considerations among medical students when they choose their residencies.

Methods: The gap (Gi) assessment model was based upon current demand (Di) and existing (Ei) status for each residency, using the formula [Gi=(Di-Ei)/Ei]. Ei represented the proportion of specific residencies in 2006–2010 out of all Israeli residency graduates and Di was based upon questionnaires filled out by medical students at Sackler and Hadassah medical schools in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem respectively (N=909).

Results: The largest relative shortages (Gi ranges from -1 to 1) were in Pathology (G=-1), Rehabilitation Medicine (-0.9), Radiology (-0.8), General Practice (-0.8) and Anesthesiology (-0.8). The highest relative demands were in Surgical subspecialties (2.9) and Obstetrics/Gynecology (OB/GYN) (1.6). More females than males chose residencies in OB/GYN (19.5% vs. 7.1%, P < 0.001) and pediatrics (28.1% vs. 15.4%, P < 0.001). Surgery subspecialties (9% vs. 23.7%, P < 0.001) were male-predominant. The workload consideration was rated higher among females, while income was rated higher among males. Among students in clinical years, compared to pre-clinical, there was a decline in the selection of some professions, including Surgical subspecialties (9.7% vs. 19.5%, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The suggested model, based on a survey of demand and current or projected future needs, can be used to assess gaps and plan early interventions. Programs at the level of medical school may affect residency preferences. The decline in selection of surgical professions and the increasing workload as a consideration for residency choice should be given attention.

 


February 2012
A. Farfel, E. Derazne, D. Tzur, N. Linder and Z. Laron

Background: Measurements of adolescents who at birth were large (long and/or heavy) for gestational age are scant.

Objectives: To determine the correlation between birth length and weight in female and male neonates born long and/or overweight for gestational age, with their height and weight at age 17.

Methods: We reviewed the records of the Rabin Medical Center for birth data of 96 full-term neonates born long and overweight for gestational age (FT-lo,ow), 33 full-term neonates born long but with normal weight for gestational age (FT-lo,nw), 148 full-term neonates born overweight but with normal length for gestational age (FT-nl,ow), and 401 full-term neonates born with normal birth length and weight (FT- nl,nw).

Results: Neonates of both genders born long and overweight at birth (FT-lo,ow) were taller and heavier at age 17 years than those born FT-nl,nw: females: 167.8 ± 5.1 cm and 64.6 ± 10.3 kg vs. 162.6 ± 5.5 cm and 59.3 ± 11.1 kg (P < 0.001 for height and P = 0.026 for weight) and males: 182.4 ± 8.1 cm and 80.6 ± 20.4 kg vs. 174.5 ± 6.2 cm and 67.4 ± 12.3 kg (P < 0.001). The correlations between birth length and height at age 17 for both genders were statistically significant (P < 0.001), as were those between birth weight and the weight and body mass index (BMI) at age 17 for both genders (P < 0.001). There was no correlation between birth length and weight or BMI at age 17.

Conclusions: Full-term neonates of both genders born large for gestational age become tall adolescents and weigh more at age 17 than children with a normal birth length and weight.

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